Database : MEDLINE
Search on : cinnamomum and aromaticum [Words]
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[PMID]: 29413573
[Au] Autor:Cheng J; He S; Wan Q; Jing P
[Ad] Address:Research Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, Key Lab of Urban Agriculture (South), Bor S. Luh Food Safety Research Center, School of Agriculture & Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.
[Ti] Title:Multiple fingerprinting analyses in quality control of Cassiae Semen polysaccharides.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1077-1078:22-27, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Quality control issue overshadows potential health benefits of Cassiae Semen due to the analytic limitations. In this study, multiple-fingerprint analysis integrated with several chemometrics was performed to assess the polysaccharide quality of Cassiae Semen harvested from different locations. FT-IR, HPLC, and GC fingerprints of polysaccharide extracts from the authentic source were established as standard profiles, applying to assess the quality of foreign sources. Analyses of FT-IR fingerprints of polysaccharide extracts using either Pearson correlation analysis or principal component analysis (PCA), or HPLC fingerprints of partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides with PCA, distinguished the foreign sources from the authentic source. However, HPLC or GC fingerprints of completely hydrolyzed polysaccharides couldn't identify all foreign sources and the methodology using GC is quite limited in determining the monosaccharide composition. This indicates that FT-IR/HPLC fingerprints of non/partially-hydrolyzed polysaccharides, respectively, accompanied by multiple chemometrics methods, might be potentially applied in detecting and differentiating sources of Cassiae Semen.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cinnamomum aromaticum/chemistry
Polysaccharides/analysis
Polysaccharides/chemistry
Seeds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chromatography, Gas
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Principal Component Analysis
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Polysaccharides)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180208
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  2 / 186 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29069149
[Au] Autor:Mendi A; Yagci BG; Kiziloglu M; Saraç N; Yilmaz D; Ugur A; Uçkan D
[Ad] Address:Gazi University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Medical Microbiology, Ankara, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Effects of Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Salvia triloba extracts on proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.
[So] Source:J Appl Oral Sci;25(5):515-522, 2017 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1678-7765
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity, local irritative and cytotoxic effects are known for the chemical components of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum contained in dental materials. However, there is no intimate data in dentistry using the whole extracts of these plants and introducing new ones. Salvia triloba is a well-known anti-inflammatory plant that correspondingly could be used in several dental traumas. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to show and compare the effect of S. aromaticum, C. zeylanicum, and S. triloba extracts on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using xCELLigence, a real time monitoring system, we obtained a growth curve of DPSCs with different concentrations of the Extracts. A dose of 10 µg/mL was the most efficient concentration for vitality. Osteogenic differentiation and anti-inflammatory activities were determined by using an ELISA Kit to detect early and late markers of differentiation. RESULTS: The level of osteonectin (ON, early osteogenic marker) decreased, which indicated that the osteogenic differentiation may be accelerated with addition of extracts. However, the level of osteocalcin (OCN, late osteogenic marker and sign of calcium granulation) differed among the extracts, in which S. aromaticum presented the highest value, followed by S. triloba and C. zeylanicum. Surprisingly, the determined calcium granules were reduced in S. aromaticum and S. triloba. In response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), S. triloba-treated DPSCs showed the most reduced level of IL-6 cytokine level. We suggest C. zeylanicum as a promising osteogenic inducer and S. triloba as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which could be used safely in biocomposite or scaffold fabrications for dentistry. CONCLUSIONS: Because calcium granule formation and cell viability play a critical role in hard tissue formation, S. aromaticum in dentistry should be strictly controlled, and the mechanism leading to reduced calcium granule formation should be identified.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171025
[Lr] Last revision date:171025
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28886578
[Au] Autor:Kim JH
[Ad] Address:Division of Pharmacology, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University,50612, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kmsct@pusan.ac.kr.
[Ti] Title:Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1063:196-203, 2017 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-<0.05). The extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chemical Fractionation/methods
Cinnamates
Cinnamomum aromaticum/chemistry
Coumarins/isolation & purification
Plant Bark/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acrolein/analogs & derivatives
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Cinnamates/analysis
Cinnamates/chemistry
Cinnamates/isolation & purification
Coumarins/analysis
Coumarins/chemistry
Linear Models
Microwaves
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Propanols
Regression Analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Temperature
Time Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cinnamates); 0 (Coumarins); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Propanols); 7864XYD3JJ (Acrolein); A4VZ22K1WT (coumarin); SR60A3XG0F (cinnamic aldehyde); SS8YOP444F (cinnamyl alcohol); U14A832J8D (cinnamic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171002
[Lr] Last revision date:171002
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170909
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 186 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28869798
[Au] Autor:Chaimanee V; Thongtue U; Sornmai N; Songsri S; Pettis JS
[Ad] Address:Department of Biotechnology, Maejo University Phrae Campus, Phrae, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis and their topical toxicity to Apis mellifera adults.
[So] Source:J Appl Microbiol;123(5):1160-1167, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2672
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: To explore alternative nonchemical control measures against two honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, 37 plant species were screened for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: The activity of selected plant extracts was screened using an in vitro disc diffusion assay and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. The results showed that 36 plant extracts had some antibacterial activity on P. larvae by disc diffusion assay. Chromolaena odorata showed the greatest antibacterial activity against P. larvae (MIC 16-64 µg ml ). Of the 37 tested plants, only seven species, Amomum krervanh, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum sp., Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Piper sarmentosum and Syzygium aromaticum had inhibitory effects on A. apis (MICs of 32-64 µg ml ). The results demonstrated that promising plant extracts were not toxic to adult bees at the concentrations used in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential antimicrobial activity of natural products against honeybee diseases caused by P. larvae and A. apis. Chromolaena odorata in particular showed high bioactivity against P. larvae. Further study is recommended to develop these nonchemical treatments against American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This work proposes new natural products for the control of American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171020
[Lr] Last revision date:171020
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/jam.13579

  5 / 186 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28766033
[Au] Autor:Essid R; Hammami M; Gharbi D; Karkouch I; Hamouda TB; Elkahoui S; Limam F; Tabbene O
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Bioactive Substances, Center of Biotechnology, Ecopark of Borj Cedria, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.
[Ti] Title:Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.
[So] Source:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol;, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0614
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170802
[Lr] Last revision date:170802
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00253-017-8442-y

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[PMID]: 28682072
[Au] Autor:Shin SH; Lee SR; Lee E; Kim KH; Byun S
[Ad] Address:Program in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.
[Ti] Title:Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester from the Twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Inhibits Malignant Cell Transformation by Inducing c-Fos Degradation.
[So] Source:J Nat Prod;80(7):2124-2130, 2017 Jul 28.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6025
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The twigs of Cinnamomum cassia, commonly referred to as Cinnamomi Ramulus, are widely used as one of the primary ingredients in Chinese/Korean traditional medicines that have anticancer effects. However, the active constituents responsible for its anticancer effects and their molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and caffeic acid (CA) were isolated for the first time from C. cassia using LC-MS-guided phytochemical isolation methods. CAPE significantly suppressed EGF- and TPA-induced cell transformation of JB6 P+ cells at sub-micromolar concentrations, whereas CA, a structurally similar compound to CAPE, had no such effect. The antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity of CAPE was found to arise through the inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity via the promotion of c-Fos degradation. These findings demonstrate that CAPE may contribute to the chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic effects of C. cassia through downregulating c-Fos.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification
Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology
Caffeic Acids/isolation & purification
Caffeic Acids/pharmacology
Cinnamomum aromaticum/chemistry
Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives
Plant Stems/chemistry
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anticarcinogenic Agents/chemistry
Caffeic Acids/chemistry
Molecular Structure
Phenylethyl Alcohol/chemistry
Phenylethyl Alcohol/isolation & purification
Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism
Republic of Korea
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anticarcinogenic Agents); 0 (Caffeic Acids); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos); 0 (Transcription Factor AP-1); G960R9S5SK (caffeic acid phenethyl ester); ML9LGA7468 (Phenylethyl Alcohol); U2S3A33KVM (caffeic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170707
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00433

  7 / 186 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28665598
[Au] Autor:Guoruoluo Y; Zhou H; Zhou J; Zhao H; Aisa HA; Yao G
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Chemistry of Arid Zone, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Isolation and Characterization of Sesquiterpenoids from Cassia Buds and Their Antimicrobial Activities.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(28):5614-5619, 2017 Jul 19.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cassia buds, the immature fruits of Cinnamomum cassia (Lauraceae), are widely consumed as a food spice, dietary supplements, flavoring agents, and preservatives. In this study, cassia buds were phytochemically investigated for the first time, leading to the isolation of 2 new sesquiterpenoids (1 and 2) and 10 known sesquiterpenoids (3-12). Their structures were determined by spectrometric and spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. Cinnamosim A (1) represents the ninth example of the rare cyperane-type sesquiterpenoids. All of the compounds (1-12) isolated from cassia buds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities, with compounds 1-3, 5-8, 11, and 12 exhibiting strong antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans and compounds 6, 7, and 11 showing moderate antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The present investigation indicated that sesquiterpenoids from cassia buds might be used as potential antimicrobial agents to preserve food.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
Cinnamomum aromaticum/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Sesquiterpenes/chemistry
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification
Candida albicans/drug effects
Escherichia coli/drug effects
Molecular Structure
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Sesquiterpenes)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170728
[Lr] Last revision date:170728
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01294

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[PMID]: 28654013
[Au] Autor:Le TB; Beaufay C; Nghiem DT; Mingeot-Leclercq MP; Quetin-Leclercq J
[Ad] Address:GNOS Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institue, Université Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles 1200, Belgium. thanh.le@student.uclouvain.be.
[Ti] Title:In Vitro Anti-Leishmanial Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Vietnamese Plants.
[So] Source:Molecules;22(7), 2017 Jun 27.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:is one of the pathogens causing cutaneous leishmaniasis which is associated with patient morbidity. In our researches for new safe and effective treatments, thirty-seven essential oils (EOs) extracted from Vietnamese plants were screened in vitro for the first time on promastigotes at the maximum concentration of 50 nL/mL. Active EOs were also analyzed for cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines (WI38, J774) and their selectivity indices (SI) were calculated. Their composition was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID. Our results indicated that EOs extracted from , , and , possessed a moderate anti-leishmanial activity, with IC values of 2.92 ± 0.08, 3.34 ± 0.34, 8.49 ± 0.32 and 9.25 ± 0.64 nL/mL respectively. However, they also showed cytotoxicity with SI < 10. The most promising EO was extracted from , displaying an IC of 4.85 ± 1.65 nL/mL and SI > 10. It contained 86.5% eugenol, which was demonstrated to be effective on with IC of 2.57 ± 0.57 nL/mL and not toxic on mammalian cells, explaining the observed activity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170627
[Lr] Last revision date:170627
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28605974
[Au] Autor:Takács I; Takács Á; Pósa A; Gyémánt G
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged , Szeged , Hungary.
[Ti] Title:HPLC method for measurement of human salivary α-amylase inhibition by aqueous plant extracts.
[So] Source:Acta Biol Hung;68(2):127-136, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0236-5383
[Cp] Country of publication:Hungary
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Control of hyperglycemia is an important treatment in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. α-Amylase, as the first enzyme of glucose release from dietary polysaccharides, is a potential target to identify new sources of novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. In this work, different herbal extracts as α-amylase inhibitors were studied by measuring the rate of the cleavage of a maltooligomer substrate 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-ß-D-maltoheptoside. Measurement of chromophore containing products after reversed phase HPLC separation was used for α-amylase activity measurement. Rates of hydrolysis catalysed by human salivary α-amylase were determined in the presence and absence of lyophilised water extracts of eleven herbs. Remarkable bioactivities were found for extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (bark), Camellia sinensis L. (leaf), Ribes nigrum L. (leaf), Laurus nobilis L. (leaf), Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (fruit) and Syzygium aromaticum L. (bud). Determined IC values were in 0.017-41 µg/ml range for these six selected plant extracts. Our results confirm the applicability of this HPLC-based method for the quick and reliable comparison of plants as α-amylase inhibitors.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Salivary Proteins and Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors
alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification
Humans
Salivary Proteins and Peptides/chemistry
alpha-Amylases/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Salivary Proteins and Peptides); EC 3.2.1.1 (alpha-Amylases)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170814
[Lr] Last revision date:170814
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170614
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/018.68.2017.2.1

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[PMID]: 28428175
[Au] Autor:Rowell TR; Reeber SL; Lee SL; Harris RA; Nethery RC; Herring AH; Glish GL; Tarran R
[Ad] Address:Marsico Lung Institute, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
[Ti] Title:Flavored e-cigarette liquids reduce proliferation and viability in the CALU3 airway epithelial cell line.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol;313(1):L52-L66, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1504
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:E-cigarettes are generally thought of as a safer smoking alternative to traditional cigarettes. However, little is known about the effects of e-cigarette liquids (e-liquids) on the lung. Since over 7,000 unique flavors have been identified for purchase in the United States, our goal was to conduct a screen that would test whether different flavored e-liquids exhibited different toxicant profiles. We tested the effects of 13 different flavored e-liquids [with nicotine and propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) serving as controls] on a lung epithelial cell line (CALU3). Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as an indicator of cell proliferation/viability, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease of MTT metabolism by all flavors tested. However, a group of four flavors consistently showed significantly greater toxicity compared with the PG/VG control, indicating the potential for some flavors to elicit more harmful effects than others. We also tested the aerosolized "vapor" from select e-liquids on cells and found similar dose-dependent trends, suggesting that direct e-liquid exposures are a justifiable first-pass screening approach for determining relative e-liquid toxicity. We then identified individual chemical constituents for all 13 flavors using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data revealed that beyond nicotine and PG/VG, the 13 flavored e-liquids have diverse chemical constituents. Since all of the flavors exhibited some degree of toxicity and a diverse array of chemical constituents with little inhalation toxicity available, we conclude that flavored e-liquids should be extensively tested on a case-by-case basis to determine the potential for toxicity in the lung and elsewhere.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
Epithelial Cells/cytology
Lung/cytology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aerosols
Cell Death/drug effects
Cell Line
Cell Proliferation/drug effects
Cell Survival/drug effects
Cinnamomum aromaticum/chemistry
Epithelial Cells/drug effects
Epithelial Cells/metabolism
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Menthol/pharmacology
Nicotine/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Aerosols); 1490-04-6 (Menthol); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170422
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00392.2016


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