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[PMID]: 29510744
[Au] Autor:Mohammed MA; Khalid NM; Aboud MA
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Fashir University, Al-Fashir, Sudan.
[Ti] Title:Kala-azar in Darfur: Evidence for indigenous transmission in Al-Malha Locality, North Darfur, western Sudan.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;11(1):149, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Recent reports showed high numbers of visceral leishmaniasis cases in North Darfur, western Sudan. Due to a lack of previous studies, no information is available on local transmission of the disease in these areas. Therefore, a pilot entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in Al-Malha Locality during the year 2013, to investigate possibility of local transmission and places and times of the year where and when people contract the infection. METHODS: Kala-azar incidence data were obtained from records of Ministry of Health, North Darfur; Al-Malha rural hospital; and the Federal Ministry of Health, Division of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper and rodent burrow traps from five different microhabitats during three different phases of the year. Species identification was undertaken using appropriate taxonomic keys. Data were statistically analyzed to determine the distribution of kala-azar among different age groups and between sexes, and to compare the species richness and distribution of different sandfly species between the different microhabitats. RESULTS: The most affected age groups with kala-azar during the period 2013-2016 were children between one and five years old and those under one year. Females were found to be more affected than males. A total of 918 sand fly specimens were collected using sticky paper and rodent burrow traps from five microhabitats. Identified specimens belong to 13 species; 5 Phlebotomus and 8 Sergentomyia. Phlebotomus orientalis, the principal vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and other East African countries, was found for the first time in the area. No other known vector of VL was found in the collection. The highest number of sand flies was recorded during the summer season (63%), with S. antennata (48%) and S. schwetzi (24.1%) being the most abundant species. Among Phlebotomus species, P. orientalis showed relatively high density (8.6%). A dry seasonal water course (called "Khor") seems to be the most preferred habitat for most of the sand fly species since most of the collections (41.2%) were made from this site, followed by the rodent burrows. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. orientalis and the high prevalence of VL in infants in the Al-Malha area provide the first evidence for local transmission of the parasite causing kala-azar in Darfur. Transmission is probably occurring during summer near the woodland where a high density of the vector was recorded. As a pre-requisite for designing effective control of VL in North Darfur, large scale entomological and epidemiological studies are recommended.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-018-2746-3

  2 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29428427
[Au] Autor:Poey ME; Laviña M
[Ad] Address:Sección Fisiología & Genética Bacterianas, Facultad de Ciencias, Iguá 4225, Montevideo, 11.400, Uruguay. Electronic address: mepoey@fcien.edu.uy.
[Ti] Title:Horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to E. coli K12.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:16-22, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Class 1 integrons are genetic elements that carry a variable set of antibiotic resistance genes, being frequently found in clinical Gram-negative isolates. It is generally assumed that they easily spread horizontally among bacteria, thus contributing to the appearance of multidrug resistant clones. However, there are few experimental studies on the lateral transfer of these elements performed with bacterial collections that had been gathered following an epidemiological design. In this work, a collection with these characteristics, comprising uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates bearing class 1 integrons, was employed to study the horizontal transfer of the integron to an E. coli K12 strain by means of conjugation and transduction experiments. Donor and resultant strains were characterized for their antibiotic resistances, presence of sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes, integron cassette arrays, plasmid replicons and tra region. Conjugation assays were carried out using 45 UPEC isolates as integron donors and transconjugants were obtained in 18 cases (40%). P1-transduction experiments only added the integron transfer from a single donor isolate. Thus, a collection of E. coli K12 strains carrying the class 1 integron from 19 UPEC isolates was generated. In all cases, the integron was co-transferred with at least one low-copy-number plasmid, generally of the F replicon type. Several variables were searched for that could be related to the ability to horizontally transfer the integron. Although no strict correlation was observed, the phylogenetic background of the donor strain and the presence of the sul2 gene appeared as candidates to influence the process. Therefore, there appears that besides being carried by mobile genetic elements, class 1 integrons may be influenced by other factors to accomplish their horizontal transfer, a topic that requires further studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523856
[Au] Autor:Stock W; Pinseel E; De Decker S; Sefbom J; Blommaert L; Chepurnova O; Sabbe K; Vyverman W
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Protistology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S8, B-9000, Ghent, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Expanding the toolbox for cryopreservation of marine and freshwater diatoms.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):4279, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diatoms constitute the most diverse group of microalgae and have long been recognised for their large biotechnological potential. In the wake of growing research interest in new model species and development of commercial applications, there is a pressing need for long-term preservation of diatom strains. While cryopreservation using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotective agent is the preferred method for long-term strain preservation, many diatom species cannot be successfully cryopreserved using DMSO. Therefore, in this study, we studied cryopreservation success in six different diatom species, representing the major morphological and ecological diatom groups, using a range of DMSO concentrations and Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) as an alternative cryoprotectant to DMSO. In addition, we tested whether suppressing bacterial growth by antibiotics accelerates the post-thaw recovery process. Our results show that the effects of cryoprotectant choice, its concentration and the addition of antibiotics are highly species specific. In addition, we showed that PVS2 and antibiotics are useful agents to optimize cryopreservation of algae that cannot survive the traditional cryopreservation protocol using DMSO. We conclude that a species-specific approach will remain necessary to develop protocols for diatom cryopreservation and to increase their representation in public culture collections.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-22460-0

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[PMID]: 29522515
[Au] Autor:Prieto-Torres DA; Cuervo AM; Bonaccorso E
[Ad] Address:Master Oficial en Biodiversidad en Áreas Tropicales y su Conservación. Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo, Madrid, España.
[Ti] Title:On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(3):e0191598, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191598

  5 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476726
[Au] Autor:Hakizimana E; Karema C; Munyakanage D; Githure J; Mazarati JB; Tongren JE; Takken W; Binagwaho A; Koenraadt CJM
[Ad] Address:Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Biomedical Centre (RBC), Ministry of Health, Rwanda; Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection in Rwanda.
[So] Source:Acta Trop;182:149-157, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6254
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological characteristics and PCR. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rates were determined using ELISA. A total of 340,684 mosquitoes was collected by HLC and 73.8% were morphologically identified as culicines and 26.2% as anophelines. Of the latter, 94.3% were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 0.4% Anopheles funestus and 5.3% other Anopheles species. Of An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. represented 84.4% and 15.6%, respectively. Of all An. gambiae s.l. collected indoor and outdoor, the proportion collected indoors was 51.3% in 2010 and 44.9% in 2013. A total of 17,022 mosquitoes was collected by PSC of which 20.5% were An. gambiae s.l. and 79.5% were culicines. For the seven sentinel sites, the mean indoor density for An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.0 to 1.0 mosquitoes/house/night. P. falciparum infection rates in mosquitoes varied from 0.87 to 4.06%. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 1.0 to 329.8 with an annual average of 99.5 infective bites/person/year. This longitudinal study shows, for the first time, the abundance, species composition, and entomological inoculation rate of malaria mosquitoes collected throughout Rwanda.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29410402
[Au] Autor:Ismail AM; Cui T; Dommaraju K; Singh G; Dehghan S; Seto J; Shrivastava S; Fedorova NB; Gupta N; Stockwell TB; Madupu R; Heim A; Kajon AE; Romanowski EG; Kowalski RP; Malathi J; Therese KL; Madhavan HN; Zhang Q; Ferreyra LJ; Jones MS; Rajaiya J; Dyer DW; Chodosh J; Seto D
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Howe Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
[Ti] Title:Genomic analysis of a large set of currently-and historically-important human adenovirus pathogens.
[So] Source:Emerg Microbes Infect;7(1):10, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:2222-1751
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are uniquely important "model organisms" as they have been used to elucidate fundamental biological processes, are recognized as complex pathogens, and are used as remedies for human health. As pathogens, HAdVs may effect asymptomatic or mild and severe symptomatic disease upon their infection of respiratory, ocular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. High-resolution genomic data have enhanced the understanding of HAdV epidemiology, with recombination recognized as an important and major pathway in the molecular evolution and genesis of emergent HAdV pathogens. To support this view and to actualize an algorithm for identifying, characterizing, and typing novel HAdVs, we determined the DNA sequence of 95 isolates from archives containing historically important pathogens and collections housing currently circulating strains to be sequenced. Of the 85 samples that were completely sequenced, 18 novel recombinants within species HAdV-B and D were identified. Two HAdV-D genomes were found to contain novel penton base and fiber genes with significant divergence from known molecular types. In this data set, we found additional isolates of HAdV-D53 and HAdV-D58, two novel genotypes recognized recently using genomics. This supports the thesis that novel HAdV genotypes are not limited to "one-time" appearances of the prototype but are of importance in HAdV epidemiology. These data underscore the significance of lateral genomic transfer in HAdV evolution and reinforce the potential public health impact of novel genotypes of HAdVs emerging in the population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41426-017-0004-y

  7 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29409795
[Au] Autor:Roulette CJ; Njau EA; Quinlan MB; Quinlan RJ; Call DR
[Ad] Address:Department of Anthropology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr., San Diego, CA 92182, United States. Electronic address: croulette@sdsu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Medicinal foods and beverages among Maasai agro-pastoralists in northern Tanzania.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;216:191-202, 2018 Apr 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pastoralist Maasai populations of east Africa use several different wild plants as dietary and medicinal additives in beverages (soups and teas), yet little is known about how the plants used and the rationales for use compare and contrast across different Maasai beverages, including how gender specific dietary and health concerns structure patterns of intake. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated three Maasai beverages: almajani (tea or herbal infusion); motorí (traditional soup); and okiti (psychoactive herbal tea). In order to build knowledge about the cultural functions of these Maasai food-medicines and their incidence of use we also investigated use rationales and self-reported frequencies of use. We conclude by examining gender differences and the possible pharmacological antimicrobial activity of the most frequently used plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research was conducted in 2015, with a population of semi-nomadic agropastoralist Maasai residing in northern Tanzania. Data were collected using key informant interviews, plant collections, n = 32 structured surveys, and n = 40 freelist interviews followed by a literature review to determine the known antimicrobial activity of the most used plants. RESULTS: We identified 20 plants that Maasai add to soup, 11 in tea, and 11 in the psychoactive tea, for a total of 24 herbal additives. Seven plant species were used in all three Maasai beverages, and these clustered with 10 common ailments. Based on self-reports, women use the beverages less frequently and in smaller amounts than men. There were also several gender differences in the plants that Maasai add to motorí and their associated use rationales. CONCLUSIONS: There are several intersections concerning the plant species used and their associated rationales for use in almajani, motori, and okiti. Moving outward, Maasai beverages and their additives increasingly involve gender specific concerns. Female use of food-medicines, relative to men, is structured by concerns over pregnancy, birth, and lactation. The frequent consumption of herbal additives, many of which contain antimicrobial compounds, potentially helps modulate infections, but could have other unintentional effects as well.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29381750
[Au] Autor:Guerra V; Llusia D; Gambale PG; Morais AR; Márquez R; Bastos RP
[Ad] Address:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais (PEA), Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), CEP: 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:The advertisement calls of Brazilian anurans: Historical review, current knowledge and future directions.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191691, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Advertisement calls are often used as essential basic information in studies of animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, conservation, taxonomy or biodiversity inventories. Yet the description of this type of acoustic signals is far to be completed, especially in tropical regions, and is frequently non-standardized or limited in information, restricting the application of bioacoustics in science. Here we conducted a scientometric review of the described adverstisement calls of anuran species of Brazil, the world richest territory in anurans, to evaluate the amount, standard and trends of the knowledge on this key life-history trait and to identify gaps and directions for future research strategies. Based on our review, 607 studies have been published between 1960 to 2016 describing the calls of 719 Brazilian anuran species (68.8% of all species), a publication rate of 10.6 descriptions per year. From each of these studies, thirty-one variables were recorded and examined with descriptive and inferential statistics. In spite of an exponential rise over the last six decades in the number of studies, described calls, and quantity of published metadata, as revealed by regression models, clear shortfalls were identified with regard to anuran families, biomes, and categories of threat. More than 55% of these species belong to the two richest families, Hylidae or Leptodactylidae. The lowest percentage of species with described calls corresponds to the most diverse biomes, namely Atlantic Forest (65.1%) and Amazon (71.5%), and to the IUCN categories of threat (56.8%), relative to the less-than-threatened categories (74.3%). Moreover, only 52.3% of the species have some of its calls deposited in the main scientific sound collections. Our findings evidence remarkable knowledge gaps on advertisement calls of Brazilian anuran species, emphasizing the need of further efforts in standardizing and increasing the description of anuran calls for their application in studies of the behaviour, ecology, biogeography or taxonomy of the species.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animal Communication
Anura/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Brazil
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191691

  9 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519510
[Au] Autor:Worthing KA; Marcus A; Abraham S; Trott DJ; Norris JM
[Ad] Address:Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: kwor0018@uni.sydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Qac genes and biocide tolerance in clinical veterinary methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.
[So] Source:Vet Microbiol;216:153-158, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2542
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Qac genes are associated with increased tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds and other cationic biocides such as chlorhexidine. This study aimed to determine whether qac genes and increased biocide tolerance were present in 125 clinical methicillin-resistant and susceptible veterinary staphylococci. A total of 125 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP) from three archived Australian veterinary staphylococci collections underwent whole genome sequencing, multilocus sequence typing and qac gene screening. Two MRSA isolates (12%) harboured qacA/B genes; both isolates were ST8 from horses. QacJ, qacG and smr genes were identified in 28/90 (31%) MRSP and 1/18 (6%) MSSP isolates. ST71 MRSP was significantly more likely to harbour qac genes than other MRSP clones (p < 0.05). A random subset of 31 isolates underwent minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) testing against F10SC (benzalkonium chloride and biguanide), and Hexacon (chlorhexidine gluconate), with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an in vitro substitute for organic matter contamination. Qac genes were not associated with increased phenotypic biocide tolerance but biocide efficacy was significantly affected by the presence of BSA. In the absence of BSA, all MBC values were well below the recommended usage concentration. When BSA was present, regardless of qac gene presence, 50% of MRSA and 43% of MRSP had an F10SC MBC above the recommended concentration for general disinfection. Qac genes did not confer increased in vitro biocide tolerance to veterinary staphylococci. Organic matter contamination must be minimized to ensure the efficacy of biocides against MRSA and MRSP.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 60145 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519336
[Au] Autor:Bang JY; Varadarajulu S
[Ad] Address:Center for Interventional Endoscopy, Florida Hospital, 601 East Rollins Street, Orlando, FL 32803, USA.
[Ti] Title:How the Experts Do It: Step-by-Step Guide.
[So] Source:Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am;28(2):251-260, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1558-1950
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lumen-apposing metal stents are integrated in a single-step delivery system for draining intra-abdominal fluid collections. The theoretic advantage of lumen-apposing stents is the ability to approximate the wall of the drained cavity or organ to the gastrointestinal tract lumen. The use of lumen-apposing stents now includes drainage of organs adjacent to the stomach/duodenum and creation of anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum. The lumen-apposing stents may also serve as a conduit for accessing the remnant stomach for performing biliary tract interventions. This article outlines the approach to placement of lumen-apposing metal stents, technical challenges, and measures to counter adverse events.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process


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