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[PMID]: 25010141
[Au] Autor:Gay DL; Yang CC; Plikus MV; Ito M; Rivera C; Treffeisen E; Doherty L; Spata M; Millar SE; Cotsarelis G
[Ad] Address:Department of Dermatology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA....
[Ti] Title:CD133 Expression Correlates with Membrane Beta-Catenin and E-Cadherin Loss from Human Hair Follicle Placodes during Morphogenesis.
[So] Source:J Invest Dermatol;135(1):45-55, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1747
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Genetic studies suggest that the major events of human hair follicle development are similar to those in mice, but detailed analyses of this process are lacking. In mice, hair follicle placode "budding" is initiated by invagination of Wnt-induced epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Modification of adherens junctions (AJs) is clearly required for budding. Snail-mediated downregulation of AJ component E-cadherin is important for placode budding in mice. Beta-catenin, another AJ component, has been more difficult to study owing to its essential functions in Wnt signaling, a prerequisite for hair follicle placode induction. Here, we show that a subset of human invaginating hair placode cells expresses the stem cell marker CD133 during early morphogenesis. CD133 associates with membrane beta-catenin in early placodes, and its continued expression correlates with loss of beta-catenin and E-cadherin from the cell membrane at a time when E-cadherin transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are not implicated. Stabilization of CD133 via anti-CD133 antibody treatment of human fetal scalp explants depresses beta-catenin and E-cadherin membrane localization. We discuss this unique correlation and suggest a hypothetical model whereby CD133 promotes morphogenesis in early hair follicle placodes through the localized removal of membrane beta-catenin proteins and subsequent AJ dissolution.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 150117
[Lr] Last revision date:150117
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.292

  2 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25324515
[Au] Autor:Birukov KG
[Ad] Address:Lung Injury Center, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois kbirukov@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu.
[Ti] Title:Balancing between stiff and soft: a life-saving compromise for lung epithelium in lung injury.
[So] Source:J Appl Physiol (1985);117(11):1213-4, 2014 Dec 1.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1601
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141209
[Lr] Last revision date:141209
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00912.2014

  3 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25040109
[Au] Autor:Nakajima Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Signaling regulating inner ear development: Cell fate determination, patterning, morphogenesis, and defects.
[So] Source:Congenit Anom (Kyoto);55(1):17-25, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1741-4520
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The membranous labyrinth of the inner ear is a highly complex organ that detects sound and balance. Developmental defects in the inner ear cause congenital hearing loss and balance disorders. The membranous labyrinth consists of three semicircular ducts, the utricle, saccule, and endolymphatic ducts, and the cochlear duct. These complex structures develop from the simple otic placode, which is established in the cranial ectoderm adjacent to the neural crest at the level of the hindbrain at the early neurula stage. During development, the otic placode invaginates to form the otic vesicle, which subsequently gives rise to neurons for the vestibulocochlear ganglion, the non-sensory and sensory epithelia of the membranous labyrinth that includes three ampullary crests, two maculae, and the organ of Corti. Combined paracrine and autocrine signals including fibroblast growth factor, Wnt, retinoic acid, hedgehog, and bone morphogenetic protein regulate fate determination, axis formation, and morphogenesis in the developing inner ear. Juxtacrine signals mediated by Notch pathways play a role in establishing the sensory epithelium, which consists of mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells. The highly differentiated organ of Corti, which consists of uniformly oriented inner/outer hair cells and specific supporting cells, develops during fetal development. Developmental alterations/arrest causes congenital malformations in the inner ear in a spatiotemporal-restricted manner. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying inner ear development is important not only for the management of patients with congenital inner ear malformations, but also for the development of regenerative therapy for impaired function.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/cga.12072

  4 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25377249
[Au] Autor:Jia Y; Kim JH; Nam B; Kim J; Lee JH; Kim KO; Hwang KY; Lee SJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Room 410, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology EAST Bldg, Anam-5-ga, 136-713, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:The Dipeptide H-Trp-Arg-OH (WR) Is a PPARα Agonist and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Lipid-Loaded H4IIE Cells.
[So] Source:Appl Biochem Biotechnol;175(2):1211-20, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1559-0291
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dipeptides absorbed by the intestinal epithelium are delivered to circulation, but their metabolic roles are not yet clearly understood. We investigated the biological activities of a dietary dipeptide, H-Trp-Arg-OH (WR), on the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α activity. Reporter gene assays revealed that WR dose-dependently induced PPARα transactivation. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that WR interacts directly with the PPARα ligand binding domain, and time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer analyses revealed recruitment of a co-activator peptide, fluorescein-PGC1α, to PPARα, confirming the direct binding of WR to PPARα and occurrence of conformational changes. WR induced cellular fatty acid uptake and the expression of PPARα response genes in fatty acid oxidation, thus reducing intracellular triglyceride accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes. In conclusion, the dietary dipeptide WR activates PPARα and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12010-014-1302-7

  5 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25532671
[Au] Autor:Volgger V; Sharma GK; Jing JC; Peaks YS; Loy AC; Lazarow F; Wang A; Qu Y; Su E; Chen Z; Ahuja GS; Wong BJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, 80539 Mnchen, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Long-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of the pediatric subglottis.
[So] Source:Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol;79(2):119-26, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8464
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) most commonly results from prolonged endotracheal intubation and is a diagnostic challenge in the intubated child. At present, no imaging modality allows for in vivo characterization of subglottic microanatomy to identify early signs of acquired SGS while the child remains intubated. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a minimally invasive, light-based imaging modality which provides high resolution, three dimensional (3D) cross-sectional images of biological tissue. We used long-range FD-OCT to image the subglottis in intubated pediatric patients undergoing minor head and neck surgical procedures in the operating room. METHODS: A long-range FD-OCT system and rotary optical probes (1.2mm and 0.7mm outer diameters) were constructed. Forty-six pediatric patients (ages 2-16 years) undergoing minor upper airway surgery (e.g., tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy) were selected for intraoperative, trans-endotracheal tube FD-OCT of the subglottis. Images were analyzed for anatomical landmarks and subepithelial histology. Volumetric image sets were rendered into virtual 3D airway models in Mimics software. RESULTS: FD-OCT was performed on 46 patients (ages 2-16 years) with no complications. Gross airway contour was visible on all 46 data sets. Twenty (43%) high-quality data sets clearly demonstrated airway anatomy (e.g., tracheal rings, cricoid and vocal folds) and layered microanatomy of the mucosa (e.g., epithelium, basement membrane and lamina propria). The remaining 26 data sets were discarded due to artifact, high signal-to-noise ratio or missing data. 3D airway models were allowed for user-controlled manipulation and multiplanar airway slicing (e.g., sagittal, coronal) for visualization of OCT data at multiple anatomic levels simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Long-range FD-OCT produces high-resolution, 3D volumetric images of the pediatric subglottis. This technology offers a safe and practical means for in vivo evaluation of lower airway microanatomy in intubated pediatric patients. Ultimately, FD-OCT may be applied to serial monitoring of the neonatal subglottis in long-term intubated infants at risk for acquired SGS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25496702
[Au] Autor:Hirsch L; Nazari H; Sreekumar PG; Kannan R; Dustin L; Zhu D; Barron E; Hinton DR
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, United States....
[Ti] Title:TGF-2 secretion from RPE decreases with polarization and becomes apically oriented.
[So] Source:Cytokine;71(2):394-6, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0023
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) secretes transforming growth factor beta 1 and 2 (TGF-1 and -2) cytokines involved in fibrosis, immune privilege, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Since RPE cell polarity may be altered in various disease conditions including PVR and age-related macular degeneration, we determined levels of TGF- from polarized human RPE (hRPE) and human stem cell derived RPE (hESC-RPE) as compared to nonpolarized cells. TGF-2 was the predominant isoform in all cell culture conditions. Nonpolarized cells secreted significantly more TGF-2 supporting the contention that loss of polarity of RPE in PVR leads to rise of intravitreal TGF-2. Active TGF-2, secreted mainly from apical side of polarized RPE, represented 6-10% of total TGF-2. In conclusion, polarity is an important determinant of TGF-2 secretion in RPE. Low levels of apically secreted active TGF-2 may play a role in the normal physiology of the subretinal space. Comparable secretion of TGF- from polarized hESC-RPE and hRPE supports the potential for hESC-RPE in RPE replacement therapies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24563778
[Au] Autor:Tria S; Jimison LH; Hama A; Bongo M; Owens RM
[Ad] Address:Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Suprieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC 880 Rue de Mimet, Gardanne 13541, France....
[Ti] Title:Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor.
[So] Source:Biosensors (Basel);3(1):44-57, 2013 Jan 8.
[Is] ISSN:2079-6374
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Barrier tissue protects the body against external factors by restricting the passage of molecules. The gastrointestinal epithelium is an example of barrier tissue with the primary purpose of allowing the passage of ions and nutrients, while restricting the passage of pathogens and toxins. It is well known that the loss of barrier function can be instigated by a decrease in extracellular calcium levels, leading to changes in protein conformation and an increase in paracellular transport. In this study, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA), a calcium chelator, was used to disrupt the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. The effect of EGTA on barrier tissue was monitored by a novel label-free method based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) integrated with living cells and validated against conventional methods for measuring barrier tissue integrity. We demonstrate that the OECT can detect breaches in barrier tissue upon exposure to EGTA with the same sensitivity as existing methods but with increased temporal resolution. Due to the potential of low cost processing techniques and the flexibility in design associated with organic electronics, the OECT has great potential for high-throughput, disposable sensing and diagnostics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150116
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3390/bios3010044

  8 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25411392
[Au] Autor:Kim B; Roy J; Shum WW; Da Silva N; Breton S
[Ad] Address:Center for Systems Biology, Program in Membrane Biology and Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts....
[Ti] Title:Role of testicular luminal factors on Basal cell elongation and proliferation in the mouse epididymis.
[So] Source:Biol Reprod;92(1):9, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1529-7268
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A subset of basal cells (BCs) in the initial segment (IS) of the mouse epididymis has a slender body projection between adjacent epithelial cells. We show here that these projections occasionally cross the apical tight junctions and are in contact with the luminal environment. Luminal testicular factors are critical for the establishment of the IS epithelium, and we investigated their role in the regulation of this luminal sensing property. Efferent duct ligation (EDL) was performed to block luminal flow from the testis without affecting blood flow. Cytokeratin 5 (KRT5) labeling showed a time-dependent reduction of the percentage of BCs with intercellular projections from 1 to 5 days after EDL, compared to controls. Double labeling for caspase-3 and KRT5 showed that a subset of BCs undergoes apoptosis 1 day after EDL. Ki67/KRT5 double labeling showed a low rate of BC proliferation under basal conditions. However, EDL induced a marked increase in the proliferation rate of a subset of BCs 2 days after EDL. A 2-wk treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide did not affect the number of BCs with intercellular projections, but reduced BC proliferation. Flutamide treatment also reduced the increase in BC proliferation induced 2 days after EDL. We conclude that, in the adult mouse IS, 1) luminal testicular factors play an important role in the ability of BCs to extend their body projection towards the lumen, and are essential for the survival of a subset of BCs; 2) androgens play an important role in the proliferation of some of the BCs that survive the initial insult induced by EDL; and 3) the formation and elongation of BC intercellular projections do not depend on androgens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.114.123943

  9 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25550509
[Au] Autor:Schwartzman JA; Koch E; Heath-Heckman EA; Zhou L; Kremer N; McFall-Ngai MJ; Ruby EG
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706....
[Ti] Title:The chemistry of negotiation: Rhythmic, glycan-driven acidification in a symbiotic conversation.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;112(2):566-71, 2015 Jan 13.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Glycans have emerged as critical determinants of immune maturation, microbial nutrition, and host health in diverse symbioses. In this study, we asked how cyclic delivery of a single host-derived glycan contributes to the dynamic stability of the mutualism between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its specific, bioluminescent symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. V. fischeri colonizes the crypts of a host organ that is used for behavioral light production. E. scolopes synthesizes the polymeric glycan chitin in macrophage-like immune cells called hemocytes. We show here that, just before dusk, hemocytes migrate from the vasculature into the symbiotic crypts, where they lyse and release particulate chitin, a behavior that is established only in the mature symbiosis. Diel transcriptional rhythms in both partners further indicate that the chitin is provided and metabolized only at night. A V. fischeri mutant defective in chitin catabolism was able to maintain a normal symbiont population level, but only until the symbiotic organ reached maturity (∼4 wk after colonization); this result provided a direct link between chitin utilization and symbiont persistence. Finally, catabolism of chitin by the symbionts was also specifically required for a periodic acidification of the adult crypts each night. This acidification, which increases the level of oxygen available to the symbionts, enhances their capacity to produce bioluminescence at night. We propose that other animal hosts may similarly regulate the activities of epithelium-associated microbial communities through the strategic provision of specific nutrients, whose catabolism modulates conditions like pH or anoxia in their symbionts' habitat.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1418580112

  10 / 253290 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25584317
[Au] Autor:Sharva V; Reddy V; Bhambal A; Agrawal R
[Ad] Address:Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences and RC , Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India ....
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of Gingivitis among Children of Urban and Rural Areas of Bhopal District, India.
[So] Source:J Clin Diagn Res;8(11):ZC52-4, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:2249-782X
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is inflammation of the soft tissue without apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Redness, oedema and bleeding on probing characterize this condition. Untreated cases may lead to a more complex and destructive entity known as chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are the main cause of tooth loss. Poor oral health has thus the potential of hampering the quality of life. So the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of gingivitis, among school-going children of urban and rural areas of Bhopal district, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 & 15 y old middle and high school government rural and urban school children of Bhopal district. It was conducted of a period of two months. 1100 Children were examined by using WHO (modified) oral health assessment form, Loe and Silness index was used for recording gingival status. For statistical analysis SPSS version 20 was used. The chi-square test was applied for categorical data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Prevalence of gingivitis was 59% found. 584 (53.09 %) children had mild gingivitis,61(5.5%) children had moderate gingivitis. CONCLUSION: This indicates the need for community health activities and awareness program.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150116
[Lr] Last revision date:150116
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150113
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10092.5135


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