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[PMID]: 29477026
[Au] Autor:Khan K; Saeed S; Ramcharan A; Gray S
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, Harlem Hospital Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: khank1@nychhc.org.
[Ti] Title:A case series of closed head trauma with pituitary stalk disruption resulting in hypopituitarism.
[So] Source:Int J Surg Case Rep;43:69-71, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:2210-2612
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction. We present a case series of two patients diagnosed with hypopituitarism after TBI and treated appropriately with favorable outcome. CASE PRESENTATIONS: The first case is a 34 year-old male, who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma after a motor vehicle accident while riding his bicycle. He suffered from severe cranio-facial injuries, resulting in multifocal hemorrhagic contusions, epidural hematoma, and extensive cranio-facial fractures involving the sinuses. The patient developed persistent hypotension with a blood pressure as low as 60/40 mmHg on hospital day three. The second case is a 56 year-old male with a history of schizophrenia, who suffered traumatic brain injury after he was hit by a train. The patient sustained multiple facial fractures, pneumocephalus and C2/7 transverse processes fractures. He also had persistent hypotension, unresponsive to standard treatment. Investigation revealed a deficiency of anterior pituitary hormones resulting from pituitary axis disruption. DISCUSSION: Hypopituitarism is becoming an increasingly recognized complication following TBI, ranging from total to isolated deficiencies. Traumatic Brain Injury is a major public health problem and is one of the leading causes of disability. Understanding and recognizing pituitary dysfunction after TBI can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life. CONCLUSION: Patients with major head injury and, in particular, those with fractures of the base of the skull, must be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of endocrine dysfunction. Appropriate dynamic pituitary-function screening should be performed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29521705
[Au] Autor:Phillips NR; Kunz DE
[Ad] Address:Samaritan Athletic Medicine at Oregon State University, Samaritan Health Services, Corvallis, OR.
[Ti] Title:Chest Trauma in Athletic Medicine.
[So] Source:Curr Sports Med Rep;17(3):90-96, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1537-8918
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:While overall sports participation continues at high rates, chest injuries occur relatively infrequently. Many conditions of chest injury are benign, related to simple contusions and strains, but the more rare, severe injuries carry a much higher risk of morbidity and mortality than the typical issues encountered in athletic medicine. Missed or delayed diagnosis can prove to be catastrophic. Sports medicine providers must be prepared to encounter a wide range of traumatic conditions relating to the torso, varying from the benign chest wall contusion to the life-threatening tension pneumothorax. Basic field-side management should be rapid and focused, using the standardized approach of Advanced Traumatic Life Support protocol. Early and appropriate diagnosis and management can help allow safe and enjoyable sports participation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000464

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[PMID]: 29520416
[Au] Autor:Yoong S; Kothari R; Brooks A
[Ad] Address:Queen's Medical Centre, Derby Rd, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. susanyoong@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of sensitivity of whole body CT for major trauma.
[So] Source:Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1863-9941
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Whole body computed tomography has become standard practice in many centres in the management of severely injured trauma patients, however, the evidence for it's diagnostic accuracy is limited. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of whole body CT in major trauma. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 15 presenting with blunt trauma to a UK Major Trauma Centre between May 2012 and April 2014. Injuries were classified as per ISS score-1 = head and neck 2 = face 3 = chest 4 = abdomen. The authors reviewed patient's electronic charts, radiological results; interventional procedure records, discharge letters and outpatient follow up documentation and referenced this with Trauma Audit and Research Network data. RESULTS: 407 patients with ISS > 15 presented to the Trauma centre during May 2012 and April 2014. Of these, 337 (82.8%) had a whole body CT scan. 246 pts were male, 91 were female. 74 (21.9%) were due to a fall from > 2 m, 41 (12.2%) due to a fall from < 2 m, 208 (61.7%) were due to motor vehicle crashes, 1 (0.3%) due to a blast injury, 5 (1.5%) due to blows, and 8 (2.4%) due to crush injuries. Sensitivity for Region 1 was 0.98, Region 2 = 0.98, Region 3 = 0.98 and Region 4 was 0.95. Overall sensitivity was 0.98. 15 injuries (2.4%) were not identified on initial CT (false -ve). These injuries were: colonic perforation = 1, splenic contusion = 1, pneumothorax = 1, liver laceration = 1, intracranial haemorrhage = 1, cerebral contusions = 1, spinal injuries = 7, canal haemorrhage = 1, maxilla fracture = 1. CONCLUSION: These results show that whole body CT in trauma has a high sensitivity and a low rate of missed injuries (2.4%). However, our study only evaluated a subgroup of patients with ISS > 15 and further work is required to assess the use of this investigation for all major trauma patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00068-018-0926-7

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[PMID]: 29484899
[Au] Autor:Thomas RE; Zamanpour K
[Ad] Address:a Faculty of Medicine , Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary , Calgary , Canada.
[Ti] Title:lnjuries in wrestling: systematic review.
[So] Source:Phys Sportsmed;:1-29, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2326-3660
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To identify all studies of injuries in wrestling, assess risk of bias and compute weighted average injury rates. METHODS: 17 online databases and nine grey literature resources were searched with no language/date limitations. Abstracts were assessed for inclusion and data abstracted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Eleven studies of competitions, 27 databases, four surveys (699 wrestlers) and seventeen case reports (604 cases) were included. Studies provided varying completeness of data. Weighted average injury rates of 16.3/1000AE (AE = Athletic encounter) could be computed for 8/11 studies of competitions and 69.5/1000AE for 5/27 databases. Eleven of the databases focused on specific injuries. Weighted average injury rates by location for 8/11 competition studies and 7/16 databases were similar for the upper extremities (competitions 26%, databases 24%) and torso (15%, 12%), but dissimilar for head/neck (31%, 20%) and lower extremities (24%, 39%). Weighted average injury rates by injury type varied from 6/11 to 2/11 competition studies and 6/16 to 3/16 database studies. Percentages were similar for fractures (6%, 7%), dislocations/subluxations (6%, 6%), ligament tears/cartilage injuries (12%, 17%) and concussions/1000AE (2 competition studies, 1 database) in competitions (25%, 27%) and training (5.7%, 7.1%). Percentages were dissimilar for lacerations/abrasions/contusions (23%, 4%) and sprains/strains (38%, 26%). The differences may be due to the small number of databases providing specific data and the unknown proportion of training injuries. Databases extrapolating injuries to the national US level reported high annual numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Average injury rates weighted by sample size are 16.3/1000AE for 8/11 competition studies and 69.5/1000AE for 5/27 databases. Competition data are likely to be accurate because they were observed by physicians, trainers and referees and the completeness and accuracy of database studies vary. Databases which extrapolated data to provide annual national rates estimated large numbers. Few studies provided data about the situations in which injuries occur and the causes of injuries.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/00913847.2018.1445406

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[PMID]: 29514343
[Au] Autor:Lichtenberger JP; Kim AM; Fisher D; Tatum PS; Neubauer B; Peterson PG; Carter BW
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
[Ti] Title:Imaging of Combat-Related Thoracic Trauma - Blunt Trauma and Blast Lung Injury.
[So] Source:Mil Med;183(3-4):e89-e96, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Combat-related thoracic trauma (CRTT) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality of the casualties from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Penetrating, blunt, and blast injuries are the most common mechanisms of trauma to the chest. Imaging plays a key role in the battlefield management of CRTT casualties. This work discusses the imaging manifestations of thoracic injuries from blunt trauma and blast injury, emphasizing epidemiology and diagnostic clues seen during OEF and OIF. Materials and Methods: The assessment of radiologic findings in patients who suffer from combat-related blunt thoracic trauma and blast injury is the basis of this work. The imaging modalities for this work include multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and chest radiography. Results: Multiple imaging modalities are available to imagers on or near the battlefront, including radiography, fluoroscopy, and MDCT. MDCT with multi-planar reconstructions is the most sensitive imaging modality available in combat hospitals for the evaluation of CRTT. In modern combat, blunt and blast injuries account for a significant portion of CRTT. Individual body armor converts penetrating trauma to blunt trauma, leading to pulmonary contusion that accounted for 50.2% of thoracic injuries during OIF and OEF. Flail chest, a subset of blunt chest injury, is caused by significant blunt force to the chest and occurs four times as frequently in combat casualties when compared with the civilian population. Imaging features of CRTT have significant diagnostic and prognostic value. Pulmonary contusions on chest radiography appear as patchy consolidations in the acute setting with ill-defined and non-segmental borders. MDCT of the chest is a superior imaging modality in diagnosing and evaluating pulmonary contusion. Contusions on MDCT appear as crescentic ground-glass opacities (opacities through which lung interstitium and vasculature are still visible) and areas of consolidation that often do not respect the anatomic boundaries of the affected lobes. Additionally, small pulmonary contusions may exhibit sub-pleural sparing and may distinguish contusion from pneumonia or other lung pathology. Although pulmonary laceration is typically the result of penetrating trauma, laceration may also be caused by displaced rib fractures or significant shearing forces on the lung without penetrating injury. Because of elastic recoil of the normal pulmonary parenchyma surrounding the injury, pulmonary lacerations may present as late as 48-72 h after injury. Pulmonary lacerations may appear similar to pulmonary contusions on chest radiography initially and will require MDCT for definitive diagnosis. Blast injury is a defining injury of modern combat. Blast lung injury is initially diagnosed with chest radiography, where the pattern of lung opacities has previously been described by clinicians as "batwing" or "butterfly" because of its central appearance in the lung. "Peribronchovascular" may be a more accurate description of primary blast lung based on its appearance on MDCT. This pattern may differentiate primary blast lung injury from other causes of thoracic trauma. Conclusion: CRTT continues to be a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality of those injured during OEF and OIF. The distinct injury patterns and atypical imaging manifestations of blunt trauma and blast lung injury are important to recognize early because of the acuity of this patient population and the influence of accurate diagnosis on clinical management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/milmed/usx033

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[PMID]: 29489692
[Au] Autor:Hong HN; Shim JH; Won YJ; Yoo JY; Hwang CH
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy.
[Ti] Title:Therapeutic time window for the effects of erythropoietin on astrogliosis and neurite outgrowth in an in vitro model of spinal cord injury.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(9):e9913, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic time window for preventing astrogliosis with erythropoietin (EPO) treatment after in vitro modeled spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes were treated with kainate and scratching to generate an in vitro model of SCI. EPO (100U/mL or 300U/mL) was added immediately or 2, 4, or 8 hours after injury. Some cultures were also treated with AG490, an inhibitor of the EPO-EPO receptor (EpoR) pathway mediator Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). To evaluate neurite extension, rat embryonic spinal cord neurons were seeded onto astrocyte cultures and treated with EPO immediately after injury in the presence or absence of anti-EpoR antibody. RESULTS: EPO treatment at up to 8 hours after injury reduced the expression of axonal growth inhibiting molecules (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan), cytoskeletal regulatory proteins (Rho-associated protein kinase and ephephrin A4), and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, and phosphorylated-Smad3) in a dosedependent manner (P < .001). Most effects peaked with EPO treatment 2-4hours after injury. Additionally, EPO treatment up to 4 hours after injury promoted expression of the EpoR (>2-fold) and JAK2 (>3-fold) in a dose-dependent manner (P < .001), whereas co-treatment with AG490 precluded these effects (P < .001). EPO treatment up to 4hours after injury also enhanced axonal b-III tubulin-immunoreactivity (>12-fold), and this effect was precluded by co-treatment with an anti-EpoR antibody (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: EPO treatment within 8 hours after injury reduced astrogliosis, and EPO treatment within 4 hours promoted neurite outgrowth. EPO therapy immediately after spinal cord injury may regulate glia to generate an environment permissive of axonal regeneration.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Erythropoietin/administration & dosage
Gliosis/drug therapy
Neuronal Outgrowth/drug effects
Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy
Time-to-Treatment
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Astrocytes
Axons/drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Drug Administration Schedule
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:11096-26-7 (Erythropoietin)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180301
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009913

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[PMID]: 29231000
[Au] Autor:Fan HL; Liu SF; Sun JH; Wang YY
[Ad] Address:School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.
[Ti] Title:Time-dependent Expression of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA in the Contused Skeletal Muscle of Rats.
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):6-10, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To investigate the time-dependent expression of metallothionein (MT) 1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA in contused skeletal muscle of rats. METHODS: A total of 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into two parts: control group ( =6) and contusion groups (0.5, 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h after contusion, =6). Total RNA was extracted from skeletal muscle. The expression levels of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA were detected by SYBR Green I real-time PCR. RESULTS: The expression trends of the two potential marker genes were related to wound age. In addition to 0.5 h, there were significant contrasts between the control group and contused group ( <0.05), about the expression levels of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA in different phases. As the extension of wound age, the relative expression of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h and 18 h after contusion demonstrated upgrade tendency until its expression levels in 18 h peak with 239.41±15.20 and 717.42±50.76, respectively. When time extends to 24 h after injury, the expression of above two marks decreased, respectively. The MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA expression levels increased at 30 h and then decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA levels by real-time PCR may be useful for the estimation of wound age.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Contusions/genetics
Contusions/metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
RNA, Messenger/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Contusions/pathology
Gene Expression Regulation
Genetic Markers
Metallothionein
Muscle, Skeletal/injuries
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Time Factors
Wound Healing
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Genetic Markers); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (metallothionein 2 protein, rat); 9038-94-2 (Metallothionein)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.002

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[PMID]: 29230999
[Au] Autor:Bai RF; Lü XJ; E XF; Yu TS; Liu R; Zhang HD
[Ad] Address:2011 Cooperative Innovation Center of Judicial Civilization, Beijing 100088, China.
[Ti] Title:[Comparison of the Skin and Skeletal Muscle Contusion in Rats Induced by Blunt Force with Different Heights].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):1-5, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore the differences in the repair process of skin and skeletal muscle after contusion caused by blunt force attack with different heights. METHODS: Three degrees of contusion were performed on SD rats' right hind limbs by a designed free-dropping device falling from 15, 30 and 50 cm heights, which as a main consideration factor for degree of injury. The repair process of skin and skeletal muscle at 6 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d and 13 d after contusion were observed using routine histological methods. RESULTS: Hematoma within skin and/or muscle was found in the rats' hind limbs after contusion with three different heights. The repair processes were similar at 24 h after contusion. However, with the increase of height, the display degree was more obvious. At 3 d after contusion, the RBC of the hemorrhagic region would be decomposed and elapsed in 15 cm contusion group, but for 30 cm contusion group, it delayed to 7 d. At 13 d after contusion, the similar result was found in 15 cm and 30 cm contusion groups, in contrast, the 50 cm contusion group was still in the proliferative phase. CONCLUSIONS: With the increase of height, the occurring rate of hematoma within skin and muscle at the same time increases, and the more serious histological appearance after contusion, including inflammation and proliferation, the longer healing process are observed. According to the results of present study and considering forensic application, the contusion model with 50 cm height (2.58 J/cm²ï¼‰ is recommended as the experimental animal model for the future study of wound age estimation on contusion.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Contusions/pathology
Muscle, Skeletal/injuries
Skin/injuries
Wounds, Nonpenetrating
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Contusions/etiology
Hindlimb
Muscle, Skeletal/pathology
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Skin/pathology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.001

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[PMID]: 28456012
[Au] Autor:Alizadeh A; Dyck SM; Kataria H; Shahriary GM; Nguyen DH; Santhosh KT; Karimi-Abdolrezaee S
[Ad] Address:Regenerative Medicine Program, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0J9, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Neuregulin-1 positively modulates glial response and improves neurological recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.
[So] Source:Glia;65(7):1152-1175, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1098-1136
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in glial activation and neuroinflammation, which play pivotal roles in the secondary injury mechanisms with both pro- and antiregeneration effects. Presently, little is known about the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate glial functions in the injured spinal cord. We previously reported that the expression of neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is acutely and chronically declined following traumatic SCI. Here, we investigated the potential ramifications of Nrg-1 dysregulation on glial and immune cell reactivity following SCI. Using complementary in vitro approaches and a clinically-relevant model of severe compressive SCI in rats, we demonstrate that immediate delivery of Nrg-1 (500 ng/day) after injury enhances a neuroprotective phenotype in inflammatory cells associated with increased interleukin-10 and arginase-1 expression. We also found a decrease in proinflammatory factors including IL-1ß, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9) and nitric oxide after injury. In addition, Nrg-1 modulates astrogliosis and scar formation by reducing inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans after SCI. Mechanistically, Nrg-1 effects on activated glia are mediated through ErbB2 tyrosine phosphorylation in an ErbB2/3 heterodimer complex. Furthermore, Nrg-1 exerts its effects through downregulation of MyD88, a downstream adaptor of Toll-like receptors, and increased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and STAT3. Nrg-1 treatment with the therapeutic dosage of 1.5 µg/day significantly improves tissue preservation and functional recovery following SCI. Our findings for the first time provide novel insights into the role and mechanisms of Nrg-1 in acute SCI and suggest a positive immunomodulatory role for Nrg-1 that can harness the beneficial properties of activated glia and inflammatory cells in recovery following SCI.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy
Nervous System Diseases/etiology
Neuregulin-1/therapeutic use
Neuroglia/physiology
Recovery of Function/physiology
Spinal Cord Injuries/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Animals, Newborn
Arginase/metabolism
Cells, Cultured
Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology
Disease Models, Animal
Female
Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects
Gene Expression Regulation/physiology
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
Interleukin-10/metabolism
Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity
Locomotion/drug effects
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Neuregulin-1/metabolism
Neuregulin-1/pharmacology
Neuroglia/drug effects
Rats
Recovery of Function/drug effects
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology
Time Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Culture Media, Conditioned); 0 (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (Neuregulin-1); 130068-27-8 (Interleukin-10); EC 3.5.3.1 (Arginase); EC 3.5.3.1 (arginase I, rat)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/glia.23150

  10 / 42837 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29284906
[Au] Autor:Bunc G; Ravnik J; Velnar T
[Ad] Address:Clinical Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Centre, Maribor, Slovenia.
[Ti] Title:May Heading in Soccer Result in Traumatic Brain Injury? A Review of Literature.
[So] Source:Med Arch;71(5):356-359, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0350-199X
[Cp] Country of publication:Bosnia and Herzegovina
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Globally, soccer is the most popular team sport, unifying many fans all around the world. The epidemiological studies so far have confirmed that head playing and hitting the ball with head may cause minor head injuries, which exert their effects in a cumulative way. Methods: Literature search for this review was conducted and data about traumatic brain injury collected from various sources. Results: The consequences of head injury are evident as chronic changes in cognition, including disturbances in concentration and slowing of mental and physical agility. Conclusion: Various recommendations have been issued for the prevention of chronic negative cumulative effects of soccer ball head playing. In addition, the professional soccer players are also exposed to more intense craniocerebral trauma, such as concussions and contusions. These patients require treatment of skilled sports physicians, neurologists and neurosurgeons and some may need long to return to the sport scene again.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.5455/medarh.2017.71.356-359


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