Database : MEDLINE
Search on : disorders and of and sex and development [Words]
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[PMID]: 29524458
[Au] Autor:Fonken LK; Frank MG; Gaudet AD; D'Angelo HM; Daut RA; Hampson EC; Ayala MT; Watkins LR; Maier SF
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA80309. Electronic address: laura.fonken@austin.utexas.edu.
[Ti] Title:Neuroinflammatory priming to stress is differentially regulated in male and female rats.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Immun;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2139
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to stressors can enhance neuroinflammatory responses, and both stress and neuroinflammation are predisposing factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. Females suffer disproportionately more from several psychiatric disorders, yet stress-induced changes in neuroinflammation have primarily been studied in males. Here we tested whether exposure to inescapable tail shock sensitizes or 'primes' neuroinflammatory responses in male and female rats. At 24 h post-stress, male and female rats exposed to a peripheral immune challenge enhanced neuroinflammatory responses and exacerbated anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. These changes are likely glucocorticoid dependent, as administering exogenous CORT, caused a similar primed inflammatory response in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Further, stress disinhibited anti-inflammatory signaling mechanisms (such as CD200R) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. In males, microglia are considered the likely cellular source mediating neuroinflammatory priming; stress increased cytokine expression in ex vivo male microglia. Conversely, microglia isolated from stressed or CORT treated females did not exhibit elevated cytokine responses. Microglia isolated from both stressed male and female rats reduced phagocytic activity; however, suggesting that microglia from both sexes experience stress-induced functional impairments. Finally, an immune challenge following either stress or CORT in females, but not males, increased peripheral inflammation (serum IL-1ß). These novel data suggest that although males and females both enhance stress-induced neuroinflammatory and behavioral responses to an immune challenge, this priming may occur through distinct, sex-specific mechanisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29188295
[Au] Autor:Richardson L; Hameed Y; Perez J; Jones PB; Kirkbride JB
[Ad] Address:PsyLife Group, Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, England.
[Ti] Title:Association of Environment With the Risk of Developing Psychotic Disorders in Rural Populations: Findings from the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia Study.
[So] Source:JAMA Psychiatry;75(1):75-83, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6238
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Importance: Social determinants are important risk factors for the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP); their effects in rural areas are largely unknown. Objective: To investigate neighborhood-level factors associated with FEP in a large, predominantly rural population-based cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study extracted data on referrals for treatment of potential FEP at 6 Early-Intervention Psychosis services from the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia naturalistic cohort study data set, which covered a population of more than 2 million people in a rural area in the East of England for a period of 3.5 years. All individuals aged 16 to 35 years who presented to Early-Intervention Psychosis services and met diagnostic criteria for first episodes of nonaffective psychoses and affective psychoses (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnostic codes F20-33) were included (n = 631). Persons whose disorders had an organic basis (diagnostic codes F06.X) and those meeting the criteria for substance-induced psychosis (diagnostic codes F1X.5) were excluded. We derived 4 neighborhood-level exposures from a routine population data set using exploratory factor analysis (racial/ethnic diversity, deprivation, urbanicity, and social isolation) and investigated intragroup racial/ethnic density and fragmentation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multilevel Poisson regression was performed to determine associations between incidence rates and neighborhood-level factors, after adjustment for individual factors. Results were reported as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Results: The study included 631 participants who met criteria for FEP and whose median age at first contact was 23.8 years (interquartile range, 19.6-27.6 years); 416 of 631 (65.9%) were male. Crude incidence of FEP was calculated as 31.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-33.7). Incidence varied significantly between neighborhoods after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For nonaffective psychoses, incidence was higher in neighborhoods that were more economically deprived (IRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20) and socially isolated (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19). It was lower in more racially/ethnically diverse neighborhoods (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.00). Higher intragroup racial/ethnic density (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.00) and lower intragroup racial/ethnic fragmentation (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00) were associated with a reduced risk of affective psychosis. Conclusions and Relevance: Spatial variation in the incidence of nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders exists in rural areas. This suggests that the social environment contributes to psychosis risk across the rural-urban gradient.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.3582

  3 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523394
[Au] Autor:Kim R; Lee J; Kim Y; Kim A; Jang M; Kim HJ; Jeon B; Kang UJ; Fahn S
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Neurology, Aerospace Medical Center, Republic of Korea Air Force, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Presynaptic striatal dopaminergic depletion predicts the later development of freezing of gait in de novo Parkinson's disease: An analysis of the PPMI cohort.
[So] Source:Parkinsonism Relat Disord;, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5126
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The current study was designed to determine whether the degree of presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion can predict the later development of freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 390 de novo patients with PD without FOG at baseline. The participants were divided into tertiles according to the baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake of each striatal subregion, and the cumulative risk of FOG was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the predictive power of DAT uptake of striatal subregions for the development of FOG. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 4.0 years, 143 patients with PD (36.7%) developed FOG. The severe reduction group of DAT uptake in the caudate nucleus and putamen had a significantly higher incidence of FOG than that of the mild and moderate reduction groups. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that DAT uptakes in the caudate nucleus (hazard ratio [HR] 0.551; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.392-0.773; p = 0.001) and putamen (HR 0.441; 95% CI 0.214-0.911; p = 0.027) predicted the development of FOG. In addition, male sex, higher postural instability and gait difficulty score, and a lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment score were also significant predictors of FOG. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that presynaptic striatal dopaminergic denervation predicts the later development of FOG in de novo patients with PD, which may provide reliable insight into the mechanism of FOG in terms of nigrostriatal involvement.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522940
[Au] Autor:Jeuring HW; Comijs HC; Deeg DJH; Hoogendijk EO; Beekman ATF; Stek ML; Huisman M
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, GGZ inGeest - VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and the Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: h.jeuring@vumc.nl.
[Ti] Title:Secular trends in excess mortality of late-life depression.
[So] Source:J Affect Disord;234:28-33, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2517
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Late-life depression is associated with premature mortality, however, little is known whether excess mortality rates of depression have changed over time. This study aims to identify and explain secular trends in excess mortality of major depressive disorder (MDD) and subthreshold depression (SUBD). METHODS: Cohort-sequential-longitudinal study of 4084 community-dwelling older adults in the Netherlands based on data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Six measurement cycles were included from 1992/93 until 2008/09, each linked to the overall 5-year mortality, covering a 16-year time span. MDD and SUBD were identified using a two-stage screening procedure with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Age and sex were covariates. Education, health and lifestyle factors, and use of antidepressants were included as putative explanatory factors. Generalized Estimating Equations was used to investigate the association between the interaction 'Depression × Time' and 5-year mortality, and to find explanatory factors for the trend. RESULTS: A downward trend in excess mortality of MDD was found (OR = .92, 95%-CI:.85-.99, P = .04), adjusted for age and sex, which could not be explained by education, health and lifestyle factors, nor antidepressants use. Sex differences in the trend were not found (P = .77). No trend in excess mortality of SUBD was found (OR = 1.01, 95%-CI: .97-1.04, P = .65). LIMITATIONS: The findings do not imply a similar trend for other countries. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a favorable development in excess mortality of community-dwelling older adults with MDD, while those with SUBD do not show a clear trend in excess mortality.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29305647
[Au] Autor:Dean DC; Planalp EM; Wooten W; Schmidt CK; Kecskemeti SR; Frye C; Schmidt NL; Goldsmith HH; Alexander AL; Davidson RJ
[Ad] Address:Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705, USA. deaniii@wisc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Investigation of brain structure in the 1-month infant.
[So] Source:Brain Struct Funct;, 2018 Jan 05.
[Is] ISSN:1863-2661
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The developing brain undergoes systematic changes that occur at successive stages of maturation. Deviations from the typical neurodevelopmental trajectory are hypothesized to underlie many early childhood disorders; thus, characterizing the earliest patterns of normative brain development is essential. Recent neuroimaging research provides insight into brain structure during late childhood and adolescence; however, few studies have examined the infant brain, particularly in infants under 3 months of age. Using high-resolution structural MRI, we measured subcortical gray and white matter brain volumes in a cohort (N = 143) of 1-month infants and examined characteristics of these volumetric measures throughout this early period of neurodevelopment. We show that brain volumes undergo age-related changes during the first month of life, with the corresponding patterns of regional asymmetry and sexual dimorphism. Specifically, males have larger total brain volume and volumes differ by sex in regionally specific brain regions, after correcting for total brain volume. Consistent with findings from studies of later childhood and adolescence, subcortical regions appear more rightward asymmetric. Neither sex differences nor regional asymmetries changed with gestation-corrected age. Our results complement a growing body of work investigating the earliest neurobiological changes associated with development and suggest that asymmetry and sexual dimorphism are present at birth.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00429-017-1600-2

  6 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28934713
[Au] Autor:Cacciatore F; Boscolo Brusà R; Noventa S; Antonini C; Moschino V; Formalewicz M; Gion C; Berto D; Gabellini M; Marin MG
[Ad] Address:ISPRA - Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Loc. Brondolo, 30015 Chioggia, Italy. Electronic address: federica.cacciatore@isprambiente.it.
[Ti] Title:Imposex levels and butyltin compounds (BTs) in Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy): Ecological risk assessment before and after the ban.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:688-698, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to compare imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) data, collected before and after the organotin ban in 2008, in order to assess temporal and spatial variation of the phenomenon, the decline of BT contamination, and the effects on Hexaplex trunculus population in the coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea, close to the Venice Lagoon. Both in marine and in lagoon sites, the results obtained in 2013-2015 showed a significant decline in the incidence of imposex in respect to those from the 2002 survey. In 2002, lagoon samples exhibited Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI) higher than marine samples, whereas no differences were detected in the recent survey, when all RPSI values were below 0.6%. Vas Deference Sequence Index (VDSI) mean values were over 4 before the ban introduction and below this value after that, indicating more critical conditions for gastropod population in 2002 rather than in 2013-15. Percentage of sterile females was up to 69% in 2002, whilst in the more recent survey no sterile female was found. Range of BT concentrations in gastropods decreased from 252 to 579 to 16-31ng∑BT/g d.w. BT body burdens varied according to a gender dependant pattern, with higher concentrations observed in females than in males. A first attempt to propose a classification based on BT impact on H. trunculus, according to the Water Framework Directive, revealed that most sites were in Bad ecological status before the ban and attained a Poor/Moderate status after that.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Disorders of Sex Development/chemically induced
Environmental Monitoring/methods
Gastropoda/drug effects
Trialkyltin Compounds/toxicity
Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Body Burden
Female
Gastropoda/metabolism
Italy
Male
Mediterranean Sea
Risk Assessment
Seawater/chemistry
Trialkyltin Compounds/metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Trialkyltin Compounds); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 4XDX163P3D (tributyltin)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504047
[Au] Autor:Ferri SL; Abel T; Brodkin ES
[Ad] Address:Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Iowa Neuroscience Institute, University of Iowa, Pappajohn Biomedical Discovery Building, 169 Newton Road, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.
[Ti] Title:Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Review.
[So] Source:Curr Psychiatry Rep;20(2):9, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1535-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurodevelopmental disorders disproportionately affect males. The mechanisms underlying male vulnerability or female protection are not known and remain understudied. Determining the processes involved is crucial to understanding the etiology and advancing treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the biological basis of the male preponderance of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders includes discussion of a higher genetic burden in females and sex-specific gene mutations or epigenetic changes that differentially confer risk to males or protection to females. Other mechanisms discussed are sex chromosome and sex hormone involvement. Specifically, fetal testosterone is involved in many aspects of development and may interact with neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, or immune pathways to contribute to male vulnerability. Finally, the possibilities of female underdiagnosis and a multi-hit hypothesis are discussed. This review highlights current theories of male bias in developmental disorders. Topics include environmental, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms; theories of sex chromosomes, hormones, neuroendocrine, and immune function; underdiagnosis of females; and a multi-hit hypothesis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11920-018-0874-2

  8 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29503125
[Au] Autor:Witchel SF
[Ad] Address:Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA. Electronic address: witchelsf@upmc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Disorders of sex development.
[So] Source:Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol;, 2017 Nov 22.
[Is] ISSN:1532-1932
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Normal sex development depends on the precise spatio-temporal sequence and coordination of mutually antagonistic activating and repressing factors. These factors regulate the commitment of the unipotential gonad into the binary pathways governing normal sex development. Typically, the presence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome triggers the cascade of molecular events that lead to male sex development. Disorders of sex development comprise a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions associated with atypical development of internal and external genitalia. These disorders are generally attributed to deviations from the typical progression of sex development. Disorders of sex development can be classified into several categories including chromosomal, gonadal, and anatomic abnormalities. Genetic tools such as microarray analyses and next-generation sequencing techniques have identified novel genetic variants among patients with disorders of sexual development. Most importantly, patient management needs to be individualized, especially for decisions related to sex of rearing, surgical interventions, hormone treatment, and potential for fertility preservation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29333806
[Au] Autor:Romero Otalvaro AM; Grañana N; Gaeto N; Torres MLÁ; Zamblera MN; Vasconez MA; Misenta C; Rouvier ME; Squires J
[Ad] Address:Servicio de Pediatría, Departamento Materno Infantil, Hospital Carlos Durand, Ciudad de Buenos Aires.
[Ti] Title:ASQ-3: validación del Cuestionario de Edades y Etapas para la detección de trastornos del neurodesarrollo en niños argentinos. ASQ-3: Validation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for the detection of neurodevelopmental disorders in Argentine children.
[So] Source:Arch Argent Pediatr;116(1):7-13, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1668-3501
[Cp] Country of publication:Argentina
[La] Language:eng; spa
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The systematic assessment of child development in the first years of life is an essential component of pediatric health checkups. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire, third edition (ASQ-3) is the most validated scale, and has been recommended by the UNICEF to verify if children have a normal neurological development. It is a monitoring instrument to assess the main developmental areas, including communication, gross motor, fine motor, personal-social, and problem solving skills, and to compare the local population to the international development standards. OBJECTIVE: To validate the ASQ-3 in a pediatric population group. METHODS: Children aged 1-66 months were assessed at a public hospital by pediatricians, psychologists, and educational psychologists. The SSPS software package was used to determine population scales. RESULTS: In 630 children, who had a homogeneous sex distribution, an 88% sensibility and a 94% specificity were determined, with a positive predictive value of 88% and a negative predictive value of 96%, compared to the National Screening Test (Prueba Nacional de Pesquisa, PRUNAPE) and the cut-off scores for each age group. CONCLUSION: The ASQ-3 established that 19.5% of children were at risk of experiencing neurodevelopmental disorders. The ASQ-3 met psychometric properties compared to the PRUNAPE, which is the gold standard for the targeted and systematic assessment of developmental milestones during health checkups in a rapid, simple and cost-effective manner, so it was considered useful to monitor child neurological development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5546/aap.2018.eng.7

  10 / 27159 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29237055
[Au] Autor:Choux C; Binquet C; Carmignac V; Bruno C; Chapusot C; Barberet J; Lamotte M; Sagot P; Bourc'his D; Fauque P
[Ad] Address:Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté-Equipe Génétique des Anomalies du Développement (GAD) INSERM UMR1231, 2 Rue Angélique Ducoudray, F-21000 Dijon, France.
[Ti] Title:The epigenetic control of transposable elements and imprinted genes in newborns is affected by the mode of conception: ART versus spontaneous conception without underlying infertility.
[So] Source:Hum Reprod;33(2):331-340, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2350
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:STUDY QUESTION: Do assisted reproductive technologies alter DNA methylation and/or transcription of transposable elements and imprinted genes in cord blood and placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: After ART, DNA methylation and/or transcription changes of some transposable elements and imprinted genes were found in placenta samples while transcription modifications for some transposable elements were also discovered in cord blood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recent studies have confirmed the increased risk of placenta-related adverse pregnancy outcomes and the excess of imprinted disorders with abnormal methylation patterns after ART, which raises the issue of a potential ART-induced epigenetic risk. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 51 IVF/ICSI (15 conventional and 36 ICSI) singleton pregnancies were prospectively included from January 2013 to April 2015 and compared to 48 spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The DNA methylation and transcription of three imprinted loci (H19/IGF2, KCNQ1OT1 and SNURF DMRs) and four transposon families (LINE-1, ERVFRD, AluYa5 and ERVW) in cord blood and placenta obtained at birth were assessed by pyrosequencing and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. All data were adjusted for gestational age at delivery, sex of the newborn, parity and maternal age. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: DNA methylation levels of H19/IGF2, KCNQ1OT1, LINE-1Hs and ERVFRD-1 were significantly lower in IVF/ICSI placentas than in control placentas, while there was no difference for cord blood. Moreover, the expression of ERVFRD-1 and LINE-1 ORF2 in cord blood and ERVFRD-1 in placenta was lower in the IVF/ICSI group than in controls. The expression of ERVFRD-1 in placenta correlated positively with birth weight and placenta weight, but only in the control group, thus pointing to the potential deregulation of syncytin function after ART. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The control group of fertile couples having conceived within 1 year prevented us from deciphering the distinct roles of ART and infertility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These novel findings of ERVFRD (syncytin-2) expression correlating with birth weight and placenta weight suggest that more research on syncytins and pregnancy-associated diseases could lead to them being used as biomarkers or even as therapeutic targets. The epigenetic modifications in placenta for sequences involved in foetal development raise the question of their potential effects on pregnancy and future life. These results should encourage us to analyse the exact causes and consequences of epigenetic changes and strive to minimize these variations in the interests of epigenetic safety after ART. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study was funded by a grant from Besançon and Dijon University Hospitals. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/humrep/dex366


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