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[PMID]: 29471098
[Au] Autor:Andreou C; Steinmann S; Kolbeck K; Rauh J; Leicht G; Moritz S; Mulert C
[Ad] Address:Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; University Psychiatric Clinics Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medic
[Ti] Title:The role of effective connectivity between the task-positive and task-negative network for evidence gathering [Evidence gathering and connectivity].
[So] Source:Neuroimage;173:49-56, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reports linking a 'jumping-to-conclusions' bias to delusions have led to growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of probabilistic reasoning. Several brain areas have been implicated in probabilistic reasoning; however, findings are difficult to integrate into a coherent account. The present study aimed to provide additional evidence by investigating, for the first time, effective connectivity among brain areas involved in different stages of evidence gathering. We investigated evidence gathering in 25 healthy individuals using fMRI and a new paradigm (Box Task) designed such as to minimize the effects of cognitive effort and reward processing. Decisions to collect more evidence ('draws') were contrasted to decisions to reach a final choice ('conclusions') with respect to BOLD activity. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to investigate effective connectivity. Conclusion events were associated with extensive brain activations in widely distributed brain areas associated with the task-positive network. In contrast, draw events were characterized by higher activation in areas assumed to be part of the task-negative network. Effective connectivity between the two networks decreased during draws and increased during conclusion events. Our findings indicate that probabilistic reasoning may depend on the balance between the task-positive and task-negative network, and that shifts in connectivity between the two may be crucial for evidence gathering. Thus, abnormal connectivity between the two systems may significantly contribute to the jumping-to-conclusions bias.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29374325
[Au] Autor:Panchal SC; Ondo WG
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, 6560 Fannin Street; Scurlock Tower, Suite 802, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. spanchal@houstonmethodist.org.
[Ti] Title:Treating Hallucinations and Delusions Associated With Parkinson's Disease Psychosis.
[So] Source:Curr Psychiatry Rep;20(1):3, 2018 Jan 27.
[Is] ISSN:1535-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss features of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) including symptomology and pathophysiology. Treatment options, including non-pharmacologic strategies, dose reduction of offending agents, and the addition of non-dopaminergic antipsychotics, are addressed. The efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics and novel agents is examined. RECENT FINDINGS: Pimavanserin, a 5-HT receptor inverse agonist with no other receptor activity, has shown efficacy and tolerability and is now FDA approved for PDP treatment. Research into novel targets is ongoing. PDP is a morbid complication of Parkinson's disease with complex incompletely understood mechanisms. Treatment is directed towards mitigation of psychosis without worsening of motor features.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11920-018-0869-z

  3 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29193986
[Au] Autor:Park S
[Ad] Address:a Department of Nursing , Hannam University , Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu , Daejeon , South Korea.
[Ti] Title:A Study on the Theory of Mind Deficits and Delusions in Schizophrenic Patients.
[So] Source:Issues Ment Health Nurs;39(3):269-274, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1096-4673
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: This study was conducted to find differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control group in ToM and to examine relationships among intelligence, ToM, and delusion in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Data was collected from 50 patients of schizophrenia and 32 healthy subjects. Participants were given the psychological test form with structured questionnaire. The SPSS 22.0 program was used for t-test, ANCOVA, and, Pearson's Correlation. Measurements used for this study were Korean-Wechsler intelligence scale, three types of Theory of Mind test (Hinting task, False belief task, and Emotional attribution test), and Peters delusion inventory. RESULTS: Performances of the ToM and intelligence in patients were lower than healthy controls. After controlling the impact of IQ, education level, and age, there was a difference between patients and healthy controls on the performance of the Hinting task (F(1,83) = 10.03, p =.002). Correlation analysis showed that the score of false belief task was correlated with delusion (r = -.360, p <.01) and intelligence (r =.449, p <.01). The emotional attribution task was correlated with intelligence (r = 0.309, p <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Through the finding of this study, theory of mind is highly recommended as a new target factor considering to develop nursing interventions for schizophrenia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/01612840.2017.1378782

  4 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28461698
[Au] Autor:DeMichele-Sweet MAA; Weamer EA; Klei L; Vrana DT; Hollingshead DJ; Seltman HJ; Sims R; Foroud T; Hernandez I; Moreno-Grau S; Tárraga L; Boada M; Ruiz A; Williams J; Mayeux R; Lopez OL; Sibille EL; Kamboh MI; Devlin B; Sweet RA
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Genetic risk for schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer disease.
[So] Source:Mol Psychiatry;, 2017 May 02.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5578
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Psychotic symptoms, defined as the occurrence of delusions or hallucinations, are frequent in Alzheimer disease (AD), affecting ~40 to 60% of individuals with AD (AD with psychosis (AD+P)). In comparison with AD subjects without psychosis, AD+P subjects have more rapid cognitive decline and poor outcomes. Prior studies have estimated the heritability of psychosis in AD at 61%, but the underlying genetic sources of this risk are not known. We evaluated a Discovery Cohort of 2876 AD subjects with (N=1761) or without psychosis (N=1115). All subjects were genotyped using a custom genotyping array designed to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of genetic association with AD+P and include SNPs affecting or putatively affecting risk for schizophrenia and AD. Results were replicated in an independent cohort of 2194 AD subjects with (N=734) or without psychosis (N=1460). We found that AD+P is associated with polygenic risk for a set of novel loci and inversely associated with polygenic risk for schizophrenia. Among the biologic pathways identified by the associations of schizophrenia SNPs with AD+P are endosomal trafficking, autophagy and calcium channel signaling. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first clear demonstration that AD+P is associated with common genetic variation. In addition, they provide an unbiased link between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and a lower risk of psychosis in AD. This provides an opportunity to leverage progress made in identifying the biologic effects of schizophrenia alleles to identify novel mechanisms protecting against more rapid cognitive decline and psychosis risk in AD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 2 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.81.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/mp.2017.81

  5 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29301025
[Au] Autor:Bailey T; Alvarez-Jimenez M; Garcia-Sanchez AM; Hulbert C; Barlow E; Bendall S
[Ad] Address:Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Childhood Trauma Is Associated With Severity of Hallucinations and Delusions in Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;, 2018 Jan 02.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for the development of psychosis. Furthermore, a number of theories propose specific mechanisms by which childhood trauma may contribute to more severe positive and negative psychotic symptoms, some of which are supported empirically. The robustness of this empirical evidence is unclear due to mixed results and methodological limitations of individual studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for associations between childhood trauma and severity of hallucinations, delusions, and negative psychotic symptoms in clinical populations with a diagnosed psychotic disorder is needed. Method: A systematic search was conducted. Reference lists of relevant review articles were hand-searched, and authors contacted for data and additional unpublished studies. Study reporting bias and quality was assessed. Results: In total, 6667 studies were identified and of these 41 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 29 studies (4680 participants) were meta-analyzed. Among individuals with psychosis, childhood trauma was significantly correlated with severity of hallucinations (r = .199, P < .001) and delusions (r = .172, P < .001) but contrary to our hypothesis, not correlated with severity of negative symptoms (r = .049, P = .095). Severity of childhood neglect was correlated with negative symptoms (r = .142, P = .005). Conclusion: The results lend support for cognitive and biological theories that traumas in childhood may lead to hallucinations and delusions within psychotic disorders and have important implications for clinical practice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbx161

  6 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28748485
[Au] Autor:Petruzzelli MG; Margari L; Bosco A; Craig F; Palumbi R; Margari F
[Ad] Address:Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy. maria.petruzzelli@uniba.it.
[Ti] Title:Early onset first episode psychosis: dimensional structure of symptoms, clinical subtypes and related neurodevelopmental markers.
[So] Source:Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry;27(2):171-179, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1435-165X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Despite the growing interest in a dimensional approach to the assessment of symptoms and clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, very few studies, to date, have examined the dimensional structure of symptoms in early onset first episode psychosis. In the present study, we assessed a sample of 60 children and adolescents of both sexes with first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was performed and the factors obtained were used to carry out a cluster analysis. Sex, age of onset before or after 13, markers of early neurodevelopmental impairment and intellectual disabilities were considered as variables to characterized potential clinical subtypes, applying a one-way analysis of variance. Four factors were extracted ("negative symptoms", "delusions", "conceptual disorganization" and "paranoid/hostility"), each of them identifying a discrete clinical subtype of patients. No difference was found among the groups about sex and age of onset; delayed speech/language development was significantly associated with the "delusions" subtype and both "conceptual disorganization" and "delusions" subtypes showed a lower intelligence quotient (IQ). The four factors model we presented highlights "negative symptoms" as the most consistent factor; among positive symptoms, unusual thought content and conceptual disorganization resulted more distinctive of psychosis, at this age range, than perceptual abnormalities. Evolutionary trajectories of the four clinical subtypes we obtained seem to be influenced by cognitive and neurodevelopmental impairment rather than sex and age of onset.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00787-017-1026-7

  7 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510142
[Au] Autor:Bedwell JS; Spencer CC; Chan CC; Butler PD; Sehatpour P; Schmidt J
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL USA. Electronic address: Jeffrey.bedwell@ucf.edu.
[Ti] Title:The P1 Visual-Evoked Potential, Red Light, and Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms.
[So] Source:Brain Res;, 2018 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6240
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A reduced P1 visual-evoked potential amplitude has been reported across several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar, and depressive disorders. In addition, a difference in P1 amplitude change to a red background compared to its opponent color, green, has been found in schizophrenia-spectrum samples. The current study examined whether specific psychiatric symptoms that related to these P1 abnormalities in earlier studies would be replicated when using a broad transdiagnostic sample. The final sample consisted of 135 participants: 26 with bipolar disorders, 25 with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 19 with unipolar depression, 62 with no current psychiatric disorder, and 3 with disorders in other categories. Low (8%) and high (64%) contrast check arrays were presented on gray, green, and red background conditions during electroencephalogram, while an eye tracker monitored visual fixation on the stimuli. Linear regressions across the entire sample (N = 135) found that greater severity of both clinician-rated and self-reported delusions/magical thinking correlated with a reduced P1 amplitude on the low contrast gray (neutral) background condition. In addition, across the entire sample, higher self-reported constricted affect was associated with a larger decrease in P1 amplitude (averaged across contrast conditions) to the red, compared to green, background. All relationships remained statistically significant after covarying for diagnostic class, suggesting that they are relatively transdiagnostic in nature. These findings indicate that early visual processing abnormalities may be more directly related to specific transdiagnostic symptoms such as delusions and constricted affect rather than specific psychiatric diagnoses or broad symptom factor scales.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29509221
[Au] Autor:Ellouze F; Damak R; Bouzuita I; Karoui M; Ridha R; M'rad MF
[Ti] Title:Matricide in schizophrenia : a case report.
[So] Source:Tunis Med;95(5):375-377, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:0041-4131
[Cp] Country of publication:Tunisia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: matricide is the murder of the mother. In this study, we report through a clinical case the circumstances of matricide and we underlined the predictive elements of the acting out. CLINICAL CASE: mister S, 31 years old had low socioeconomic conditions. He was a single man, unemployed and consumed alcohol. He was followed for a paranoid schizophrenia, but his therapeutic observance was bad, and he was aggressive with his mother. This aggressiveness was fostered by persecution and filiations' delusions. At the moment of the crime, his mother had appeared to him as so terrifying form that he had to kill her to defend itself. This clinical case confronts us with the difficulty of matricide prevention. If the short term prediction of the violence act was possible, the medium and long terms were harder. CONCLUSION: the regular evaluation of psychotic patients' dangerousness is needed to reduce the acting out risqué.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29409164
[Au] Autor:Chen S; Lin K; Wang H; Yamakawa M; Makimoto K; Liao X
[Ad] Address:Department of Nursing, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
[Ti] Title:Reliability and structural validity of the Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version.
[So] Source:Psychogeriatrics;18(2):113-122, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1479-8301
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of dementia patients in China, there is a pressing need for a reliable and valid Chinese instrument that can measure neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized dementia patients. This study examined the reliability and structural validity of the Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version (NPI-NH), in a sample of institutionalized dementia patients in China. METHODS: A total of 112 residents with dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1: 10.7%; Clinical Dementia Rating = 2: 39.3%; Clinical Dementia Rating = 3: 50.0%) and 30 informants participated in this cross-sectional study. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation coefficient. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the factor structure of the inventory. RESULTS: Of the patients, 92.9% had at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. Apathy (57%) was the most common symptom. The Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version, showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α for the total scale, frequency, severity, and disturbance subscales were 0.64, 0.70, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient for the total scale, frequency, severity, and disturbance subscales were 0.93, 0.92, 0.89, and 0.91, respectively). Five factors-psychomotor behaviour, affective symptoms, psychosis, sleep disorders, and eating disorders-were identified for the total scale. The cluster symptoms aggression and irritability, depression and anxiety, and delusions and hallucinations were three of the optimally stable groups of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version, is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized dementia patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/psyg.12292

  10 / 9985 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29400103
[Au] Autor:Tombor L; Salacz P; Jankelovics É; Hidasi Z
[Ad] Address:Pszichiátriai és Pszichoterápiás Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Balassa u. 6., 1083.
[Ti] Title:Pszichiátriai tünetekkel jelentkezo neuroszifilisz négyéves utánkövetése. [Four-year follow-up of a neurosyphilis case presenting psychiatric symptoms].
[So] Source:Orv Hetil;159(6):234-238, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0030-6002
[Cp] Country of publication:Hungary
[La] Language:hun
[Ab] Abstract:The authors present a case of neurosyphilis associated with predominant psychiatric symptoms. The elderly man was admitted because of confused behavior, maniform state, lack of critical judgement and grandiose delusions. On admission, right central facial nerve paresis, hand tremor and parkinsonism were also found. Acute brain imaging and routine laboratory tests failed to identify a firm etiology of the confusional state. The psychiatric treatment resulted in complete recovery from delirium. Afterwards, maniform psychosis dominated the clinical picture for which antipsychotics were administered. Later, rapid cognitive deterioration and progression of motor symptoms were observed. MRI revealed cortical and hippocampal atrophy and white matter hyperintensities. Lumbar puncture found pleocytosis and elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein levels. Neurosyphilis had been confirmed by serologic tests. The cognitive symptoms improved and the psychiatric symptoms remitted under penicillin treatment. Four years after diagnosis, there is a gradual progression in the cognitive decline. Two additional hospitalizations were necessary due to the relapses of psychiatric symptoms. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(6): 234-238.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1556/650.2018.30971


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