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[PMID]: 29524922
[Au] Autor:Kong S; Yan Q; Zheng H; Liu H; Wang W; Zheng S; Yang G; Zheng M; Wu J; Qi S; Shen G; Tang L; Yin Y; Zhao T; Yu H; Liu D; Zhao D; Zhang T; Ruan J; Huang M
[Ad] Address:Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China; Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Electroni
[Ti] Title:Substantial reductions in ambient PAHs pollution and lives saved as a co-benefit of effective long-term PM pollution controls.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:266-279, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Under great efforts in fighting against serious haze problem of China since 2013, decreasing of air pollutants especially for fine particles (PM ) has been revealed for several key regions. This study tried to answer whether the reduction of PM -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was coincident with PM because of long-term pollution control measures (PCM), and to assess source-oriented health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Field measurements were carried out before and after the publishing of local air pollution protection plan for Nanjing, a mega-city in east China. Results indicated that the air quality was substantially improving, with a significant reduction in annual average PM by 34%, and moreover, PM -bound PAHs significantly reduced by 63% (p < 0.001). The remarkable reduction was mainly attributable to the change of emission sources, compared to the influence of atmospheric circulation patterns, surface meteorological conditions, and atmospheric chemical reaction. Four PAHs sources including coal combustion (CC), petroleum and oil burning (PO), wood burning (WB) and vehicle emission (VE) were identified. On an annual basis, contributions to ambient PM -PAHs from WB, PO, CC and VE sources in the period before the action of control measures were 2.26, 2.20, 1.96 and 5.62 ng m , respectively. They reduced to 1.09, 0.37, 1.31 and 1.77 ng m for the four source types, with the reduction percentages as 51, 83, 33 and 68%, respectively. The estimated reduction in lifetime lung cancer risk was around 61%. The study that firstly assessed the health effects of PAHs reduction as a co-benefit raised by air PCM sustained for a long period is believed to be applicable and referential for other mega-cities around the world for assessing the benefits of PCM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524923
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Gu AZ; Cen T; Li X; Li D; Chen J
[Ad] Address:Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
[Ti] Title:Petrol and diesel exhaust particles accelerate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:280-287, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Particles exhausted from petrol and diesel consumptions are major components of urban air pollution that can be exposed to human via direct inhalation or other routes due to atmospheric deposition into water and soil. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to modern health care. However, how the petrol and diesel exhaust particles affect the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments remain largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of four representative petrol and diesel exhaust particles, namely 97 octane petrol, 93 octane petrol, light diesel oil, and marine heavy diesel oil, on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between two opportunistic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, E. coli S17-1 (donor) and E. coli K12 (recipient). The results demonstrated that these four representative types of nano-scale particles induced concentration-dependent increases in conjugative transfer rates compared with the controls. The underlying mechanisms involved in the accelerated transfer of ARGs were also identified, including the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consequent induction of oxidative stress, SOS response, changes in cell morphology, and the altered mRNA expression of membrane protein genes and those involved in the promotion of conjugative transfer. The findings provide new evidences and mechanistic insights into the antimicrobial resistance risks posed by petrol and diesel exhaust particles, and highlight the implications and need for stringent strategies on alternative fuels to mitigate air pollution and health risks.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 635694 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524924
[Au] Autor:Han C; Hong YC
[Ad] Address:Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Adverse health effects of ferronickel manufacturing factory on local residents: An interrupted time series analysis.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:288-296, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The first ferronickel manufacturing factory of the Republic of Korea was opened in Gwangyang City on October, 23rd, 2008. There has been public concern regarding heavy metal dust blown from the factory and slag disposal site. Therefore, we evaluated the health impact of the ferronickel factory on Gwangyang City residents by using interrupted time series analysis. We analyzed the monthly incidence patterns of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and dermatitis in Gwangyang City residents from 2004 to 2014. Data were gathered from the National Health Insurance Service database which covers all the hospital use data of entire city residents. Seasonality adjusted quasi-Poisson regression model was used to evaluate whether the operation of the ferronickel factory was associated with the immediate changes in the monthly disease incidence patterns. We set a control region, Yeosu City, near Gwangyang City to ensure that the changes in the disease incidence were specific to Gwangyang City. We conducted sub-regional level analysis to evaluate whether the disease incidence patterns were affected by the distance from the ferronickel factory. The risk estimates after operation of the ferronickel factory showed an abrupt increase in the monthly incidence of unspecified dermatitis [RR (95% CI), 1.75 (1.17-2.60)] and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis [RR (95% CI), 1.23 (1.08-1.39)] in men, and pruritus [RR (95% CI), 1.95 (1.51-2.52)], unspecified dermatitis [RR (95% CI), 1.65 (1.04-2.60)], and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis [RR (95% CI), 1.17 (1.04-1.31)] in women. These findings were significant even after accounting for the changes of the corresponding disease incidence of the comparison city, Yeosu. The effects were greater in young children (aged 0-9) and sub-regions near the ferronickel factory. Our study suggests possible association between the operation of the ferronickel factory and an abrupt increase of pruritus, unspecific dermatitis, and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis in Gwangyang City residents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524921
[Au] Autor:Reis H; Reis C; Sharip A; Reis W; Zhao Y; Sinclair R; Beeson L
[Ad] Address:Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11175 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.
[Ti] Title:Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:252-265, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524920
[Au] Autor:Sakhi AK; Sabaredzovic A; Papadopoulou E; Cequier E; Thomsen C
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Division of Infection Control, Environment and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amritkaur.sakhi@fhi.no.
[Ti] Title:Levels, variability and determinants of environmental phenols in pairs of Norwegian mothers and children.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:242-251, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental phenols including parabens, bisphenols (BPs), oxybenzone/benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and triclosan (TCS) is ubiquitous. Due to evidence of their estrogenic activity, they have been considered as chemicals of concern. The exposure of the Norwegian population to these compounds is presently unknown. AIMS: To measure urinary levels of twelve different environmental phenols including four emerging bisphenols: S, F, B and AF (abbreviated as BPS, BPF, BPB and BPAF, respectively) in a healthy Norwegian population. We have calculated short-term variability, estimated daily intakes and investigated important determinants of exposure. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 48) and their children (n = 56) during spring/summer 2012 in two counties in Norway. RESULTS: Six environmental phenols namely methyl, ethyl and propyl paraben, BPA, BP-3 and TCS were detected in almost 100% of the urine samples. Among the emerging bisphenols, BPS was detected most frequently in the urine samples (42-48%) followed by BPF (4-15%). Parabens were positively and significantly correlated to each other in both mothers and children. Levels of parabens and BP-3 were higher in mothers compared to children. All mothers and children had lower estimated daily intakes (back calculated from the urinary concentrations) of parabens and BPA than the respective acceptable and tolerable daily intakes (ADIs and TDIs) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Observed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated moderate to high reliability of spot urine measurements for all the environmental phenols (ICCs: 0.70-0.97). Use of hair products, deodorants, face and hand creams were significantly associated with higher urinary levels of parabens. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of environmental phenols in healthy Norwegian women and children is abundant. Among emerging bisphenols, there is widespread exposure to BPS. A single spot urine sample can be used for estimating short-term exposures of environmental phenols. Urinary levels of parabens were associated with use of PCPs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524919
[Au] Autor:Nawrot TS; Saenen ND; Schenk J; Janssen BG; Motta V; Tarantini L; Cox B; Lefebvre W; Vanpoucke C; Maggioni C; Bollati V
[Ad] Address:Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; Department of Public Health & Primary Care, Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: tim.nawrot@uhasselt.be.
[Ti] Title:Placental circadian pathway methylation and in utero exposure to fine particle air pollution.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:231-241, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In mammals, a central clock maintains the daily rhythm in accordance with the external environment. At the molecular level, the circadian rhythm is maintained by epigenetic regulation of the Circadian pathway. Here, we tested the role of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 m (PM ) exposure during gestational life on human placental Circadian pathway methylation, as an important molecular target for healthy development. In 407 newborns, we quantified placental methylation of CpG sites within the promoter regions of the following genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, CRY1-2 and PER1-3 using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Daily PM exposure levels were estimated for each mother's residence, using a spatiotemporal interpolation model. We applied mixed-effects models to study the methylation status of the Circadian pathway genes and in utero PM exposure, while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. In a multi-gene model, placental Circadian pathway methylation was positively and significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with 3rd trimester PM exposure. Consequently, the single-gene models showed relative methylation differences [Log(fold change)] in placental NPAS2 (+0.16; p = 0.001), CRY1 (+0.59; p = 0.0023), PER2 (+0.36; p = 0.0005), and PER3 (+0.42; p = 0.0008) for an IQR increase (8.9 g/m ) in 3rd trimester PM exposure. PM air pollution, an environmental risk factor leading to a pro-inflammatory state of the mother and foetus, is associated with the methylation pattern of genes in the Circadian pathway. The observed alterations in the placental CLOCK epigenetic signature might form a relevant molecular mechanism through which fine particle air pollution exposure might affect placental processes and foetal development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 635694 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524906
[Au] Autor:Kastury F; Smith E; Karna RR; Scheckel KG; Juhasz AL
[Ad] Address:Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095, Australia. Electronic address: farzana.kastury@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:An inhalation-ingestion bioaccessibility assay (IIBA) for the assessment of exposure to metal(loid)s in PM .
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:92-104, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although metal(loid) bioaccessibility of ambient particulate matter, with an aerodynamic diameter of <10m (PM ), has recently received increasing attention, limited research exists into standardising in-vitro methodologies using simulated lung fluid (SLF). Contradictions exist regarding which assay parameters should be adopted. Additionally, potential continuation of metal(loid) dissolution once PM is cleared from the lungs and passed through the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) has rarely been addressed. The objective of this study was to assess parameters that influence inhalation bioaccessibility in order to develop a conservative assay that is relevant to a human inhalation scenario. To achieve this aim, the effect of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio, extraction time, agitation and five major SLF compositions on the bioaccessibilities of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) was investigated using PM from three Australian mining/smelting impacted regions. Using the biologically relevant parameters that resulted in the most conservative outcomes, bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s in PM was assessed in SLF, followed by simulated GIT solutions. Results from this study revealed that fluid composition and S/L ratio significantly affected metal(loid) dissolution (p<0.05). The highest Pb bioaccessibility resulted using simulated lung-gastric solution, while that of As resulted using simulated lung-gastric-small intestinal tract solutions. Compared to SLF alone, metal(loid) dissolution using the inhalation-ingestion bioaccessibility assay (IIBA) was significantly higher (p<0.05) for all PM samples.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524905
[Au] Autor:Li J; Zhang Y; Sun T; Hao H; Wu H; Wang L; Chen Y; Xing L; Niu Z
[Ad] Address:School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
[Ti] Title:The health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator posed by PCDD/Fs in atmosphere and soil.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:81-91, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0.40 to 5.90 with a mean of 1.80, suggesting that the PCDD/Fs mainly came from combustion sources and studied MSWI could be a key source of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere. The F/D ratios of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 with a mean of 0.90, suggesting combustion is not the mainly sources of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil, and studied MSWI may have limited influence on PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil. O8CDD and 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF could be the total PCDD/Fs and TEQ indicators in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI, respectively. The carcinogenic risk (CR) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and soil for children, teens and adults were 1.24E-06, 9.06E-07 and 4.41E-06, respectively, suggesting that the potential cancer risk occurred but the risk was at acceptable levels for both children and adults (<1.00E-05), and the cancer risk for teens was negligible (<1.00E-06). The non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) values of three age groups were lower than 1, indicating that no obvious non-carcinogenic effects occurred. Inhalation of air was the largest contributor of health risk (both CR and non-CR) for three age groups. In addition, a comparison of the health risk between PCDD/Fs and other emerging contaminants and traditional pollutants in soil and atmosphere was performed, which will help us have a good view of the health risk levels of PCDD/Fs in surrounding environment of MWSI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 635694 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524904
[Au] Autor:Hagenlocher M; Renaud FG; Haas S; Sebesvari Z
[Ad] Address:United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), UN Campus, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: hagenlocher@ehs.unu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Vulnerability and risk of deltaic social-ecological systems exposed to multiple hazards.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:71-80, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Coastal river deltas are hotspots of global change impacts. Sustainable delta futures are increasingly threatened due to rising hazard exposure combined with high vulnerabilities of deltaic social-ecological systems. While the need for integrated multi-hazard approaches has been clearly articulated, studies on vulnerability and risk in deltas either focus on local case studies or single hazards and do not apply a social-ecological systems perspective. As a result, vulnerabilities and risks in areas with strong social and ecological coupling, such as coastal deltas, are not fully understood and the identification of risk reduction and adaptation strategies are often based on incomplete assumptions. To overcome these limitations, we propose an innovative modular indicator library-based approach for the assessment of multi-hazard risk of social-ecological systems across and within coastal deltas globally, and apply it to the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), and Mekong deltas. Results show that multi-hazard risk is highest in the GBM delta and lowest in the Amazon delta. The analysis reveals major differences between social and environmental vulnerability across the three deltas, notably in the Mekong and the GBM deltas where environmental vulnerability is significantly higher than social vulnerability. Hotspots and drivers of risk vary spatially, thus calling for spatially targeted risk reduction and adaptation strategies within the deltas. Ecosystems have been identified as both an important element at risk as well as an entry point for risk reduction and adaptation strategies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 635694 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524902
[Au] Autor:Zhu S; Xia L; Wu J; Chen S; Chen F; Zeng F; Chen X; Chen C; Xia Y; Zhao X; Zhang J
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610044, China.
[Ti] Title:Ambient air pollutants are associated with newly diagnosed tuberculosis: A time-series study in Chengdu, China.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:47-55, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although a few studies have analyzed the associations between ambient air pollutants and the development of tuberculosis (TB), most have been conducted in the core countries with inconsistent results. In this study, we used a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate the associations between the newly diagnosed TB cases and daily exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10m (PM ), nitrogen dioxide (NO ), and sulfur dioxide (SO ) in Chengdu, a severely polluted city. There were 36,108 newly diagnosed active TB cases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 in Chengdu. In a single-pollutant model, the cumulative relative risk of active TB cases was 1.06 [lag of 0 to 21days, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.11] for each 10g/m increase in PM above the threshold of 70g/m ; 1.06 (lag of 0 to 2days, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09) for each 10g/m increase in NO above the threshold of 40g/m ; and 1.07 (lag of 0 to 2days, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12) for each 10g/m increase in SO above the threshold of 60g/m . Meanwhile, we found a positive association in males after exposure to a 10g/m increase in SO above the threshold of 60g/m at a lag of 0 to 2days. Exposure to PM , NO , and SO was associated with an increment in the incidence of active TB cases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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