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[PMID]: 29515285
[Au] Autor:DiMento BP; Mason RP
[Ad] Address:University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, 1080 Shennecossett Rd, Groton, CT 06340, United States.
[Ti] Title:Factors controlling the photochemical degradation of methylmercury in coastal and oceanic waters.
[So] Source:Mar Chem;196:116-125, 2017 Nov 20.
[Is] ISSN:0304-4203
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Many studies have recognized abiotic photochemical degradation as an important sink of methylmercury (CH Hg) in sunlit surface waters, but the rate-controlling factors remain poorly understood. The overall objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the relative importance of photochemical reactions in the degradation of CH Hg in surface waters across a variety of marine ecosystems by extending the range of water types studied. Experiments were conducted using surface water collected from coastal sites in Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine, as well as offshore sites on the New England continental shelf break, the equatorial Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. Filtered water amended with additional CH Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations was allowed to equilibrate with natural ligands before being exposed to natural sunlight. Water quality parameters - salinity, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate - were measured, and specific UV absorbance was calculated as a proxy for dissolved aromatic carbon content. Degradation rate constants (0.87-1.67 day ) varied by a factor of two across all water types tested despite varying characteristics, and did not correlate with initial CH Hg concentrations or other environmental parameters. The rate constants in terms of cumulative photon flux values were comparable to, but at the high end of, the range of values reported in other studies. Further experiments investigating the controlling parameters of the reaction observed little effect of nitrate and chloride, and potential for bromide involvement. The HydroLight radiative transfer model was used to compute solar irradiance with depth in three representative water bodies - coastal wetland, estuary, and open ocean - allowing for the determination of water column integrated rates. Methylmercury loss per year due to photodegradation was also modeled across a range of latitudes from the Arctic to the Equator in the three model water types, resulting in an estimated global demethylation rate of 25.3 Mmol yr . The loss of CH Hg was greatest in the open ocean due to increased penetration of all wavelengths, especially the UV portion of the spectrum which has a greater ability to degrade CH Hg. Overall, this study provides additional insights and information to better constrain the importance of photochemical degradation in the cycling of CH Hg in marine surface waters and its transport from coastal waters to the open ocean.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.marchem.2017.08.006

  2 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515259
[Au] Autor:Shi X; Mason RP; Charette MA; Mazrui NM; Cai P
[Ad] Address:Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USA.
[Ti] Title:Mercury flux from salt marsh sediments: Insights from a comparison between Ra/ Th disequilibrium and core incubation methods.
[So] Source:Geochim Cosmochim Acta;222:569-583, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:0016-7037
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In aquatic environments, sediments are the main location of mercury methylation. Thus, accurate quantification of methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes at the sediment-water interface is vital to understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury, especially the toxic MeHg species, and their bioaccumulation. Traditional approaches, such as core incubations, are difficult to maintain at conditions during assays, leading to over/underestimation of benthic fluxes. Alternatively, the Ra/ Th disequilibrium method for tracing the transfer of dissolved substances across the sediment-water interface, has proven to be a reliable approach for quantifying benthic fluxes. In this study, the Ra/ Th disequilibrium and core incubation methods were compared to examine the benthic fluxes of both Ra and MeHg in salt marsh sediments of Barn Island, Connecticut, USA from May to August, 2016. The two methods were comparable for Ra but contradictory for MeHg. The radiotracer approach indicated that sediments were always the dominant source of both total mercury (THg) and MeHg. The core incubation method for MeHg produced similar results in May and August, but an opposite pattern in June and July, which suggested sediments were a sink of MeHg, contrary to the evidence of significant MeHg gradients between overlying water and porewater at the sediment-water interface. The potential reasons for such differences are discussed. Overall, we conclude that the Ra/ Th disequilibrium approach is preferred for estimating the benthic flux of MeHg and that sediment is indeed an important MeHg source in this marshland, and likely in other shallow coastal waters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2017.10.033

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[PMID]: 29373759
[Au] Autor:Vancor E; Shapiro ED; Loyal J
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
[Ti] Title:Results of a Targeted Screening Program for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Infants Who Fail Newborn Hearing Screening.
[So] Source:J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc;, 2018 Jan 24.
[Is] ISSN:2048-7207
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss. By law, newborns in Connecticut who fail newborn hearing screening are tested for infection with CMV. This targeted screening is controversial, because most children with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic, and CMV-related hearing loss can have a delayed onset. Our hospital uses a saliva polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (confirmed by a urine PCR assay) to detect CMV. Here, we report the results of the first year of our screening program. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of newborns in the Yale New Haven Health System who failed the newborn hearing screening test between January 1 and December 31, 2016. Results: Of 10964 newborns, 171 failed newborn hearing screening, and 3 of these newborns had positive saliva CMV PCR test results. Of these 3 newborns, 2 had positive results on the confirmatory test (for 1 of them the confirmatory test was not performed until the infant was 10 weeks old), and 1 had a negative result on the confirmatory test. Three additional newborns with congenital CMV infection were tested because of clinical indications (1 for ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound and 2 for CMV infection of the mother). Results of audiology follow-up were available for 149 (87.1%) of the 171 newborns who failed newborn hearing screening; 127 (85.2%) had normal results. Conclusion: Our targeted screening program for congenital CMV infection had a low yield. Consideration should be given to other strategies for identifying children at risk of hearing loss as a result of congenital CMV infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jpids/pix105

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[PMID]: 29211873
[Au] Autor:Cassell K; Gacek P; Warren JL; Raymond PA; Cartter M; Weinberger DM
[Ad] Address:Departments of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, New Haven, Connecticut.
[Ti] Title:Association Between Sporadic Legionellosis and River Systems in Connecticut.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;217(2):179-187, 2018 Jan 04.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Connecticut since 1999, but the exact reasons for this are unknown. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the drivers of legionnaires' disease in the community. In this study, we explored the relationship between the natural environment and the spatial and temporal distribution of legionellosis cases in Connecticut. Methods: We used spatial models and time series methods to evaluate factors associated with the increase and clustering of legionellosis in Connecticut. Stream flow, proximity to rivers, and residence in regional watersheds were explored as novel predictors of disease, while controlling for testing intensity and correlates of urbanization. Results: In Connecticut, legionellosis incidence exhibited a strong pattern of spatial clustering. Proximity to several rivers and residence in the corresponding watersheds were associated with increased incidence of the disease. Elevated rainfall and stream flow rate were associated with increases in incidence 2 weeks later. Conclusions: We identified a novel relationship between the natural aquatic environment and the spatial distribution of sporadic cases of legionellosis. These results suggest that natural environmental reservoirs may have a greater influence on the spatial distribution of sporadic legionellosis cases than previously thought.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix531

  5 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511287
[Au] Autor:Bell ML; Banerjee G; Pereira G
[Ad] Address:School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 195 Prospect St., New Haven, CT, 06511, USA. michelle.bell@yale.edu.
[Ti] Title:Residential mobility of pregnant women and implications for assessment of spatially-varying environmental exposures.
[So] Source:J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1559-064X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Health studies on spatially-varying exposures (e.g., air pollution) during pregnancy often estimate exposure using residence at birth, disregarding residential mobility. We investigated moving patterns in pregnant women (n = 10,116) in linked cohorts focused on Connecticut and Massachusetts, U.S., 1988-2008. Moving patterns were assessed by race/ethnicity, age, marital status, education, working status, population density, parity, income, and season of birth. In this population, 11.6% of women moved during pregnancy. Movers were more likely to be younger, unmarried, and living in urban areas with no previous children. Among movers, multiple moves were more likely for racial/ethnic minority, younger, less educated, unmarried, and lower income women. Most moves occurred later in pregnancy, with 87.4% of first moves in the second or third trimester, although not all cohort subjects enrolled in the first few weeks of pregnancy. Distance between first and second residence had a median value of 5.2 km (interquartile range 11.3 km, average 57.8 km, range 0.0-4277 km). Women moving larger distances were more likely to be white, older, married, and work during pregnancy. Findings indicate that residential mobility may impact studies of spatially-varying exposure during pregnancy and health and that subpopulations vary in probability of moving, and timing and distance of moves.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41370-018-0026-0

  6 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29235668
[Au] Autor:Sadler LS; Condon EM; Deng SZ; Ordway MR; Marchesseault C; Miller A; Alfano JS; Weir AM
[Ad] Address:Yale University School of Nursing, Orange, CT, USA.
[Ti] Title:A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.
[So] Source:Public Health Nurs;35(2):135-143, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1525-1446
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/phn.12378

  7 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29508974
[Au] Autor:Bailey MJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
[Ti] Title:"Momma's Got the Pill": How Anthony Comstock and Griswold v. Connecticut Shaped US Childbearing.
[So] Source:Am Econ Rev;100(1):98-129, 2010 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0002-8282
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The 1960s ushered in a new era in US demographic history characterized by significantly lower fertility rates and smaller family sizes. What catalyzed these changes remains a matter of considerable debate. This paper exploits idiosyncratic variation in the language of "Comstock" statutes, enacted in the late 1800s, to quantify the role of the birth control pill in this transition. Almost 50 years after the contraceptive pill appeared on the US market, this analysis provides new evidence that it accelerated the post-1960 decline in marital fertility.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506612
[Au] Autor:Mullins J; Lobato MN; Bemis K; Sosa L
[Ad] Address:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; University of Saint Joseph, West Hartford, Connecticut, Connecticut Department of Public Health, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
[Ti] Title:Spatial clusters of latent tuberculous infection, Connecticut, 2010-2014.
[So] Source:Int J Tuberc Lung Dis;22(2):165-170, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1815-7920
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:SETTING: In the United States, tuberculosis (TB) control is increasingly focusing on the identification of persons with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the local epidemiology of LTBI in Connecticut, USA. METHODS: We used spatial analyses 1) to identify census tract-level clusters of reported LTBI and TB disease in Connecticut, 2) to compare persons and populations in clusters with those not in clusters, and 3) to compare persons with LTBI to those with TB disease. RESULTS: Significant census tract-level spatial clusters of LTBI and TB disease were identified. Compared with persons with LTBI in non-clustered census tracts, those in clustered census tracts were more likely to be foreign-born and less likely to be of white non-Hispanic ethnicity. Populations in census tract clusters of high LTBI prevalence had greater crowding, persons living in poverty, and persons lacking health care insurance than populations not in clustered census tracts. Persons with LTBI were less likely than those with TB disease to be of Asian ethnicity, and persons with LTBI were more likely than those with TB disease to reside in a clustered census tract. CONCLUSIONS: Characterizing fine-scale populations at risk for LTBI supports effective and culturally accessible screening and treatment programs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5588/ijtld.17.0223

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[PMID]: 29305657
[Au] Autor:Clark RE; Singer MS
[Ad] Address:Biology Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, USA. rclark@wesleyan.edu.
[Ti] Title:Keystone mutualism strengthens top-down effects by recruiting large-bodied ants.
[So] Source:Oecologia;186(3):601-610, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1939
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Determining the impacts of mutualistic interactions and predator diversity on food webs are two important goals in community ecology. In this study, we examined how predator community variation mediates the strength of top-down effects in the presence and absence of mutualistic interactions. We examined the impacts of predatory ant species that simultaneously prey on leaf-chewing herbivores (Lepidoptera) and engage in food-for-protection mutualisms with sap-feeding herbivores (Hemiptera) in the lower canopy of Connecticut forests. In this 2-year study, we examined three hypothetical mechanisms by which mutualisms can alter the top-down effects of ants: (1) sap feeders increase ant abundance, thus strengthening predatory effects; (2) sap feeders increase the relative abundance of a species that has stronger predatory effects; and (3) changes to predator diversity (species richness) are caused by sap feeders mediating top-down effects of the ant community. Experiments revealed that host plants occupied by sap feeders favored large-bodied ant species in the genus Camponotus, but there were no changes to community-wide ant abundance or ant species richness. Fitting predictions of predation strength based on the functional trait of body size, large-bodied Camponotus suppressed caterpillars and reduced leaf herbivory. This work shows that the ant-hemipteran mutualism, which has been characterized as a keystone interaction, can generate strong top-down effects on leaf-chewing herbivores and herbivory via increasing the relative abundance of species with functional traits relevant to predation, such as body size. Therefore, the emergence of specific ants as keystone predators in a community can be contingent upon their mutualism with sap-feeding Hemiptera.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00442-017-4047-5

  10 / 15112 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28453188
[Au] Autor:Moritz ED; Tonnetti L; Hewins ME; Berardi VP; Dodd RY; Stramer SL
[Ad] Address:Scientific Affairs Department, American Red Cross, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
[Ti] Title:Description of 15 DNA-positive and antibody-negative "window-period" blood donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti.
[So] Source:Transfusion;57(7):1781-1786, 2017 07.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2995
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Blood donation screening detecting only antibodies fails to identify donors in the earliest stage of infection, before a detectable immunologic response, that is, the "window period" (WP). We present data on WP donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti, a transfusion-transmissible parasite of increasing concern in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donations collected in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arrayed fluorescence immunoassay (AFIA) to detect B. microti DNA and antibodies, respectively. Parasite loads were estimated using quantitative PCR. Red blood cell (RBC) samples were inoculated into hamsters to assess infectivity. Donors screening reactive were indefinitely deferred, tested by supplemental methods, and followed to assess DNA and antibody clearance. Demographic data from WP donors (i.e., those screening PCR positive and AFIA negative) were compared to data from other positive donors. RESULTS: Of 220,479 donations screened from June 2012 to August 2016, a total of 700 were positive, of which 15 (2% of positive donations or 1 per 14,699 screened donations) were confirmed WP donations. The median estimated parasite load in WP donations was 350 parasites/mL, no different than AFIA-positive and PCR-positive donors. Parasite loads in RBC samples from WP units ranged from 14 to 11,022 parasites/mL; RBC samples from three of 10 (30%) WP donations infected hamsters. The mean age of WP donors was 48 years (range, 17-75 years); three (20%) were female. WP donor demographics did not differ significantly from demographics of other donors. CONCLUSIONS: We report one per 15,000 B. microti WP infections in blood donors in endemic areas, demonstrating the importance of nucleic acid testing to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antibodies, Protozoan/blood
Babesia microti/isolation & purification
Blood Donors
DNA, Protozoan/blood
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Babesia microti/genetics
Babesia microti/immunology
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prospective Studies
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (DNA, Protozoan)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/trf.14103


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