Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 26778757
[Au] Autor:Navis A; Nelson CM
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, United States.
[Ti] Title:Pulling together: Tissue-generated forces that drive lumen morphogenesis.
[So] Source:Semin Cell Dev Biol;55:139-47, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1096-3634
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mechanical interactions are essential for bending and shaping tissues during morphogenesis. A common feature of nearly all internal organs is the formation of a tubular network consisting of an epithelium that surrounds a central lumen. Lumen formation during organogenesis requires precisely coordinated mechanical and biochemical interactions. Whereas many genetic regulators of lumen formation have been identified, relatively little is known about the mechanical cues that drive lumen morphogenesis. Lumens can be shaped by a variety of physical behaviors including wrapping a sheet of cells around a hollow core, rearranging cells to expose a lumenal cavity, or elongating a tube via cell migration, though many of the details underlying these movements remain poorly understood. It is essential to define how forces generated by individual cells cooperate to produce the tissue-level forces that drive organogenesis. Transduction of mechanical forces relies on several conserved processes including the contraction of cytoskeletal networks or expansion of lumens through increased fluid pressure. The morphogenetic events that drive lumen formation serve as a model for similar mechanical processes occurring throughout development. To understand how lumenal networks arise, it will be essential to investigate how biochemical and mechanical processes integrate to generate complex structures from comparatively simple interactions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26651425
[Au] Autor:Rosario GX; Cheng JG; Stewart CL
[Ad] Address:Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Institute of Medical Biology, A(⁎)STAR, 8A Biomedical Grove, #06-06 Immunos, Singapore 138648, Singapore. Electronic address: gracy.rosario@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Gene expression analysis in the compartments of the murine uterus.
[So] Source:Differentiation;91(4-5):42-9, 2016 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0436
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Embryo implantation, a key critical feature of mammalian pregnancy, involves co-ordinate interplay between an incoming blastocyst and a receptive uterus. Aberrations in signaling cascades during this process result in pregnancy loss in mammals, including women. Analysis of the complete uterus at any given point either during preparation for implantation or during and after embryo attachment and invasion makes it difficult to assign specific signaling mechanism to the individual cellular compartments of the uterus. Here, we describe methods for the specific isolation of the luminal epithelium (LE) and subsequent analysis of gene expression/signaling pathways during embryo attachment. We further describe the analysis of RNA and proteins by specific techniques of quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunostaining and Western blotting of uterine tissues. These methods can be applied to the other cellular compartments of the uterus and embryo invasion and endometrial development. These techniques will be beneficial to investigators for delineating the mechanisms involved during embryo attachment and female reproduction as well as providing a means to studying highly dynamic changes in gene expression in tissues.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26639079
[Au] Autor:Cunha GR; Baskin L
[Ad] Address:Department of Urology, Box 0738, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States. Electronic address: Gerald.Cunha@ucsf.edu.
[Ti] Title:Use of sub-renal capsule transplantation in developmental biology.
[So] Source:Differentiation;91(4-5):4-9, 2016 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0436
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The sub-renal capsule graft site for in vivo growth and development of developing organs can be used to great advantage in the "rescue" of organ rudiments from "embryonic" or "birth" lethal mutant mice, which permits examination of the full impact of gene knockout in all phases of development from morphogenesis to adult functional differentiation. Another use of the sub-renal capsule graft site is the examination of normal and "chemically perturbed" development of human fetal organs. Tissue recombinants composed of various types of epithelium and mesenchyme, when grafted under the renal capsule undergo normal development and in 3-4 weeks achieve full adult functional cytodifferentiation. The investigator can control many of the developmental parameters of the graft such as endocrine status of the host and treatment of the host with a variety of biologically active agents to assess their effects on development and differentiation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26610327
[Au] Autor:Cunha GR; Baskin L
[Ad] Address:Department of Urology, University of California, Box 0738, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States. Electronic address: Gerald.Cunha@ucsf.edu.
[Ti] Title:Mesenchymal-epithelial interaction techniques.
[So] Source:Differentiation;91(4-5):20-7, 2016 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0436
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This paper reviews the importance of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in development and gives detailed technical protocols for investigating these interactions. Successful analysis of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions requires knowing the ages in which embryonic, neonatal and adult organs can be separated into mesenchymal and epithelial tissues. Methods for separation of mesenchymal and epithelial tissues and preparation of tissue recombinants are described.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27106141
[Au] Autor:Glasgow BJ
[Ad] Address:Departments of Ophthalmology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza Rm., BH 623, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States. Electronic address: bglasgow@mednet.ucla.edu.
[Ti] Title:Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy reveals quenching of fluorescein within corneal epithelium.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;147:12-9, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Topical application of fluorescein results in background fluorescence of normal corneal epithelial cells. The fluorescence appears relatively weak and is often ignored clinically. The concentrations of fluorescein applied clinically exceed the threshold for self quenching. The possibility that exuberant topical concentrations of fluorescein result in quenching of fluorescence in tears and normal corneal epithelium is explored. Fluorescence lifetime measurements are sensitive to quenching and are less vulnerable to inner filter effect than steady state measurements. The types of fluorescence lifetime quenching often report informative molecular interactions. Therefore, fluorescence lifetime confocal imaging was performed in solutions, tears and corneal epithelium removed by membrane cytology following applied fluorescein. Amplitude averaged fluorescence lifetimes (τamp) were measured with time resolved single photon counting using a pulsed diode laser for excitation of fluorescein. Lifetime decays were fit to multi-exponential models with least squares analysis. Stern-Volmer plots for both intensity (I) and (τamp) were determined. Stern-Volmer plots demonstrated both dynamic and static quenching components (R(2) = 0.98 exponential fit, I0/I). Plots of τamp versus concentration of fluorescein revealed a linear relationship. Immediately after fluorescein application, quenching was evident in tears (τamp < 1 ns) versus tears sampled after 5 min (τamp = 3.7 ns). Corneal epithelium showed quenching (τamp ≤ 2 ns) from 1 to 16 min post fluorescein instillation. Clinical concentrations of fluorescein show self-quenching but rapidly dilute as tears turnover. Intracellular quenching occurs in normal corneal epithelium. Lifetime decay curves suggest complex mechanisms are involved. Quenching is a plausible explanation for the low fluorescence background observed clinically.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26045138
[Au] Autor:Knoop KA; McDonald KG; Kulkarni DH; Newberry RD
[Ad] Address:Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA....
[Ti] Title:Antibiotics promote inflammation through the translocation of native commensal colonic bacteria.
[So] Source:Gut;65(7):1100-9, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1468-3288
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic use is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple inflammatory disorders, which in turn are linked to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. How these alterations in the intestinal microbiota translate into an increased risk for inflammatory responses is largely unknown. Here we investigated whether and how antibiotics promote inflammation via the translocation of live native gut commensal bacteria. DESIGN: Oral antibiotics were given to wildtype and induced mutant mouse strains, and the effects on bacterial translocation, inflammatory responses and the susceptibility to colitis were evaluated. The sources of the bacteria and the pathways required for bacterial translocation were evaluated using induced mutant mouse strains, 16s rRNA sequencing to characterise the microbial communities, and in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques. RESULTS: Oral antibiotics induced the translocation of live native commensal bacteria across the colonic epithelium, promoting inflammatory responses, and predisposing to increased disease in response to coincident injury. Bacterial translocation resulted from decreased microbial signals delivered to colonic goblet cells (GCs), was associated with the formation of colonic GC-associated antigen passages, was abolished when GCs were depleted and required CX3CR1(+) dendritic cells. Bacterial translocation occurred following a single dose of most antibiotics tested, and the predisposition for increased inflammation was only associated with antibiotics inducing bacterial translocation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal an unexpected outcome of antibiotic therapy and suggest that bacterial translocation as a result of alterations in the intestinal microflora may provide a link between increasing antibiotic use and the increased incidence of inflammatory disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 160608
[Lr] Last revision date:160608
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-309059

  7 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25670812
[Au] Autor:Yarur AJ; Jain A; Sussman DA; Barkin JS; Quintero MA; Princen F; Kirkland R; Deshpande AR; Singh S; Abreu MT
[Ad] Address:Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA....
[Ti] Title:The association of tissue anti-TNF drug levels with serological and endoscopic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: the ATLAS study.
[So] Source:Gut;65(2):249-55, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1468-3288
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between serum and intestinal anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) levels, and their relationship to endoscopic disease activity and levels of TNF. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 30 patients receiving treatment with infliximab or adalimumab for Crohn's disease or UC. For each patient, a sample of serum was matched to tissue biopsies. Endoscopic and histological disease activity was recorded for each tissue sample. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between anti-TNF in serum and tissue (r=0.3920, p=0.002), especially in uninflamed tissue (r=0.50, p<0.001), but not with those samples that had inflammation (r=0.19, p=0.54). Anti-TNF concentration in tissue correlated with degree of endoscopic inflammation, except for tissue with severe inflammation in which anti-TNF levels were again lower (mean normalised anti-TNF in tissue: uninflamed=0.93, mild=2.17, moderate=13.71, severe=2.2 inflammation (p=0.0042)). The ratio of anti-TNF-to-TNF in tissue was highest in uninflamed areas and lowest in severely inflamed areas. Patients with active mucosal disease had a higher rate of serum to tissue drug level mismatch when compared to those in remission (73.3% vs 33.3%, respectively; p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that local tissue inflammation characterised by high levels of TNF serves as a sink for anti-TNF. We further postulate that some patients with high serum anti-TNF levels have active disease because tissue levels of anti-TNF are insufficient to neutralise local TNF production.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adalimumab/analysis
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/blood
Infliximab/analysis
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adalimumab/blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy
Infliximab/blood
Intestinal Mucosa/chemistry
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha); B72HH48FLU (Infliximab); FYS6T7F842 (Adalimumab)
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160612
[Lr] Last revision date:160612
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160108
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308099

  8 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26828852
[Au] Autor:Sakamoto T; Fujii A; Saito N; Kondo H; Ohuchi A
[Ad] Address:Kansei Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikaimachi, Haga, Tochigi 321-3497, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Alteration of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertensive rats.
[So] Source:Neurosci Res;108:60-6, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8111
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Salt taste sensitivity is related to physiological condition, and declined in hypertensive patients. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying changes in salt taste sensitivity during the development of hypertension. This is largely due to lack of an appropriate animal model which shows the decline of salt taste sensitivity caused by hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that one of main causes of salt-sensitive hypertension is dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). To examine the involvement of RAAS in modulation of salt taste sensitivity, we utilized aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats as a well-established model of salt-sensitive hypertension caused by RAAS dysfunction. Amount of sodium intake in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats was higher than that in control rats. In addition to behavioral changes, the amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats were remarkably lower by approximately 90% than those in the other groups. Moreover, αENaC mRNA expression in the epithelium of circumvallate papillae was significantly low in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats. Thus, RAAS modulates salt taste system as is case in hypertensive patients. This report is to our knowledge the first to describe an animal model with decline of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses by RAAS dysfunction-mediated salt-sensitive hypertension.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27286501
[Au] Autor:Brinkmann A; Okom C; Kludt E; Schild D
[Ad] Address:Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen; Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen....
[Ti] Title:Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis.
[So] Source:J Vis Exp;(112), 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1940-087X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The olfactory system, specialized in the detection, integration and processing of chemical molecules is likely the most thoroughly studied sensory system. However, there is piling evidence that olfaction is not solely limited to chemical sensitivity, but also includes temperature sensitivity. Premetamorphic Xenopus laevis are translucent animals, with protruding nasal cavities deprived of the cribriform plate separating the nose and the olfactory bulb. These characteristics make them well suited for studying olfaction, and particularly thermosensitivity. The present article describes the complete procedure for measuring temperature responses in the olfactory bulb of X. laevis larvae. Firstly, the electroporation of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is performed with spectrally distinct dyes loaded into the nasal cavities in order to stain their axon terminals in the bulbar neuropil. The differential staining between left and right receptor neurons serves to identify the γ-glomerulus as the only structure innervated by contralateral presynaptic afferents. Secondly, the electroporation is combined with focal bolus loading in the olfactory bulb in order to stain mitral cells and their dendrites. The 3D brain volume is then scanned under line-illumination microscopy for the acquisition of fast calcium imaging data while small temperature drops are induced at the olfactory epithelium. Lastly, the post-acquisition analysis allows the morphological reconstruction of the thermosensitive network comprising the γ-glomerulus and its innervating mitral cells, based on specific temperature-induced Ca(2+) traces. Using chemical odorants as stimuli in addition to temperature jumps enables the comparison between thermosensitive and chemosensitive networks in the olfactory bulb.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3791/54108

  10 / 266103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27228373
[Au] Autor:Sagit M; Hira I; Polat H; Akay E; Yasar M
[Ad] Address:*Department of Ear Nose and Throat †Department of Pathology, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:A Rare Cause of Hoarseness: Laryngeal Verruca Vulgaris.
[So] Source:J Craniofac Surg;27(4):e397-8, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1536-3732
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Verruca vulgaris is a cutaneous disease manifested with a single or multiple, small painless lesions that may involve keratinized or nonkeratinized epithelium. It can be localized at skin or mucosa. It is a benign lesion; however, it is of importance to discriminate from verrucous carcinoma to plan treatment, especially in those with laryngeal localization. Total excision is adequate in the management of verruca vulgaris; thus, accurate differential diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions. Here, the authors presented a patient with verruca vulgaris which was totally excised by cold-blade surgical excision.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:D
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000002670


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