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[PMID]: 25045600
[Au] Autor:Jiménez AJ; Domínguez-Pinos MD; Guerra MM; Fernández-Llebrez P; Pérez-Fígares JM
[Ad] Address:Department of Cell Biology, Genetics, and Physiology; University of Malaga; Malaga, Spain....
[Ti] Title:Structure and function of the ependymal barrier and diseases associated with ependyma disruption.
[So] Source:Tissue Barriers;2:e28426, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2168-8362
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The neuroepithelium is a germinal epithelium containing progenitor cells that produce almost all of the central nervous system cells, including the ependyma. The neuroepithelium and ependyma constitute barriers containing polarized cells covering the embryonic or mature brain ventricles, respectively; therefore, they separate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills cavities from the developing or mature brain parenchyma. As barriers, the neuroepithelium and ependyma play key roles in the central nervous system development processes and physiology. These roles depend on mechanisms related to cell polarity, sensory primary cilia, motile cilia, tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions, machinery for endocytosis and molecule secretion, and water channels. Here, the role of both barriers related to the development of diseases, such as neural tube defects, ciliary dyskinesia, and hydrocephalus, is reviewed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140721
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4161/tisb.28426

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[PMID]: 24590515
[Au] Autor:Kolli S; Ahmad S; Mudhar HS; Meeny A; Lako M; Figueiredo FC
[Ad] Address:Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom; Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Successful application of ex vivo expanded human autologous oral mucosal epithelium for the treatment of total bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency.
[So] Source:Stem Cells;32(8):2135-46, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1549-4918
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ocular surface reconstruction with ex vivo expanded limbal stem cells (LSCs) is a widely used clinical treatment for patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This is not applicable to patients with bilateral LSCD where there are no remaining LSCs. Cultivated oral mucosa epithelium (OME) has been used as an alternative source of autologous epithelial stem cells for ocular reconstruction in few clinical trials. However, successful generation of stratified OME epithelium has only been achieved in the presence of animal feeder cells and/or animal-derived products in the culture media, likely to contribute to increased risk of pathogen transmission and graft rejection. In this study, we report generation of multilayered OME epithelium that shares many of the characteristics of corneal epithelium using a fully compliant good manufacturing practice, feeder- and animal product-free method. Proof of concept was achieved by transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded OME in two patients with histologically confirmed bilateral total LSCD that resulted in successful reversal of LSCD in the treated eye up to 24 months. Stem Cells 2014;32:2135-2146.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/stem.1694

  3 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25045748
[Au] Autor:Gadelha IC; de Lima JM; Batista JS; Melo MM; Soto-Blanco B
[Ad] Address:Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), BR 110 Km 47, 59628-360 Mossoró, RN, Brazil....
[Ti] Title:Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002) Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
[So] Source:ScientificWorldJournal;2014:851473, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1537-744X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002) parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel's diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel's diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/851473

  4 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25045743
[Au] Autor:Aragona P; Colosi P; Rania L; Colosi F; Pisani A; Puzzolo D; Micali A
[Ad] Address:Department of Experimental Medical-Surgical Sciences, Regional Referral Center for the Ocular Surface Diseases, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy....
[Ti] Title:Protective effects of trehalose on the corneal epithelial cells.
[So] Source:ScientificWorldJournal;2014:717835, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1537-744X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE) and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE), the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/717835

  5 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24902489
[Au] Autor:Marettová E; Maretta M
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy, Histology and Physiology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Kosice, Slovakia.
[Ti] Title:An immunohistochemical observations on the oviduct of the goat.
[So] Source:Reprod Domest Anim;49(4):679-83, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0531
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The oviduct has an important role in regulating transport of gametes and fertilization. The main role in these functions has a smooth muscle cells and ciliated epithelium lining the oviduct. All functions are under the influence of hormonal and nervous system. The objective of this study was immunohistochemically to examine the following structures: lining epithelium, smooth muscle cells, elastic fibres and nerve fibres. For this purpose, the following antibodies were used: cytokeratin 18, S-100 protein, acetylated α-tubulin, smooth muscle actin, desmin and elastin. Ciliary and secretory cells of the lining epithelium were positive for cytokeratin 18 and S-100 protein. Cilia and the basal body-associated structures of ciliary cells were positive to acetylated α-tubulin. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) in mucosa and of the muscular layer were positive for α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin. High density of nerve fibres positively reacted to acetylated α-tubulin and S100 protein was present in the mucosa, muscular layer and serosa. Elastic fibres positive for elastin form a dense network at the base of the mucosal folds and in the muscle layer. A dense network of these fibres is accompanying the blood vessels. It is supposed that together with smooth muscle cells they are involved in the transport of ovum and in blood flow regulation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/rda.12349

  6 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24754669
[Au] Autor:Leethongdee S; Khalid M; Scaramuzzi R
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Mahasarakham University, Amphur Muang, Mahasarakham, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:The effect of the intracervical application of follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone on the pattern of expression of gonadotrophin receptors in the cervix of non-pregnant ewes.
[So] Source:Reprod Domest Anim;49(4):568-75, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0531
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:During the periovulatory period, the cervix relaxes in response to changes in circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones. The present study investigated the role of gonadotrophins in cervical function by examining the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and their mRNAs following intracervical treatment with either FSH or LH. Eighteen ewes were assigned to four groups, and they were then treated with progestagen sponges and PMSG to synchronize their oestrous cycles. Intracervical treatments were given 24 h after sponge removal as follows: Group 1: FSH 2 mg; Group 2: LH 2 mg; Group 3: Vehicle and Group 4: Control. Cervices were collected 54 h after sponge removal and then divided into three regions. The expression of FSHR and LHR was determined by immunohistochemistry and FSHR mRNA and LH mRNA by in situ hybridization. The expression of LHR, FSHR and their respective mRNAs was compared in six tissue layers (luminal epithelium, subepithelial stroma, circular, longitudinal and transverse muscle and serosa) and in three cervical regions (vaginal, mid and uterine). The results showed that FSH increased transcription of the FSHR gene and the levels of its receptor, but only in subepithelial stroma of the cervix. FSH also increased the levels of LHR in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers. LH had no effect on the levels of FSHR despite the fact that it did increase the level of transcription of the FSHR gene and LH also increased the levels of its own receptor in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers, and this action was independent of increased levels of transcription of the LHR gene. These findings suggest multiple levels of regulation of cervical LH and FSH receptors and that the gonadotrophins may have a role in relaxation of the cervix during oestrus by regulating their own receptors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/rda.12312

  7 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24785271
[Au] Autor:Parra A; Gonzalez-Gonzalez O; Gallar J; Belmonte C
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernandez-CSIC, San Juan de Alicante, Spain....
[Ti] Title:Tear fluid hyperosmolality increases nerve impulse activity of cold thermoreceptor endings of the cornea.
[So] Source:Pain;155(8):1481-91, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6623
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder affecting the composition and volume of tears. DED causes ocular surface dryness, cooling, and hyperosmolality, leading ultimately to corneal epithelium damage and reduced visual performance. Ocular discomfort is the main clinical symptom in DED. However, the peripheral neural source of such unpleasant sensations is still unclear. We analyzed in excised, superfused mouse eyes, the effect of NaCl-induced hyperosmolality (325-1005mOsm·kg(-1)) on corneal cold thermoreceptor and polymodal nociceptor nerve terminal impulse (NTI) activity. Osmolality elevations at basal corneal temperature (33.6°C) linearly increased the ongoing NTI frequency of cold thermoreceptors, at a mean rate of 0.34imp·s(-1)/10mOsm. This frequency increase became significant with osmolality values greater than 340mOsm. Comparison of cold thermoreceptor activity increase induced by a dynamic temperature reduction of 1.8°C under iso- and hyperosmolal (360-mOsm) conditions provided evidence that more than 50% of the increased firing response was attributable to hyperosmolality. Comparatively, activation of corneal polymodal nociceptor endings by hyperosmolal solutions started with values of 600mOsm and greater. Sensitization of polymodal nociceptors by continuous perfusion with an "inflammatory soup" (bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E2 [PGE2], serotonin, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) did not enhance their activation by hyperosmolal solutions. High osmolality also altered the firing pattern and shape of cold and polymodal NTIs, possibly reflecting disturbances in local membrane currents. Results strongly suggest that tear osmolality elevations in the range observed in DED predominantly excite cold thermoreceptors, supporting the hypothesis that dryness sensations experienced by these patients are due, at least in part, to an augmented activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24954839
[Au] Autor:Forsgård RA; Korpela R; Stenman LK; Osterlund P; Holma R
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, Medical Nutrition Physiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
[Ti] Title:Deoxycholic acid induced changes in electrophysiological parameters and macromolecular permeability in murine small intestine with and without functional enteric nervous system plexuses.
[So] Source:Neurogastroenterol Motil;26(8):1179-87, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2982
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: We have previously shown in mice that the fecal proportion and concentration of the hydrophobic bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is elevated with high-fat feeding and that these changes are able to disrupt the intestinal barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these changes are mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS). METHODS: The function of the ENS in the small intestinal tissues of mice was compromised by two different methods: by removing the seromuscular layer and by incubating the intact tissues with tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neural conduction blocker, before DCA treatment. Tissues with or without functional plexuses were mounted into a Ussing chamber system and treated with 3 mM DCA for 20 min. After DCA treatment, the intestinal permeability to fluorescein was assessed. Short-circuit current (Isc ) and transepithelial resistance (TER) were recorded throughout the experiment. KEY RESULTS: DCA increased intestinal fluorescein permeability only in tissues where the seromuscular layer was removed. In tissues with intact seromuscular layer, DCA induced a significant increase in TER, which was attenuated by blocking of the neural function by TTX. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: The results of this study suggest that the DCA-induced increase observed in fluorescein permeability is not mediated through neural pathways, but more due to a direct effect on the epithelium. However, as TTX was able to attenuate the DCA-induced increase in TER, it can be speculated that DCA is also able to elicit responses through neural pathways.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/nmo.12383

  9 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24842112
[Au] Autor:Haedersdal M; Sakamoto FH; Farinelli WA; Doukas AG; Tam J; Anderson RR
[Ad] Address:Department of Dermatology, Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114; Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2400, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Pretreatment with ablative fractional laser changes kinetics and biodistribution of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL).
[So] Source:Lasers Surg Med;46(6):462-9, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9101
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) are porphyrin precursors used topically for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Previous studies have established that ablative fractional laser (AFXL) increases topical drug uptake. We evaluated kinetics and biodistribution of ALA- and MAL-induced porphyrins on intact and disrupted skin due to AFXL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two Yorkshire swine were exposed to CO2 AFXL (10.6 µm, 1,850 µm ablation depth) and subsequent topical application of ALA and MAL cream formulations (20%, weight/weight). Porphyrin fluorescence was quantified by digital fluorescence photography (30, 90, and 180 minutes) and fluorescence microscopy at specific skin depths (180 minutes). RESULTS: Porphyrins gradually formed over time, differently on intact and AFXL-disrupted skin. On intact skin (no AFXL), fluorescence photography showed that MAL initially induced higher fluorescence than ALA (t = 30 minutes MAL 21.1 vs. ALA 7.7 au, t = 90 minutes MAL 39.0 vs. ALA 26.6 (P < 0.009)) but reached similar intensities for long-term applications (t = 180 minutes MAL 56.6 vs. ALA 52 au, P = ns). AFXL considerably enhanced porphyrin fluorescence from both photosensitizers (P < 0.05). On AFXL-exposed skin, MAL expressed higher fluorescence than ALA for short-term application (t = 30 minutes, AFXL-MAL 26.4 vs. AFXL-ALA 14.1 au, P < 0.001), whereas ALA over time overcame MAL and induced the highest fluorescence intensities obtained (t = 180 minutes, AFXL-MAL 98.6 vs. AFXL-ALA 112.0 au, P < 0.001). In deep skin layers, fluorescence microscopy showed higher fluorescence in hair follicle epithelium for ALA than MAL (t = 180 minutes, 1.8 mm, AFXL-MAL 35.3 vs. AFXL-ALA 46.7 au, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AFXL changes kinetics and biodistribution of ALA and MAL. It appears that AFXL-ALA favors targeting deep structures. Lasers Surg. Med. 46:462-469, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/lsm.22259

  10 / 249150 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24102429
[Au] Autor:Fujihara R; Usui M; Yamamoto G; Nishii K; Tsukamoto Y; Okamatsu Y; Sato T; Asou Y; Nakashima K; Yamamoto M
[Ad] Address:Department of Periodontology, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Tumor necrosis factor-α enhances RANKL expression in gingival epithelial cells via protein kinase A signaling.
[So] Source:J Periodontal Res;49(4):508-17, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0765
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder of the supporting tissue of teeth, which is composed of gingival soft tissue, cementum covering the tooth root, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is known to be an essential factor for osteoclastogenesis. Recent clinical studies indicate that levels of RANKL in the gingival crevicular fluid are increased while levels of its decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), are decreased in patients with periodontitis. Although the gingival sulcus is composed of gingival tissue, RANKL and OPG expression in gingival epithelial cells is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of RANKL and OPG in gingival tissue and which factors regulate RANKL expression in gingival epithelial cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to confirm RANKL and OPG expression in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) and in gingival tissue. Immunostaining was also examined to confirm tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) expression in gingival tissue. Ca9-22 cells, a human gingival epithelial cell line and human primary GECs were treated with TNF-α. Ca9-22 cells were treated by antibodies against TNF receptors, an inhibitor and an activator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and inhibitors of p38, Erk and NF-κB signaling to examine TNF-α-RANKL signaling pathways. RESULTS: RANKL mRNA and protein were expressed in GECs. Immunohistochemistry also showed RANKL expression in gingival tissue. On the other hand, the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry assay showed that GECs did not express OPG. In addition, TNF-α and TNFR1 proteins were expressed in junctional epithelium. TNF-α increased RANKL expression in GECs. TNF-α-induced RANKL expression was inhibited by an antibody against TNFR1 and an inhibitor of PKA signaling. Surprisingly, forskolin, a PKA activator, increased TNF-α-induced RANKL expression. CONCLUSION: RANKL, TNF and TNFR1 were coexpressed in junctional epithelium of gingival tissue. TNF-α induced RANKL expression via TNFR1 and PKA signaling in GECs of junctional epithelium.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:D; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/jre.12131


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