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[PMID]: 29523913
[Au] Autor:Steiner J; Prüß H; Köhler S; Hasan A; Falkai P
[Ad] Address:Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland. johann.steiner@med.ovgu.de.
[Ti] Title:Autoimmunenzephalitis mit psychotischer Symptomatik : Diagnostik, Warnhinweise und praktisches Vorgehen. [Autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms : Diagnostics, warning signs and practical approach].
[So] Source:Nervenarzt;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1433-0407
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM­5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics. Therefore, this qualitative review is intended to provide structured support for clinical practice, which, guided by clinical warning signals, enables a rapid and reliable diagnosis as well as the initiation of immunotherapy. In the case of psychiatric symptoms, the additional onset of focal neurological signs, disturbances of consciousness and orientation, autonomic instability or epileptic seizures and electroencephalograph (EEG) abnormalities should always be followed by a more specific cerebrospinal fluid analysis with determination of antineuronal autoantibodies. Although the scientific evidence indicates that only a small subgroup of patients is affected, the swift and correct diagnosis is of high therapeutic and prognostic relevance for the affected individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00115-018-0499-z

  2 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523609
[Au] Autor:Monteiro AM; Marques O; Martins S; Antunes A
[Ad] Address:Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Iatrogenic water intoxication in a female adolescent with hypopituitarism.
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2018, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance. This case describes an episode of iatrogenic water intoxication in a patient under desmopressin treatment. Although uncommon, dilutional hyponatraemia is the main complication of desmopressin treatment. We reinforce the importance of patients and caregivers' long-life education for the potential complications of an increase in fluid intake in patients treated with desmopressin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519466
[Au] Autor:Ronchi R; Park HD; Blanke O
[Ad] Address:Center for Neuroprosthetics, Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain-Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: roberta.ronchi@epfl.ch.
[Ti] Title:Bodily self-consciousness and its disorders.
[So] Source:Handb Clin Neurol;151:313-330, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0072-9752
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Research in clinical and human neuroscience indicates that important brain mechanisms of self-consciousness are based on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (i.e., bodily self-consciousness: BSC), including signals coming from outside our body (i.e., exteroceptive signals, such as tactile, auditory, and visual information) and the inside of our body (i.e., interoceptive signals). In this chapter, we discuss selected behavioral and neuroimaging studies about how multisensory integration generates and modulates BSC in humans, with particular relevance to parietal mechanisms. We then review the neurology of disorders of BSC after acquired brain damage or dysfunction, ranging from body attentional disorders to delusional and illusory deficits about the patient's own body, associated with a breakdown of the link between the body and the self.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505319
[Au] Autor:Mosti C; Coccaro EF
[Ad] Address:From the Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago (CM, EFC).
[Ti] Title:Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression, Impulsivity, and History of Other- and Self-Directed Aggression.
[So] Source:J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci;:appineuropsych17070141, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7222
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals. The authors examined the relationship between history of mTBI in a healthy control group (HC; N=453), a control group with psychiatric disorders (PC; N=486), and individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED; N=695), a disorder of primary impulsive aggression. Results demonstrated that IED study participants were significantly more likely to have a history of mTBI (with or without history of a brief loss of consciousness [LOC]) compared with both HC and PC participants. A similar observation was made with regard to self-directed aggression (i.e., suicidal or self-injurious behavior), although group differences were only among those with mTBI with LOC. For both other- and self-directed aggression variables, the authors observed a stepwise increase in dimensional aggression and impulsivity scores across participants as a function of mTBI history. Given that impulsive aggressive behavior begins very early in life, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that lifelong presence of an impulsive aggressive temperament places impulsive aggressive individuals in circumstances that put them at greater risk for mTBI compared with other individuals with and without nonimpulsive aggressive psychopathology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17070141

  5 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29393694
[Au] Autor:Fins JJ; Wright MS
[Ad] Address:a Division of Medical Ethics , Weill Medical College of Cornell University , New York , NY.
[Ti] Title:Rights language and disorders of consciousness: a call for advocacy.
[So] Source:Brain Inj;32(5):670-674, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1362-301X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Drawing upon sources in neuroethics, civil rights, and disability rights law, we argue for the reintegration of people with severe brain injury back into the nexus of their families and communities consistent with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, both of which call for the maximal integration of people with disability into society. To this end, we offer a rights-based argument to address the care of people with severe brain injury. Instead of viewing the provision of rehabilitation as a reimbursement issue, which it surely is, we argue that it can be productively understood as a question of civil rights for a population generally segregated from the medical mainstream and from society itself. Their segregation in the chronic care sector constitutes disrespect for persons, made all the more consequential because recent advances in brain injury rehabilitation make reintegration into civil society an aspirational, if not achievable goal.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/02699052.2018.1430377

  6 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517805
[Au] Autor:Schaefer LM; Thompson JK
[Ad] Address:Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 120 Eighth Street South, Fargo, North Dakota, 58103.
[Ti] Title:Self-objectification and disordered eating: A meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Int J Eat Disord;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1098-108X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Objectification theory posits that self-objectification increases risk for disordered eating. METHOD: The current study sought to examine the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating using meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Data from 53 cross-sectional studies (73 effect sizes) revealed a significant moderate positive overall effect (r = .39), which was moderated by gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and measurement of self-objectification. Specifically, larger effect sizes were associated with female samples and the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale. Effect sizes were smaller among heterosexual men and African American samples. Age, body mass index, country of origin, measurement of disordered eating, sample type and publication type were not significant moderators. DISCUSSION: Overall, results from the first meta-analysis to examine the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating provide support for one of the major tenets of objectification theory and suggest that self-objectification may be a meaningful target in eating disorder interventions, though further work is needed to establish temporal and causal relationships. Findings highlight current gaps in the literature (e.g., limited representation of males, and ethnic and sexual minorities) with implications for guiding future research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/eat.22854

  7 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504986
[Au] Autor:Ma Y; Li H; Liu J; Lin X; Liu H
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology, West China Second University Hospital.
[Ti] Title:Impending thyroid storm in a pregnant woman with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism: A case report and literature review.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(3):e9606, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Thyroid storm is a rare complication during caesarean section of patients with hyperthyroidism. It occurs abruptly, with a high mortality rate if not recognized immediately and aggressively treated. Herein, we reported a case of impending thyroid storm during a caesarean section. PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 23-year-old woman with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism underwent an emergency caesarean section under general anesthesia. After tracheal extubation, the patient exhibited abnormal tachycardia, agitation, sweating, and hyperpyrexia. DIAGNOSES: The clinical manifestation and the following thyroid function test indicate a high index of suspicion for impending thyroid storm. INTERVENTIONS: Hydrocortisone and esmolol were intravenously administered immediately. Propylthiouracil and propranolol were orally administered after the patient regained complete consciousness. OUTCOMES: Due to our immediate recognition and aggressive treatment, more serious manifestations of thyroid storm were avoided. LESSONS: Good antenatal care is very important for pregnant women, and they should be generally screened for thyroid disorders, especially if the resting heart rate is >100 beats/min and weight increases are inconsistent with gestational age. When hyperthyroidism is suspected, drugs that excite the sympathetic nerves or promote the release of histamine should not be used during caesarean section.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009606

  8 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29331713
[Au] Autor:Baillif-Couniou V; Bartoli C; Sastre C; Chèze M; Deveaux M; Léonetti G; Pélissier-Alicot AL
[Ad] Address:AP-HM, Hôpital de la Timone, Service de Médecine Légale, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Title:Repeated attempted homicide by administration of drugs documented by hair analysis.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;54:82-86, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48). In order to evaluate the anteriority of poisonings, hair analysis was requested and the medical records of the 6 previous months were also examined. Two 6-cm brown hair strands were sampled and the victim's medical record was seized in order to determine the treatments he had been given during the previous six months. Segmental hair testing on two 6-cm brown hair was conducted by GC-MS, LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS (0-2/2-4/4-6 cm; pg/mg). Haloperidol (9200/1391/227), amitriptyline (7450/1850/3260), venlafaxine (332/560/260), that had never been part of the victim's treatment were detected, as well as some benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, nordazepam); cyamemazine was also detected in all the segments (9960/1610/2367) though only a single dose administration was reported in the medical records. The toxicological analyses performed at H0 and H48 confirmed the homicide attempts in the ICU. In addition, comparison of the results in hair analysis with the medical records confirmed repeated poisoning attempts over the previous six months, and thus explain the origin of the disorders presented by the victim. This case serves to remind us that repeated attempted murder can be difficult to diagnose and that hair analysis can be an effective way to detect such attempts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29355908
[Au] Autor:Xiao Y; Luo M; Wang J; Luo H
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, No. 22, Shuang Yong Lu, Nanning, Guangxi, China, 530021.
[Ti] Title:Losigamone add-on therapy for focal epilepsy.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;1:CD009324, 2018 01 22.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people have epilepsy that is not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug (AED) and they usually require treatment with a combination of two or more AEDs. In recent years, many newer AEDs have been investigated as add-on therapy for focal epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2012 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6) and updated in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of losigamone when used as an add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update on 9 February 2017, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Specialized Register, CENTRAL and MEDLINE . We searched trials registers and contacted the manufacturer of losigamone and authors of included studies for additional information. We did not impose any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled, add-on trials comparing losigamone with placebo for focal epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcomes were 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency and seizure freedom; the secondary outcomes were treatment withdrawal and adverse events. Results are presented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or 99% CIs (for the individual listed adverse events to make an allowance for multiple testing). MAIN RESULTS: Two trials involving a total of 467 participants, aged over 18 years, were eligible for inclusion. Both trials assessed losigamone 1200 mg/day or 1500 mg/day as an add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. We assessed one trial as being of good methodological quality while the other was of uncertain quality. For the efficacy outcomes, results did show that participants taking losigamone were significantly more likely to achieve a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.72), but associated with a significant increase of treatment withdrawal when compared with those taking placebo (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.67). For the safety outcomes, results indicated that the proportion of participants who experienced adverse events in the losigamone group was higher than in the placebo group (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.80), dizziness was the only adverse event significantly reported in relation to losigamone (RR 3.82, 99% CI 1.69 to 8.64). The proportion of participants achieving seizure freedom was not reported in either trial report. A subgroup analysis according to different doses of losigamone showed that a higher dose of losigamone (1500 mg/day) was associated with a greater reduction in seizure frequency than lower doses, but was also associated with more dropouts due to adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review showed that losigamone did reduce seizure frequency but was associated with more treatment withdrawals when used as an add-on therapy for people with focal epilepsy. However, the included trials were of short-term duration and uncertain quality. Future well-designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a longer-term duration are needed. No new studies have been found since the last version of this review. We judged the overall quality of the evidence for the outcomes assessed as moderate.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy
Furans/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
Drug Therapy, Combination/methods
Humans
Middle Aged
Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anticonvulsants); 0 (Furans); 84R8O3QM2G (losigame)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009324.pub4

  10 / 18723 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29461039
[Au] Autor:Nichols DE
[Ad] Address:Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States.
[Ti] Title:Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD).
[So] Source:ACS Chem Neurosci;, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1948-7193
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 µg) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental disorders, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin. LSD proved to be physiologically very safe and nonaddictive, with a very low incidence of adverse events when used in controlled experiments. Widely hailed by psychiatry as a breakthrough in the 1950s and early 1960s, clinical research with LSD ended by about 1970, when it was formally placed into Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 following its growing popularity as a recreational drug. Within the past 5 years, clinical research with LSD has begun in Europe, but there has been none in the United States. LSD is proving to be a powerful tool to help understand brain dynamics when combined with modern brain imaging methods. It remains to be seen whether therapeutic value for LSD can be confirmed in controlled clinical trials, but promising results have been obtained in small pilot trials of depression, anxiety, and addictions using psilocybin, a related psychedelic molecule.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00043


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