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[PMID]: 28470128
[Au] Autor:Parsons BF; Ryder N
[Ad] Address:1 Pacific Clinic Newcastle, HNE Sexual Health, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia causing a painful plaque in a HIV-infected female.
[So] Source:Int J STD AIDS;28(7):723-725, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:1758-1052
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dermatological conditions are more common and can present atypically, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. This case report describes a 22-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive Caucasian female who presented with a vulval lesion eight weeks after starting antiretroviral treatment. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm well-demarcated plaque on the outer aspect of the left labium minus. The lesion was tender, no contact bleeding or ulceration present. She was presumptively treated for chancroid and herpes simplex with 500 mg ceftriaxone IM stat, 1 g azithromycin PO stat, and valacyclovir 500 mg BD for five days. The lesion persisted despite treatment, and during follow-up, a punch biopsy was carried out. She was diagnosed with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the epidermis. In addition to highlighting this condition that has been previously reported in human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus co-infection, this case demonstrates that unusual skin presentations must be considered in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and illustrates the importance of biopsy for any non-healing lesions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: HIV Infections/complications
Herpes Genitalis/diagnosis
Hyperplasia/pathology
Vulva/pathology
Vulvar Diseases/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
Biopsy
Coinfection/virology
Female
HIV Infections/drug therapy
Herpes Genitalis/complications
Herpes Genitalis/drug therapy
Herpes Genitalis/microbiology
Humans
Immunocompromised Host
Simplexvirus
Treatment Outcome
Vulvar Diseases/complications
Vulvar Diseases/drug therapy
Vulvar Diseases/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180205
[Lr] Last revision date:180205
[Js] Journal subset:IM; X
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0956462416676020

  2 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28745556
[Au] Autor:Berntsen S; Karlsen APH; Pedersen ML; Mulvad G
[Ad] Address:a Queen Ingrid Health Care Center , Nuuk , Greenland.
[Ti] Title:Gonorrhoea in Greenland, incidence and previous preventive measures: a review to improve future strategies.
[So] Source:Int J Circumpolar Health;76(1):1350092, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2242-3982
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gonorrhoea continues to be a significant health challenge in Greenland. The aim of this study was to describe the development of gonorrhoea in Greenland through time including incidence rates and previous measures taken to address the challenge. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library was conducted. Furthermore, local archives were searched in the Health Clinic in Nuuk for relevant literature. From the 1940s the incidence of gonorrhoea increased steadily with a steep incline around 1970, possibly as a consequence of changes in living conditions and urbanisation. Significant declines in the incidence were seen the late 1970s and again in the late 1980s, most likely in the wake of an outbreak of ulcus molle/chancroid in the 1970s and as a result of focused education in venereology for Greenlandic nurses in the late 1980s combined with the stop-AIDS campaign. Since the early 1990s the incidence of gonorrhoea in Greenland has not risen to previously high levels. However, the incidence remains high and with a gradually increasing trend. Prevention intervention strategies such as peer-to-peer sexual education, storytelling and involvement of parent/guardian in sexual education of the youth could be appropriate approaches to improve sexual health in Greenland.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Community Health Services/organization & administration
Gonorrhea/epidemiology
Gonorrhea/prevention & control
Primary Prevention/organization & administration
Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Contact Tracing
Female
Gonorrhea/diagnosis
Greenland
Humans
Male
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180202
[Lr] Last revision date:180202
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/22423982.2017.1350092

  3 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29226307
[Au] Autor:Romero L; Huerfano C; Grillo-Ardila CF
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
[Ti] Title:Macrolides for treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection in sexually active adults.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;12:CD012492, 2017 Dec 11.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane STI Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science to 30 October 2017. We also handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing macrolides in different regimens or with other therapeutic alternatives for chancroid. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved disagreements through consensus. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Seven RCTs (875 participants) met our inclusion criteria, of which four were funded by industry. Five studies (664 participants) compared macrolides with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin or thiamphenicol. Low quality evidence suggested there was no difference between the groups after treatment in terms of clinical cure (risk ratio (RR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.21; 2 studies, 340 participants with syndromic approach and RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; 5 studies, 348 participants with aetiological diagnosis) or improvement (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.52; 2 studies, 340 participants with syndromic approach and RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.51; 3 studies, 187 participants with aetiological diagnosis). Based on low and very low quality evidence, there was no difference between macrolides and any other antibiotic treatments for microbiological cure (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.16; 1 study, 45 participants) and minor adverse effects (RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.24 to 7.51; 3 studies, 412 participants).Two trials (269 participants) compared erythromycin with any other macrolide type. Low quality evidence suggested that, compared with azithromycin or rosaramicin, long courses of erythromycin did not increase clinical cure (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10; 2 studies, 269 participants with syndromic approach and RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.16; 2 studies, 211 participants with aetiological diagnosis), with a similar frequency of minor adverse effects between the groups (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.06; 1 trial, 101 participants). For this comparison, subgroup analysis found no difference between HIV-positive participants (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.43; 1 study, 38 participants) and HIV-negative participants (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.14; 1 study, 89 participants). We downgraded the quality of evidence to low, because of imprecision, some limitations on risk of bias and heterogeneity.None of the trials reported serious adverse events, cost effectiveness and participant satisfaction. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: At present, the quality of the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults is low, implying that we are uncertain about the estimated treatment effect. There is no statistically significant difference between the available therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of sexually active adults with genital ulcers compatible with chancroid. Low quality evidence suggests that azithromycin could be considered as the first therapeutic alternative, based on their mono-dose oral administration, with a similar safety and effectiveness profile, when it is compared with long-term erythromycin use.Due to sparse available evidence about the safety and effectiveness of macrolides to treat H ducreyi infection in people with HIV, these results should be taken with caution.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Chancroid/drug therapy
Haemophilus ducreyi
Macrolides/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Azithromycin/therapeutic use
Erythromycin/adverse effects
Erythromycin/therapeutic use
Humans
Leucomycins/therapeutic use
Macrolides/adverse effects
Middle Aged
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Leucomycins); 0 (Macrolides); 63937KV33D (Erythromycin); 83905-01-5 (Azithromycin); E907BNQ7SH (rosaramicin)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180123
[Lr] Last revision date:180123
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD012492.pub2

  4 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29263538
[Au] Autor:Das A; Ghosh P; Ghosh I; Bhattacharya R; Azad Sardar AK; Goswami S; Bandyopadhyay D; Das NK
[Ad] Address:Department of Dermatology, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
[Ti] Title:Usefulness and Utility of NACO Regime in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Pilot Study.
[So] Source:Indian J Dermatol;62(6):630-634, 2017 Nov-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3611
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been made easy for field workers due to syndromic approach. The etiological agent responsible for different STI syndromes needs to be validated from time to time so as to guide the therapeutic regimen. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiological agent for STI syndromes and correlate the syndromic diagnosis with etiological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over 9 months in all patients attending the STI and Gynaecology Outpatient Department. Syndromic diagnosis was done by STI-trained medical officer of respective clinic. Sample was collected for etiological diagnosis and subjected to relevant investigations. Data were analyzed by applying statistical methods. Results: Among 308 patients (male:female = 1:3.5), no syndromic diagnosis could be made in 11 cases (all females and had premalignant changes on Pap smear). In 68 patients (22.08%), no etiological diagnosis could be arrived at (mostly genital ulcer disease [GUD]-herpetic [H] and vaginal discharge). In cervical discharge syndrome, six patients (16.7%) showed gonococcus. In GUD-H syndrome, 37 patients (27.027%) were tested positive. In GUD-nonherpetic syndrome, three patients (33.33%) were syphilis, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid (1 each). In urethral discharge syndrome, etiology could not be found in 33 cases (45.45%). In vaginal discharge syndrome ( = 217), etiologies were overlapping as follows: trichomonas vaginalis (76.04%), bacterial vaginosis (40%), gonococcus (24%), and undiagnosed (6.5%). Conclusion: The present tool for validation of GUD-H can validate only 27% of cases. Overlap of etiologies is mostly common in vaginal discharge syndrome, wherein malignancies and premalignant conditions are overtreated with kits. Validation can be done only in two-third of cases with the available resources. However, syndromic approach provides the opportunity of treating STI without delay.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171224
[Lr] Last revision date:171224
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_114_17

  5 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29240636
[Au] Autor:Mungati M; Machiha A; Mugurungi O; Tshimanga M; Kilmarx PH; Nyakura J; Shambira G; Kupara V; Lewis DA; Gonese E; Tippett Barr BA; Handsfield HH; Rietmeijer CA
[Ad] Address:From the *Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care; †Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe; ‡US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zimbabwe and Division of Global HIV/AIDS, CDC, Atlanta, GA; §Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; ¶Zimbabwe Community Health Intervention Research (ZiCHIRe) Project, Harare, Zimbabwe; ∥Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Parramatta; **Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity & Sydney Medical School-Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; ††School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; ‡‡Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO; §§Rietmeijer Consulting LLC, Denver, CO.
[Ti] Title:The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease and Coinfections With Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Zimbabwe: Results From the Zimbabwe STI Etiology Study.
[So] Source:Sex Transm Dis;45(1):61-68, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4521
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In many countries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are treated syndromically. Thus, patients diagnosed as having genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Zimbabwe receive a combination of antimicrobials to treat syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and genital herpes. Periodic studies are necessary to assess the current etiology of GUD and assure the appropriateness of current treatment guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 6 geographically diverse clinics in Zimbabwe serving high numbers of STI cases to enroll men and women with STI syndromes, including GUD. Sexually transmitted infection history and risk behavioral data were collected by questionnaire and uploaded to a Web-based database. Ulcer specimens were obtained for testing using a validated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for Treponema pallidum (TP; primary syphilis), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), LGV-associated strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Blood samples were collected for testing with HIV, treponemal, and nontreponemal serologic assays. RESULTS: Among 200 GUD patients, 77 (38.5%) were positive for HSV, 32 (16%) were positive for TP, and 2 (1%) were positive for LGV-associated strains of C trachomatis. No H ducreyi infections were detected. No organism was found in 98 (49.5%) of participants. The overall HIV positivity rate was 52.2% for all GUD patients, with higher rates among women compared with men (59.8% vs 45.2%, P < 0.05) and among patients with HSV (68.6% vs 41.8%, P < 0.0001). Among patients with GUD, 54 (27.3%) had gonorrhea and/or chlamydia infection. However, in this latter group, 66.7% of women and 70.0% of men did not have abnormal vaginal or urethral discharge on examination. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of GUD in our survey, followed by T. pallidum. No cases of chancroid were detected. The association of HIV infections with HSV suggests high risk for cotransmission; however, some HSV ulcerations may be due to HSV reactivation among immunocompromised patients. The overall prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia was high among patients with GUD and most of them did not meet the criteria for concomitant syndromic management covering these infections.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171214
[Lr] Last revision date:171214
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000694

  6 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28489855
[Au] Autor:Houinei W; Godornes C; Kapa A; Knauf S; Mooring EQ; González-Beiras C; Watup R; Paru R; Advent P; Bieb S; Sanz S; Bassat Q; Spinola SM; Lukehart SA; Mitjà O
[Ad] Address:Disease Control Branch, National Department of Health, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
[Ti] Title:Haemophilus ducreyi DNA is detectable on the skin of asymptomatic children, flies and fomites in villages of Papua New Guinea.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0004958, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Haemophilus ducreyi and Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue are major causes of leg ulcers in children in Africa and the Pacific Region. We investigated the presence of DNA (PCR positivity) from these bacteria on asymptomatic people, flies, and household linens in an endemic setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study in rural villages of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea during a yaws elimination campaign. Participants were asymptomatic subjects recruited from households with cases of leg ulcers, and from households without cases of leg ulcers. We rubbed swabs on the intact skin of the leg of asymptomatic individuals, and collected flies and swabs of environmental surfaces. All specimens were tested by PCR for H. ducreyi and T. p. pertenue DNA. Of 78 asymptomatic participants that had an adequate specimen for DNA detection, H. ducreyi-PCR positivity was identified in 16 (21%) and T. p. pertenue-PCR positivity in 1 (1%). In subgroup analyses, H. ducreyi-PCR positivity did not differ in participants exposed or not exposed to a case of H. ducreyi ulcer in the household (24% vs 18%; p = 0.76). Of 17 cultures obtained from asymptomatic participants, 2 (12%) yielded a definitive diagnosis of H. ducreyi, proving skin colonization. Of 10 flies tested, 9 (90%) had H. ducreyi DNA and 5 (50%) had T. p. pertenue DNA. Of 6 bed sheets sampled, 2 (33%) had H. ducreyi DNA and 1 (17%) had T. p. pertenue DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that H. ducreyi DNA and colonization has been demonstrated on the skin of asymptomatic children and that H. ducreyi DNA and T. p. pertenue DNA has been identified in flies and on fomites. The ubiquity of H. ducreyi in the environment is a contributing factor to the spread of the organism.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification
Diptera/microbiology
Fomites/microbiology
Haemophilus ducreyi/isolation & purification
Skin/microbiology
Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
Asymptomatic Diseases
Azithromycin/administration & dosage
Chancroid/diagnosis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Leg Ulcer/microbiology
Logistic Models
Male
Papua New Guinea
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Yaws/diagnosis
Yaws/prevention & control
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 83905-01-5 (Azithromycin)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170720
[Lr] Last revision date:170720
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170511
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004958

  7 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28397528
[Au] Autor:Sand FL; Thomsen SF
[Ad] Address:a Department of Dermatology , Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Skin diseases of the vulva: Infectious diseases.
[So] Source:J Obstet Gynaecol;37(7):840-848, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1364-6893
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess, trichomycosis and erythrasma), fungal (candidiasis and dermatophytosis) and parasitic (pediculosis pubis) origin may affect the vulvar area. Herein, we review the infections and their skin manifestations in the vulvar area.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170824
[Lr] Last revision date:170824
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/01443615.2017.1306696

  8 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28081686
[Au] Autor:Lautenschlager S; Kemp M; Christensen JJ; Mayans MV; Moi H
[Ad] Address:1 Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology & Venereology, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:2017 European guideline for the management of chancroid.
[So] Source:Int J STD AIDS;28(4):324-329, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1758-1052
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chancroid is a sexually acquired infection caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. The infection is characterized by one or more genital ulcers, which are soft and painful, and regional lymphadenitis, which may develop into buboes. The infection may easily be misidentified due to its rare occurrence in Europe and difficulties in detecting the causative pathogen. H. ducreyi is difficult to culture. Nucleic acid amplification tests can demonstrate the bacterium in suspected cases. Antibiotics are usually effective in curing chancroid.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170215
[Lr] Last revision date:170215
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1177/0956462416687913

  9 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28027326
[Au] Autor:Gangaiah D; Spinola SM
[Ad] Address:Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;10(12):e0005259, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed ß-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chancroid/microbiology
Genome, Bacterial
Haemophilus ducreyi/classification
Skin Ulcer/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chancroid/epidemiology
Humans
Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
Phylogeny
Polynesia/epidemiology
Skin Ulcer/epidemiology
Vanuatu/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170612
[Lr] Last revision date:170612
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005259

  10 / 1023 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27818966
[Au] Autor:Hashemi-Shahri SM; Sharifi-Mood B; Kouhpayeh HR; Moazen J; Farrokhian M; Salehi M
[Ad] Address:Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran.
[Ti] Title:Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran.
[So] Source:Int J High Risk Behav Addict;5(3):e28028, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:2251-8711
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. On the other hand, a patient with HIV can acquire other infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and also STIs. Co-infections and co-morbidities can affect the treatment route of patients with HIV/AIDs. Sometimes, physicians should treat these infections before treating the HIV infection. Therefore, it is important to identify co-infection or comorbidity in patients with HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to understand the prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STI co-infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the infectious wards of Boo-Ali hospital (Southeastern Iran) between March 2000 and January 2015. All HIV/AIDS patients were studied for sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and genital herpes. A questionnaire including data on age, sex, job, history of vaccination against HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), HCV-Ab, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, and urine culture was designed. Data was analyzed by the Chi square test and P values of < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients with HIV/AIDS (11 females and 30 males; with age range of 18 to 69 years) five cases (12.1%) had a positive test (1:8 or more) for VDRL. The FTA-Abs was positive for all patients who were positive for VDRL. Gonorrhea was found in seven patients (17%) and three cases had genital herpes in clinical examinations. All patients who had positive test results for these STIs were male. Eleven patients (26.8%) had HBV infection (three females and eight males). hepatitis C virus (HCV) was found in 13 cases (31%). Eighty percent of patients were unemployed. Seventy-eight percent of patients with HIV/STI were aged between 18 and 38 years. There was a significant difference between sex and becoming infected with HIV and also STI (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HIV/AIDS are more likely to acquire other STIs, because the same behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV infected can also increase the risk of acquiring STIs. Having a sore on the skin due to an STI can make the transmission of HIV to the sex partner more likely than people who don't have such sore in their genital area.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE


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