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[PMID]: 29521146
[Au] Autor:Rahman MM; Kim MJ; Kim JH; Kim SH; Go HK; Kweon MH; Kim DH
[Ad] Address:a Research Center , KNOTUS Co. Ltd , Guri-Si , Gyeonggi-Do , Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Desalted Salicornia europaea powder and its active constituent, trans-ferulic acid, exert anti-obesity effects by suppressing adipogenic-related factors.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;56(1):183-191, 2018 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks. RESULTS: The body weight was significantly reduced by co-administration of DSP (596.51 ± 19.84 kg, 4.60% and 562.08 ± 9.74 kg, 10.10%, respectively) and GE (576.00 ± 11.29 kg, 7.88%) relative to the HFD group (625.25 ± 14.02 kg) and was accompanied by reduced abdominal fat mass, and serum lipid levels, with no effects on feed intake. To find the underlying mechanism of the anti-obesity effects, trans-ferulic acid (TFA) was identified as the main ingredient and investigated with regard to whether it attenuated adipogenesity in 3T3L-1 cells. DSP-derived TFA suppressed adipocyte differentiation and accumulation of intracellular lipids. TFA also down-regulated the adipogenesis-related gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and fatty acid synthase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DSP may be considered for use as a food supplement intent of controlling obesity through its antiobesity and antiadipogenic properties.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/13880209.2018.1436073

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[PMID]: 29513040
[Au] Autor:Ibrahim SRM; Abdallah HM; El-Halawany AM; Nafady AM; Mohamed GA
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy , Taibah University , Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Title:Mangostanaxanthone VIII, a new xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and its cytotoxic activity.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;:1-8, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new prenylated xanthone, mangostanaxanthone VIII (7) and six known metabolites: gartanin (1), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), rubraxanthone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenylxanthone (4), garcinone C (5), and xanthone I (9-hydroxycalabaxanthone) (6) were separated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae). Their structures have been verified on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis as well as comparison with the literature. The cytotoxic activity of 7 was assessed against MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cell lines using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Compound 7 showed significant cytotoxic potential against MCF7 and A549 cell lines with IC s 3.01 and 1.96 µM, respectively compared to doxorubicin (0.06 and 0.44 µM, respectively). However, it exhibited moderate activity towards HCT116 cell line.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2018.1446012

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[PMID]: 29304383
[Au] Autor:Pailee P; Kuhakarn C; Sangsuwan C; Hongthong S; Piyachaturawat P; Suksen K; Jariyawat S; Akkarawongsapat R; Limthongkul J; Napaswad C; Kongsaeree P; Prabpai S; Jaipetch T; Pohmakotr M; Tuchinda P; Reutrakul V
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Anti-HIV and cytotoxic biphenyls, benzophenones and xanthones from stems, leaves and twigs of Garcinia speciosa.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;147:68-79, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Eleven previously undescribed compounds, including four benzophenones (garciosones A-D), four xanthones (garciosones E-H) and three biphenyls (garciosines A-C), along with eighteen known compounds were isolated from the stems, leaves and twigs of Garcinia speciosa Wall. (Clusiaceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. For garciosines A-C, the structures were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Most of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and anti-HIV-1 activity using the syncytium inhibition assay and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. The known compounds, 4,6,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2-methoxybenzophenone and macluraxanthone, displayed significant cytotoxic activity with the ED in the range of 1.85-11.76 µM. 1,5-Dihydroxyxanthone exhibited the most potent anti-HIV activity against syncytium formation with EC < 17.13 µM (SI > 25.28) and 2-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone was the most active compound in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay with IC value of 58.24 µM. Structure-activity relationship of some isolated compounds were also discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180206
[Lr] Last revision date:180206
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29247893
[Au] Autor:Chaturonrutsamee S; Kuhakarn C; Surawatanawong P; Prabpai S; Kongsaeree P; Jaipetch T; Piyachaturawat P; Jariyawat S; Akkarawongsapat R; Suksen K; Limthongkul J; Napaswad C; Nuntasaen N; Reutrakul V
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Research and Development Department, International Laboratories Corp., Ltd., Bang Phli, Samut Prakan 10540, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols and biphenyl derivatives from the roots of Garcinia nuntasaenii Ngerns. & Suddee.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;146:63-74, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Seven previously undescribed compounds, including three polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (garcinuntins A-C), three biphenyl derivatives (garcinuntabiphenyls A-C) and a lanostane triterpene (garcinuntine), along with thirteen known compounds were isolated from the root of Garcinia nuntasaenii Ngerns. & Suddee. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. For garcinuntins A-C, the absolute configurations were confirmed by the combination of single X-ray crystallography and ECD calculations. Anti-HIV activity using anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and syncytium inhibition assays, and cytotoxic activity against a panel of cultured mammalian cancer cell lines of isolated compounds were investigated.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology
Garcinia/chemistry
HIV Reverse Transcriptase/antagonists & inhibitors
HIV-1/drug effects
Phloroglucinol/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry
Anti-HIV Agents/isolation & purification
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry
Biphenyl Compounds/isolation & purification
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Proliferation/drug effects
Cell Survival/drug effects
Crystallography, X-Ray
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
HEK293 Cells
HIV Reverse Transcriptase/metabolism
Humans
Models, Molecular
Molecular Structure
Phloroglucinol/analogs & derivatives
Phloroglucinol/isolation & purification
Plant Roots/chemistry
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-HIV Agents); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 2L9GJK6MGN (diphenyl); DHD7FFG6YS (Phloroglucinol); EC 2.7.7.- (reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1); EC 2.7.7.49 (HIV Reverse Transcriptase)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180119
[Lr] Last revision date:180119
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171217
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29307236
[Au] Autor:Ibrahim SRM; Mohamed GA; Elfaky MA; Al Haidari RA; Zayed MF; El-Kholy AA; Khedr AIM
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy , Taibah University , Al Madinah Al Munawwarah 30078 , Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Title:Garcixanthone A, a new cytotoxic xanthone from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.
[So] Source:J Asian Nat Prod Res;:1-7, 2018 Jan 07.
[Is] ISSN:1477-2213
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new prenylated xanthone, garcixanthone A (5), together with eight known compounds, mangostanaxanthones I (1) and II (2), garcinone E (3), ß-mangostin (4), 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (6), garcinone C (7), cudraxanthone G (8), and (-)-epicatechin (9) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of Garcinia mangostana (family Clusiaceae). Their structures were verified on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation as well as comparison with the literature. The cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the new compound were assessed using sulforhodamine B (SRB) and agar disk diffusion assays, respectively. Compound 5 showed significant cytotoxic potential against epithelial lung carcinoma (A549) and breast carcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC s 3.0 and 4.2 µM, respectively, compared to doxorubicin (0.74 and 0.41 µM, respectively).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180108
[Lr] Last revision date:180108
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/10286020.2017.1423058

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[PMID]: 29110583
[Au] Autor:Omer FAA; Hashim NBM; Ibrahim MY; Dehghan F; Yahayu M; Karimian H; Salim LZA; Mohan S
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:Beta-mangostin from Cratoxylum arborescens activates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway through reactive oxygen species with downregulation of the HSP70 gene in the HL60 cells associated with a G /G cell-cycle arrest.
[So] Source:Tumour Biol;39(11):1010428317731451, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1423-0380
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Xanthones are phytochemical compounds found in a number of fruits and vegetables. Characteristically, they are noted to be made of diverse properties based on their biological, biochemical, and pharmacological actions. Accordingly, the apoptosis mechanisms induced by beta-mangostin, a xanthone compound isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL60) in vitro, were examined in this study. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was done to estimate the cytotoxicity effect of ß-mangostin on the HL60 cell line. Acridine orange/propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dyes and Annexin V tests were conducted to detect the apoptosis features. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; reactive oxygen species; real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 Hsp70 genes; and western blot for p53, cytochrome c, and pro- and cleavage-caspase-3 and caspase-9 were assessed to examine the apoptosis mechanism. Cell-cycle analysis conducted revealed that ß-mangostin inhibited the growth of HL60 at 58 µM in 24 h. The administration of ß-mangostin with HL60 caused cell morphological changes related to apoptosis which increased the number of early and late apoptotic cells. The ß-mangostin-catalyzed apoptosis action through caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 activation overproduced reactive oxygen species which downregulated the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2 and HSP70. Conversely, the expression of the apoptotic genes Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were upregulated. Meanwhile, at the protein level, ß-mangostin activated the formation of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 and also upregulated the p53. ß-mangostin arrested the cell cycle at the G /G phase. Overall, the results for ß-mangostin showed an antiproliferative effect in HL60 via stopping the cell cycle at the G /G phase and prompted the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Apoptosis/drug effects
G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects
HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/drug effects
Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
Xanthones/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Clusiaceae
Down-Regulation
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects
HL-60 Cells
HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/biosynthesis
Humans
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Reactive Oxygen Species
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 0 (Xanthones); U6RIV93RU1 (mangostin)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171113
[Lr] Last revision date:171113
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171108
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1010428317731451

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[PMID]: 28850624
[Au] Autor:Gaoue OG; Kouagou M; Natta AK; Gado C
[Ad] Address:Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Honolulu, HI, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183964, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist) in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of the three fruit harvesting intensities (low, medium and high). Harvesting intensities were estimated as the proportion of fruits harvested per population. Pentadesma butyracea is found in gallery forests along rivers and streams. We used the width of gallery forests as a measure of habitat size. We found negative effects of fruit harvest on seedling and adult density but no significant effect on population size class distribution in both ecological regions. The lack of significant effect of fruit harvest on population structure may be explained by the ability of P. butyracea to compensate for the negative effect of fruit harvesting by increasing clonal reproduction. Our results suggest that using tree density and population structure to assess the ecological impacts of harvesting clonal plants should be done with caution.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ecosystem
Forestry/methods
Forests
Trees
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Benin
Conservation of Natural Resources
Fruit
Humans
Rivers
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170830
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183964

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[PMID]: 28842267
[Au] Autor:Ovalle-Magallanes B; Eugenio-Pérez D; Pedraza-Chaverri J
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04510, Mexico.
[Ti] Title:Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): A comprehensive update.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;109(Pt 1):102-122, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia known as mangosteen which fruits possess a distinctive and pleasant taste that has granted them the epithet of "queen of the fruits". The seeds and pericarps of the fruit have a long history of use in the traditional medicinal practices of the region, and beverages containing mangosteen pulp and pericarps are sold worldwide as nutritional supplements. The main phytochemicals present in the species are isoprenylated xanthones, a class of secondary metabolites with multiple reports of biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-obesity. The diversity of actions displayed by mangosteen xanthones shows that these compounds target multiple signaling pathways involved in different pathologies, and place them as valuable sources for developing new drugs to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. This review article presents a comprehensive update of the toxicological findings on animal models, and the preclinical anticancer, analgesic, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of G. mangostana L. extracts and its main isolates. Pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems and reports on dose-finding human trials are also examined.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171025
[Lr] Last revision date:171025
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28832611
[Au] Autor:Zahawi RA; Oviedo-Brenes F; Peterson CJ
[Ad] Address:Las Cruces Biological Station, Organization for Tropical Studies, San Vito de Coto Brus, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.
[Ti] Title:A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183133, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary) and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey). Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp.), with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae), and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biomass
Forests
Tropical Climate
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biodiversity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170824
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183133

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[PMID]: 28814920
[Au] Autor:Toyama H; Dang VS; Tagane S; Nguyen NV; Naiki A; Nagamasu H; Yahara T
[Ad] Address:Centre for Asian Conservation Ecology, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan.
[Ti] Title: (Clusiaceae), a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam.
[So] Source:PhytoKeys;(77):63-70, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1314-2011
[Cp] Country of publication:Bulgaria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new species, H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170821
[Lr] Last revision date:170821
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3897/phytokeys.77.11575


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