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[PMID]: 29524844
[Au] Autor:Cheng Z; Shen X; Jiang X; Shan H; Cimini M; Fang P; Ji Y; Park JY; Drosatos K; Yang X; Kevil CG; Kishore R; Wang H
[Ad] Address:Center for Translational Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, 3500 Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Electronic address: zjcheng@temple.edu.
[Ti] Title:Hyperhomocysteinemia potentiates diabetes-impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation: Role of insufficient hydrogen sulfide.
[So] Source:Redox Biol;16:215-225, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:2213-2317
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H S) has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA) of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM) diet. HM diet (8 weeks) induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively), and aggravated the impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh), determined by the presence of eNOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and prostacyclin (PGI ) inhibitor indomethacin (INDO), in SMA from db/db mice but not that from db/+ mice. A non-selective Ca -active potassium channel (K ) opener NS309 rescued T2DM/HHcy-impaired EDHF-mediated vascular relaxation to ACh. EDHF-induced relaxation to ACh was inhibited by a non-selective K blocker TEA and intermediate-conductance K blocker (IK ) Tram-34, but not by small-conductance K (SK ) blocker Apamin. HHcy potentiated the reduction of free sulfide, H S and cystathionine γ-lyase protein, which converts L-cysteine to H S, in SMA of db/db mice. Importantly, a stable H S donor DATS diminished the enhanced O production in SMAs and lung endothelial cells of T2DM/HHcy mice. Antioxidant PEG-SOD and DATS improved T2DM/HHcy impaired relaxation to ACh. Moreover, HHcy increased hyperglycemia-induced IK tyrosine nitration in human micro-vascular endothelial cells. EDHF-induced vascular relaxation to L-cysteine was not altered, whereas such relaxation to NaHS was potentiated by HHcy in SMA of db/db mice which was abolished by ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker Glycolamide but not by K blockers. CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate HHcy potentiated H S reduction via CSE-downregulation in microvasculature of T2DM mice. H S is justified as an EDHF. Insufficient H S impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation via oxidative stress and IK inactivation in T2DM/HHcy mice. H S therapy may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of micro-vascular complications in patients with T2DM and HHcy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524578
[Au] Autor:Katkam SK; Indumathi B; Tasneem FSD; Rajasekhar L; Kutala VK
[Ad] Address:Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), Telangana, Hyderabad, India.
[Ti] Title:Impact of eNOS 27-bp VNTR (4b/a) gene polymorphism with the risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in south Indian subjects.
[So] Source:Gene;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is constitutively expressed by vascular endothelium including glomerular endothelium. Functional polymorphisms, -786T>C (rs2070744) promoter variant, 27 bp VNTR (4b/a) in intron 4 and 894G>T (rs1799983) exon variant of eNOS are known to alter the eNOS expression and activity leading to altered NO levels and contribute to the development of vascular and renal disease risk. Thus it might have a role in SLE risk and development of glomerulonephritis. Hence, the present study is aimed to investigate the role of eNOS polymorphisms in South Indian SLE patients. METHODS: Five hundred and four subjects (219 SLE cases and 285 controls) were included in the present case-control study. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for -786T>C and 894G>T SNPs. Another, 4a4b variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism was genotyped using direct PCR method using primer pairs flanking the 27 bp direct repeat region in intron 4 of eNOS gene. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that intron 4 27 bp VNTR genotype frequency differ significantly between the SLE patients and controls (OR: 1.73, 95% CI %:1.18-2.54, P = 0.004). Further, "a allele" frequency was significantly higher in SLE patients as compared to the controls (20 vs. 13.8%) (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.11-2.18, P = 0.01). However, promoter polymorphism -786T>C and missense variant 894G>T werenot significantly different between the SLE cases and controls (OR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.64-1.33, P = 0.7 and OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.95-2.06, P = 0.095 respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between any of the three polymorphisms with lupus nephritis phenotype. Increased plasma nitrate levels were observed in SLE patients (36.79 ±â€¯2.83 µM/L) as compared to healthy controls (28.53 ±â€¯1.94 µM/L) (P = 0.01). In addition, the genotype-based simulations have indicated that combined effect of eNOS polymorphisms contribute to 30.5% variability in NO production. CONCLUSION: Results of the present study indicate that 27-bp VNTR polymorphism in intron 4 of eNOS gene polymorphism may be the significant risk factor for SLE in south Indian subjects.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524386
[Au] Autor:Mohanty I; Parija SC; Suklabaidya S; Rattan S
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bh
[Ti] Title:Acidosis potentiates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and gap junction communication in the superior mesenteric artery.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Extracellular pH is an important physiological determinant of vascular tone that is normally maintained within 7.35-7.45. Any change outside this range leads to severe pathological repercussions. We investigated the unknown effects of extracellular acidosis on relaxation in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of goat. SMA rings were employed to maintain isometric contractions at extracellular pH (pH ) 7.4 and 6.8. We analyzed the effect of acidosis (pH 6.8) compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4) on three signaling mediators of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization: nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin I (PGI ), and myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJ). NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were compared between normal and acidic pH. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) studies determined the change in expression of vascular connexin (Cx), Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43. Under acidosis, acetyl choline-induced relaxation was augmented in an endothelium-dependent manner via eNOS-NO-cGMP signaling. Conversely, at normal pH, acetyl choline-induced vasorelaxation was mediated primarily via COX-PGI pathway. The functional activity of MEGJ was increased under acidosis as evident from increased sensitivity of connexin blockers and upregulated gene and protein expression of connexins. In conclusion, acetyl choline-induced augmented vasorelaxation under acidosis is mediated by NOS-NO-cGMP, with a partial role of MEGJ as EDH mediators in the SMA. Present data suggest a novel role of connexin as therapeutic targets to attenuate the detrimental effect of acidosis on vascular tone.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29516051
[Au] Autor:Macovei L; Gobej I
[Ad] Address:Ophthalmology Department, "Dr. Carol Davila" Central University Military Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.
[Ti] Title:Endothelial keratoplasty for Fuchs dystrophy.
[So] Source:Rom J Ophthalmol;61(4):299-305, 2017 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2457-4325
[Cp] Country of publication:Romania
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report the case of a 69-year-old female with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and posterior chamber in-the-bag intraocular lens, whom we treated with DMEK surgical technique. We encountered difficulties both during obtaining the endothelium from the young donor and during the intraocular unrolling and its application on the stroma. We evaluated both preoperative and postoperative the following parameters: visual acuity, slit lamp, and optical coherence tomography appearance of the cornea, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density. In all postoperative assessments, the endothelium was attached to the host's stroma, with small peripheral, inferior folding area. Short-term results were favorable with a clear cornea and significant improvement in visual acuity obtained in the first 3 months of postoperative follow-up. : BCVA = best-corrected visual acuity, RE = right eye, LE = left eye, OCT = optical coherence tomography, DMEK = Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29516044
[Au] Autor:Stanila DM; Florea AM; Stanila A; Panga AA
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Emergency Hospital Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania.
[Ti] Title:Endothelial cells loss to the hyperopic pacients during phacoemulsification.
[So] Source:Rom J Ophthalmol;61(4):256-260, 2017 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2457-4325
[Cp] Country of publication:Romania
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: The phacoemulsification cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgery and it generally improves vision in over 90% of the patients. Hyperopic patients are a challenge during phacoemulsification especially because of their short eyeball and shallow anterior chamber. A shallow anterior chamber is associated with overall reduction of the safe zone, which may lead to difficulty in creating the corneal incisions, harder capsulorhexis performing, or endothelial complications. Purpose: The aim of the study was to present the endothelial cells loss after the phacoemulsification procedure in the hyperopic patients. Material and Methods: A number of 1775 patients operated in the Ophthalmology Department of the Clinical Hospital Sibiu from January 11, 2011 to December 20, 2013 have been included in our study; 595 cases with emmetropia and the rest of the 1180 patients had the following refraction errors: 216 - myopia and 964 - hypermetropia. From the total cases of the hypermetropia, we selected 72 patients to measure the endothelial cells density and the corneal thickness by using specular microscopy, one day before and 7-14 days after surgery. Results and discussions: The preexisting hypermetropia might modify the intraoperative and postoperative cataract surgery evolution. Endothelial cell loss is potentially higher from surgical trauma so that the endothelium must be protected with viscoelastics. The loss of endothelial cells in hyperopic eyes occurred with an average of 267 cell/ mm² and the thickness of the cornea increased by 13 µm. Conclusion: The phacoemulsification surgery in the presence of hypermetropia requires more attention. The biometry and the specular microscopy are very important tasks for the preoperative assessment, surgery, and postoperative care. The protection of the corneal endothelium with viscoelastics leads to an insignificant modification of the endothelial cells in hyperopic patients compared to an anterior study of the patients with all ametropies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515645
[Au] Autor:Bini R; Chiara O; Cimbanassi S; Olivero G; Trombetta A; Cotogni P
[Ad] Address:1Department of Surgery, S. Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Turin, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of capillary leakage after vasopressin resuscitation in a hemorrhagic shock model.
[So] Source:World J Emerg Surg;13:11, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1749-7922
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a major threat to patients with trauma and spontaneous bleeding. The aim of the study was to investigate early effects of vasopressin on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters and endothelium permeability by measuring capillary leakage compared to those of other resuscitation strategies in a HS model. Methods: Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: S group ( = 5), sham-operated rats without shock or resuscitation; HS group ( = 10), HS and no resuscitation; RL group ( = 10), HS and resuscitation with Ringer's lactate (RL); RLB group ( = 10), HS and resuscitation with two-third shed blood plus RL; and vasopressin group ( = 10), HS and resuscitation with RL, followed by continuous infusion of 0.04 U/kg/min vasopressin. The effects of resuscitation on hemodynamic parameters [mean arterial pressure (MAP), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (MBF), and mesenteric vascular resistances (MVR)], arterial blood gases, bicarbonate, base deficit, and lactate levels as well as on capillary leakage in the lung, ileum, and kidney were investigated. Capillary leakage was evaluated with Evans blue dye extravasation. Results: In the vasopressin group, the MAP was higher than in the RL and RLB groups ( < 0.001), while MBF was decreased ( < 0.001). MVR were increased only in the vasopressin group ( < 0.001). Capillary leakage was increased in the lungs of the animals in the vasopressin group compared to that in the lungs of animals in the RLB group ( < 0.05); this increase was associated with the lowest partial pressure of oxygen ( < 0.05). Conversely, decreased capillary leakage was observed with vasopressin in the ileum ( < 0.05). Increased capillary leakage was observed in the kidney in the RLB and vasopressin groups ( < 0.05). Lastly, vasopressin use was associated with higher base deficit and lactate levels when compared to the RL and RLB groups ( < 0.001). Conclusion: Although vasopressin was proposed as a vasoactive drug for provisional hemodynamic optimization in the early phase of HS resuscitation, the overall findings of this experimental study focus on the possible critical side effects of vasopressin on metabolic parameters and endothelium permeability.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13017-018-0172-7

  7 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510679
[Au] Autor:Su H; Ye C; Wen Q; Zhu HY; Yi LX; Zhang C
[Ad] Address:Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.
[Ti] Title:Case report: lipid inclusion in glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in a patient after contrast medium injection.
[So] Source:BMC Nephrol;19(1):53, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2369
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: It is well-recognized that injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media (CM) sometimes causes acute renal injury via multiple mechanisms, such as vasoconstriction, toxicity on glomerular endothelium and tubular epithelium and so forth. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old man developed acute renal injury with proteinuria after CM administration. To our surprise, in his renal biopsy sample the myelin figure like structure was observed in glomerular endothelium and mesangial cells by transmission electron microscopy. However the patient didn't has any clinic clues of Fabry disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. Moreover in vitro cultured glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells we found CM triggers lipid aggregation along with the increased CD36 and decreased ABCA1 abundance. Thus this patient was administrated statin to correct the aberrant lipid trafficking, 2 months later at his next visit we found his renal function partially recovered with reduced proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the well-known underlying mechanisms, CM may cause renal impairment by triggering the dysregulated transportation of lipid. Furthermore statin is suggested to be a very promising medicine to decrease side effects of CM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12882-018-0844-2

  8 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501536
[Au] Autor:Barcelos A; Tibirica E; Lamas C
[Ad] Address:National Institute of Cardiology, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function and capillary density in patients with infective endocarditis using laser speckle contrast imaging and video-capillaroscopy.
[So] Source:Microvasc Res;118:61-68, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9319
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the systemic microcirculation of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: This is a comparative study of patients with definite IE by the modified Duke criteria admitted to our center for treatment. A reference group of sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers was included. Microvascular flow was evaluated in the forearm using a laser speckle contrast imaging system, for noninvasive measurement of cutaneous microvascular perfusion, in combination with skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to test microvascular reactivity. Microvascular density was evaluated using skin video-capillaroscopy. RESULTS: We studied 22 patients with IE; 15 were male and seven female. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) were 45.5 ±â€¯17.3 years. Basal skin microvascular conductance was significantly increased in patients with IE, compared with healthy individuals (0.36 ±â€¯0.13 versus 0.21 ±â€¯0.08 APU/mmHg; P < 0.0001). The increase in microvascular conductance induced by ACh in patients was 0.21 ±â€¯0.17 and in the reference group, it was 0.37 ±â€¯0.14 APU/mmHg (P = 0.0012). The increase in microvascular conductance induced by SNP in patients was 0.18 ±â€¯0.14 and it was 0.29 ±â€¯0.15 APU/mmHg (P = 0.0140) in the reference group. The basal mean skin capillary density of patients (135 ±â€¯24 capillaries/mm ) was significantly higher, compared with controls (97 ±â€¯21 capillaries/mm ; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The main findings in the microcirculation of patients with IE were greater basal vasodilation and a reduction of the endothelium-dependent and -independent microvascular reactivity, as well as greater functional skin capillary density compared to healthy individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29475132
[Au] Autor:Yuan X; Wang L; Bhat OM; Lohner H; Li PL
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Differential effects of short chain fatty acids on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and neointima formation: Antioxidant action of butyrate.
[So] Source:Redox Biol;16:21-31, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:2213-2317
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs) and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA) mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD), we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc ), which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc ). Nevertheless, both acetate and propionate markedly enhanced the formation and activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome as well as carotid neointima formation in the carotid arteries with PLCA in Asc , but not Asc mice. In cultured ECs (EOMA cells), butyrate was found to significantly decrease the formation and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasomes induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket) or cholesterol crystals (CHC), while acetate did not inhibit Nlrp3 inflammasome activation induced by either 7-Ket or CHC, but itself even activated Nlrp3 inflammsomes. Mechanistically, the inhibitory action of butyrate on the Nlrp3 inflammasome was attributed to a blockade of lipid raft redox signaling platforms to produce O2 upon 7-Ket or CHC stimulations. These results indicate that SCFAs have differential effects on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated carotid neointima formation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 236839 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29427702
[Au] Autor:Taccola C; Cartot-Cotton S; Valente D; Barneoud P; Aubert C; Boutet V; Gallen F; Lochus M; Nicolic S; Dodacki A; Smirnova M; Cisternino S; Declèves X; Bourasset F
[Ad] Address:Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Translational Medicine & Early Development, Sanofi, France; Variabilité de Réponse aux Psychotropes, Inserm, U1144, Paris F-75006, France; Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université Paris Descartes, UMR-S 1144, Paris F-75006, France; Université Paris Did
[Ti] Title:High brain distribution of a new central nervous system drug candidate despite its P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux at the mouse blood-brain barrier.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;117:68-79, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Efficacy of drugs aimed at treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders rely partly on their ability to cross the cerebral endothelium, also called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the main interface modulating exchanges of compounds between the brain and blood. In this work, we used both, conventional pharmacokinetics (PK) approach and in situ brain perfusion technique to study the blood and brain PK of PKRinh, an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, in mice. PKRinh showed a supra dose-proportional blood exposure that was not observed in the brain, and a brain to blood AUC ratio of unbound drug smaller than 1 at all tested doses. These data suggested the implication of an active efflux at the BBB. Using in situ brain perfusion technique, we showed that PKRinh has a very high brain uptake clearance which saturates with increasing concentrations. Fitting the data to a Michaelis-Menten equation revealed that PKRinh transport through the BBB is composed of a passive unsaturable flux and an active saturable protein-mediated efflux with a k of ≅ 3 µM. We were able to show that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-gp (Abcb1), but not Bcrp (Abcg2), was involved in the brain to blood efflux of PKRinh. At the circulating PKRinh concentrations of this study, the P-gp was not saturated, in accordance with the linear brain PKRinh PK. Finally, PKRinh had high brain uptake clearance (14 µl/g/s) despite it is a good P-gp substrate (P-gp Efflux ratio ≅ 3.6), and reached similar values than the cerebral blood flow reference, diazepam, in P-gp saturation conditions. With its very unique brain transport properties, PKRinh improves our knowledge about P-gp-mediated efflux across the BBB for the development of new CNS directed drugs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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