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[PMID]: 29524681
[Au] Autor:Kimchi R; Devyatko D; Sabary S
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Institute of Information Processing and Decision Making, University of Haifa, Israel. Electronic address: rkimchi@univ.haifa.ac.il.
[Ti] Title:Can perceptual grouping unfold in the absence of awareness? Comparing grouping during continuous flash suppression and sandwich masking.
[So] Source:Conscious Cogn;60:37-51, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2376
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study we examined whether grouping by luminance similarity and grouping by connectedness can occur in the absence of visual awareness, using a priming paradigm and two methods to render the prime invisible, CFS and sandwich masking under matched conditions. For both groupings, significant response priming effects were observed when the prime was reported invisible under sandwich masking, but none were obtained under CFS. These results provide evidence for unconscious grouping, converging with previous findings showing that visual awareness is not essential for certain perceptual organization processes to occur. They are also consistent with findings indicating that processing during CFS is limited, and suggest the involvement of higher visual areas in perceptual organization. Moreover, these results demonstrate that whether a process can occur without awareness is dependent on the level at which the suppression induced by the method used for rendering the stimulus inaccessible to awareness takes place.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29508698
[Au] Autor:Park WJ; Schauder KB; Tadin D
[Ad] Address:Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.
[Ti] Title:Consciousness reflected in the eyes.
[So] Source:Elife;7, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2050-084X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:People with higher autistic traits display stronger fluctuations in pupil size when presented with an optical illusion.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 29408379
[Au] Autor:Harray AJ; Meng X; Kerr DA; Pollard CM
[Ad] Address:School of Public Health, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address: Amelia.Harray@curtin.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:225-232, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. DESIGN: Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. SETTING: Western Australia. SUBJECTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). RESULTS: Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29523913
[Au] Autor:Steiner J; Pr H; Khler S; Hasan A; Falkai P
[Ad] Address:Klinik fr Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitt Magdeburg, Leipziger Str.44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland. johann.steiner@med.ovgu.de.
[Ti] Title:Autoimmunenzephalitis mit psychotischer Symptomatik : Diagnostik, Warnhinweise und praktisches Vorgehen. [Autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms : Diagnostics, warning signs and practical approach].
[So] Source:Nervenarzt;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1433-0407
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:Despite intensive research, aprecise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. Anew diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics. Therefore, this qualitative review is intended to provide structured support for clinical practice, which, guided by clinical warning signals, enables arapid and reliable diagnosis as well as the initiation of immunotherapy. In the case of psychiatric symptoms, the additional onset of focal neurological signs, disturbances of consciousness and orientation, autonomic instability or epileptic seizures and electroencephalograph (EEG) abnormalities should always be followed by amore specific cerebrospinal fluid analysis with determination of antineuronal autoantibodies. Although the scientific evidence indicates that only asmall subgroup of patients is affected, the swift and correct diagnosis is of high therapeutic and prognostic relevance for the affected individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00115-018-0499-z

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[PMID]: 29523609
[Au] Autor:Monteiro AM; Marques O; Martins S; Antunes A
[Ad] Address:Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Iatrogenic water intoxication in a female adolescent with hypopituitarism.
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2018, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance. This case describes an episode of iatrogenic water intoxication in a patient under desmopressin treatment. Although uncommon, dilutional hyponatraemia is the main complication of desmopressin treatment. We reinforce the importance of patients and caregivers' long-life education for the potential complications of an increase in fluid intake in patients treated with desmopressin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29523558
[Au] Autor:Kaufmann CP; Stmpfli D; Mory N; Hersberger KE; Lampert ML
[Ad] Address:Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Drug-Associated Risk Tool: development and validation of a self-assessment questionnaire to screen for hospitalised patients at risk for drug-related problems.
[So] Source:BMJ Open;8(3):e016610, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2044-6055
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Identifying patients with a high risk for drug-related problems (DRPs) might optimise the allocation of targeted pharmaceutical care during the hospital stay and on discharge. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-assessment screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs and validate the tool regarding feasibility, acceptability and the reliability of the patients' answers. DESIGN: Prospective validation study. SETTING: Two mid-sized hospitals (300-400 beds). PARTICIPANTS: 195 patients, exclusion criteria: under 18 years old, patients with a health status not allowing a meaningful communication (eg, delirium, acute psychosis, advanced dementia, aphasia, clouded consciousness state), palliative or terminally ill patients. METHODS: Twenty-seven risk factors for the development of DRPs, identified in a previous study, provided the basis of the self-assessment questionnaire, the Drug-Associated Risk Tool (DART). Consenting patients filled in DART, and we compared their answers with objective patient data from medical records and laboratory data. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four patients filled in DART V.1.0 in an average time of 7 min. After a first validation, we identified statements with a low sensitivity and revised the wording of the questions related to heart insufficiency, renal impairment or liver impairment. The revised DART (V.2.0) was validated in 31 patients presenting heart insufficiency, renal impairment or liver impairment as comorbidity and reached an average specificity of 88% (range 27-100) and an average sensitivity of 67% (range 21-100). CONCLUSIONS: DART showed a satisfying feasibility and reliability. The specificity of the statements was mostly high. The sensitivity varied and was higher in statements concerning diseases that require regular disease control and attention to self-care and drug management. Asking patients about their conditions, medications and related problems can facilitate getting a first, broad picture of the risk for DRPs and possible pharmaceutical needs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016610

  7 / 50582 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523286
[Au] Autor:Beshkar M
[Ad] Address:Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: majid.beshkar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A thermodynamic approach to the problem of consciousness.
[So] Source:Med Hypotheses;113:15-16, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2777
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:What is the nature of qualia? Why qualia are subjective? This article is an attempt to provide speculative answers to these questions based on what we know about thermodynamics. The proposed answer to the first question is that qualia are self-organized structures built by exported entropy. The proposed answer to the second question is that qualia are subjective because entropy-decreasing phenomena cannot be observed physically.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29522997
[Au] Autor:Tyndall I; Ragless L; O'Hora D
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Chichester, UK. Electronic address: I.Tyndall@chi.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Effects of perceptual load and socially meaningful stimuli on crossmodal selective attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and neurotypical samples.
[So] Source:Conscious Cogn;60:25-36, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2376
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful ('beep' sound) or Socially Meaningful ('hi') stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77-81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful. However, during high visual perceptual load NT and ASD participants reliably noticed the meaningful CAS (NT = 71%, ASD = 67%), but NT participants were unlikely to notice the Non-meaningful CAS (20%), whereas ASD participants reliably noticed it (80%), suggesting an inability to engage selective attention to ignore non-salient irrelevant distractor stimuli in ASD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 50582 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29421324
[Au] Autor:Lichtner G; Auksztulewicz R; Kirilina E; Velten H; Mavrodis D; Scheel M; Blankenburg F; von Dincklage F
[Ad] Address:Charit - Universittsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universitt Berlin, Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik fr Ansthesiologie mit Schwerpunkt operative Intensivmedizin (CCM, CVK), Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Effects of propofol anesthesia on the processing of noxious stimuli in the spinal cord and the brain.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;172:642-653, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression. While nociceptive reflexes and somatosensory potentials were affected only in a minor way by further increasing doses of propofol after the loss of consciousness, fMRI showed that increasing propofol concentration abolished processing of intense noxious stimuli in the insula and secondary somatosensory cortex and vastly increased processing in the frontal cortex. As the fMRI functional connectivity showed congruent changes with increasing doses of propofol - namely the temporal brain areas decreasing their connectivity with the bilateral pre-/postcentral gyri and the supplementary motor area, while connectivity of the latter with frontal areas is increased - we conclude that the changes in processing of noxious stimuli during propofol anesthesia might be related to changes in functional connectivity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 50582 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29217366
[Au] Autor:Takagi Y; Hadeishi H; Mineharu Y; Yoshida K; Ogasawara K; Ogawa A; Miyamoto S
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Initially Missed or Delayed Diagnosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Nationwide Survey of Contributing Factors and Outcomes in Japan.
[So] Source:J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis;27(4):871-877, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8511
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a significant cause of mortality in Japan. The Japan Stroke Society set out to conduct a nationwide survey to identify contributing factors and outcomes of SAH misdiagnosis. METHODS: We initially surveyed 737 training institutes and 1259 departments in Japan between April 2012 and March 2014 for the presence of misdiagnosed SAH. Clinical information was then sought from respondents with a positive misdiagnosis. Information on 579 misdiagnosed cases was collected. RESULTS: Most initial misdiagnoses occurred in nonteaching hospitals (72%). Of those presenting with headache, 55% did not undergo a computed tomography (CT) scan. In addition, SAH was missed in the patients who underwent CT scans. The clinically diagnosed rerupture rate was 27%. Mortality among all cases was 11%. Institutes achieving a final diagnosis were staffed by neurologists or neurosurgeons. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (≥65), consciousness level (Japan Coma Scale score at correct diagnosis), rerupture of an aneurysm, and no treatment by clipping or coiling were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of misdiagnosis of SAH is severe. Neuroradiological assessment and correct diagnosis can prevent SAH misdiagnosis. When there is a possible diagnosis of SAH, consultation with a specialist is important.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process


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