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[PMID]: 29524851
[Au] Autor:Tajima T; Tateuchi H; Koyama Y; Ikezoe T; Ichihashi N
[Ad] Address:Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address: tajima.toshiki.46v@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Gait strategies to reduce the dynamic joint load in the lower limbs during a loading response in young healthy adults.
[So] Source:Hum Mov Sci;58:260-267, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7646
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reducing external joint moments during gait can lead to a reduction in dynamic joint load. There has yet to be a detailed investigation of gait strategies that can reduce external joint moments by decreasing the magnitude of ground reaction force (GRF) without reducing the walking speed. The objectives of this study were to verify whether it is possible to reduce external joint moments by decreasing the GRF magnitude without reducing the walking speed and to identify the alternative walking strategy involved in young healthy adults. This study included 14 young healthy subjects. They performed two types of walking: normal and impact reduction walking. For impact reduction walking, the subjects walked in a manner that reduced the impact upon foot contact. Cadence and step length were unified between the two conditions. The walking speed, peak value of vertical GRF, braking-accelerating force, loading rate, joint angle, and external joint moments of the two conditions were recorded and compared. No significant difference was noted in the walking speed. However, the first peak of vertical GRF, braking force, and loading rate during loading response were significantly reduced during impact reduction walking, and external joint moments in the hip, knee, and ankle joints were reduced. In contrast, the second peak of vertical GRF, hip extension angle, and external ankle dorsiflexion moment were significantly increased during terminal stance. Our data imply that the ankle joint function during the terminal stance is important in reducing the dynamic joint load in the contralateral leg during the loading response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524798
[Au] Autor:Buldt AK; Allan JJ; Landorf KB; Menz HB
[Ad] Address:La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3086, Australia; Discipline of Podiatry, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3086, Australia. Electronic address: a.buldt@latrobe.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:The relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking in adults: A systematic review.
[So] Source:Gait Posture;62:56-67, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2219
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Foot posture is a risk factor for some lower limb injuries, however the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Plantar pressure analysis is one technique to investigate the interaction between foot posture and biomechanical function of the lower limb. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Embase to identify studies that have assessed the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Inconsistencies included foot posture classification techniques, gait analysis protocols, selection of plantar pressure parameters and statistical analysis approaches. RESULTS: Of the 4213 citations identified for title and abstract review, sixteen studies were included and underwent quality assessment; all were of moderate methodological quality. There was some evidence that planus feet display higher peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area predominantly in the medial arch, central forefoot and hallux, while these variables are lower in the lateral and medial forefoot. In contrast, cavus feet display higher peak pressure and pressure-time integral in the heel and lateral forefoot, while pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area are lower for the midfoot and hallux. Centre of pressure was more laterally deviated in cavus feet and more medially deviated in planus feet. Overall, effect sizes were moderate, but regression models could only explain a small amount of variance in plantar pressure variables. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite these significant findings, future research would benefit from greater methodological rigour, particularly in relation to the use of valid foot posture measurement techniques, gait analysis protocols, and standardised approaches for analysis and reporting of plantar pressure variables.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524796
[Au] Autor:Motesharei A; Rowe P; Blyth M; Jones B; Maclean A
[Ad] Address:Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow East, Glasgow, G4 0NW, UK. Electronic address: armanrei@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A comparison of gait one year post operation in an RCT of robotic UKA versus traditional Oxford UKA.
[So] Source:Gait Posture;62:41-45, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2219
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Robot-assisted unicompartmental knee surgery has been shown to improve the accuracy of implant alignment. However, little research has been conducted to ascertain if this results in a measureable improvement in knee function post operatively and a more normal gait. The kinematics of 70 OA knees were assessed using motion analysis in an RCT (31 receiving robotic-assisted surgery, and 39 receiving traditional manual surgery) and compared to healthy knees. Statistically significant kinematic differences were seen between the two surgical groups from foot-strike to mid-stance. The robotic-assisted group achieved a higher knee excursion (18.0°, SD 4.9°) compared to the manual group (15.7°, SD 4.1°). There were no significant difference between the healthy group and the robotic assisted group, however there was a significant difference between the healthy group and the manual group (p < 0.001). Hence robotically-assisted knee replacement with Mako Restoris Implants appears to lead not only to better implant alignment but also some kinematic benefits to the user during gait.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524643
[Au] Autor:Onishi O; Ikoma K; Oda R; Yamazaki T; Fujiwara H; Yamada S; Tanaka M; Kubo T
[Ad] Address:Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 602-8566 465, Kajiicho, Kamigyo-ku Kyoto-shi, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address: pni_oki@yahoo.co.jp.
[Ti] Title:Sequential Variation in Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Rat Study.
[So] Source:Neurosci Lett;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7972
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia. We used a 7.04T MRI system. T weighted image, coronal slice, repetition time, 7 ms; echo time, 3.3 ms; field of view, 30 mm × 30 mm; pixel matrix, 64 × 64 by zero-filling; slice thickness, 2 mm; numbers of slices, 9; numbers of average, 2; and flip angle, 8 degrees. fMR images were acquired during electrical stimulation to the rat's foot sole; after 90 min, c-Fos immunohistochemical staining of the brain was performed in rats with induced peripheral nerve injury for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Data were pre-processed by realignment in the Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software. A General Linear Model first level analysis was used to obtain T-values. One week after the injury, significant changes were detected in the cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, and basal ganglia; at 6 weeks, the brain regions with significant changes in signal density were contracted; at 9 weeks, the amygdala and hippocampus showed activation. Histological findings of the rat brain supported the fMRI findings. We detected sequential activation in the rat brain using fMRI after sciatic nerve injury. Many brain regions were activated during the acute stage of peripheral nerve injury. Conversely, during the chronic stage, activation of the amygdala and hippocampus may be related to chronic-stage hyperalgesia, allodynia, and chronic neuropathic pain.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524635
[Au] Autor:Wallace JW; Rasman BG; Dalton BH
[Ad] Address:Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States.
[Ti] Title:Vestibular-evoked responses indicate a functional role for intrinsic foot muscles during standing balance.
[So] Source:Neuroscience;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7544
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Maintaining standing balance involves multisensory processing and integration to produce dynamic motor responses. Electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) delivered over the mastoid processes can be used to explore the vestibular control of balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrinsic foot muscles exhibit vestibular-evoked balance responses and to characterize the traits associated with these responses. Electromyography (EMG) of the abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi and medial gastrocnemius and anterior-posterior (AP) forces were sampled while quietly standing participants were subjected to a random continuous EVS signal (peak-to-peak amplitude = ±3 mA). The relationship between EVS input and motor output was characterized in both the frequency (coherence) and time (cumulant density) domains. When head orientation was rotated in yaw from left to right, the biphasic cumulant density function was inverted for all muscle (EVS-EMG) and wholse-body (EVS-AP forces) balance responses. When vision was occluded, the EVS-EMG and EVS-AP forces coherence function amplitude increased at low frequencies (<2 Hz) and was accompanied by a heightened medium-latency peak amplitude for all muscles as well as the whole-body balance response (AP forces) compared to when static visual cues were present. The enhanced coherence amplitudes at lower frequencies may highlight a mechanism for the increase in postural sway from vision to occluded vision. The current findings indicate that the vestibular control of standing balance can be represented by the intrinsic foot muscles and implicate a postural role for these muscles in modulating quiet standing.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524484
[Au] Autor:Shivaprasad C; Amit G; Anish K; Rakesh B; Anupam B; Aiswarya Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Endocrinology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, India. Electronic address: shvprsd.c@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Clinical correlates of sudomotor dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.
[So] Source:Diabetes Res Clin Pract;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8227
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: To investigate the factors associated with abnormal electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and early diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). METHODS: We recruited 523 consecutive patients with T2D (median age: 50 [interquartile range: 16] years; median T2D duration: 4 [5] years). Sudomotor dysfunction was defined as an ESC <60 µS, and DPN as a neuropathy disability score (NDS) ≥6. Logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of sudomotor dysfunction in patients with DPN. RESULTS: The prevalence of sudomotor dysfunction was 29% for all patients and 84.5% for patients with DPN. A significant negative correlation was observed between the NDS and ESC measurements (r = -0.52, p < 0.0001). In the univariate analysis, abnormal ESC measures were associated with age, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin, diabetic retinopathy, insulin therapy, and foot abnormalities. In the multivariate analysis, ESC abnormalities were associated with age, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin levels, insulin therapy, and foot deformities. There was a robust association between foot deformities and abnormal ESC (p = 0.049; odds ratio = 16.02) in patients with DPN. CONCLUSION: Sudomotor dysfunction is highly prevalent in patients with T2D, especially in those with DPN. Various diabetes-related factors were linked to lower ESC values, indicating an association between chronic hyperglycemia and sudomotor function. We also observed a strong relationship between foot deformities and ESC abnormalities. We conclude that the factors associated with DPN are also relevant to sudomotor dysfunction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506530
[Au] Autor:Wu CH; Mao HF; Hu JS; Wang TY; Tsai YJ; Hsu WL
[Ad] Address:Institute of Electrical Control Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:The effects of gait training using powered lower limb exoskeleton robot on individuals with complete spinal cord injury.
[So] Source:J Neuroeng Rehabil;15(1):14, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1743-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Powered exoskeleton can improve the mobility for people with movement deficits by providing mechanical support and facilitate the gait training. This pilot study evaluated the effect of gait training using a newly developed powered lower limb exoskeleton robot for individuals with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Two participants with a complete SCI were recruited for this clinical study. The powered exoskeleton gait training was 8 weeks, 1 h per session, and 2 sessions per week. The evaluation was performed before and after the training for (1) the time taken by the user to don and doff the powered exoskeleton independently, (2) the level of exertion perceived by participants while using the powered exoskeleton, and (3) the mobility performance included the timed up-and-go test, 10-m walk test, and 6-min walk test with the powered exoskeleton. The safety of the powered exoskeleton was evaluated on the basis of injury reports and the incidence of falls or imbalance while using the device. RESULTS: The results indicated that the participants were donning and doffing the powered lower limb exoskeleton robot independently with a lower level of exertion and walked faster and farther without any injury or fall incidence when using the powered exoskeleton than when using a knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Bone mineral densities was also increased after the gait training. No adverse effects, such as skin abrasions, or discomfort were reported while using the powered exoskeleton. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that individuals with complete SCI used the powered lower limb exoskeleton robot independently without any assistance after 8 weeks of powered exoskeleton gait training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: National Taiwan University Hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 201210051RIB . Name of registry: Hui-Fen Mao. URL of registry: Not available. Date of registration: December 12th, 2012. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: January 3rd, 2013.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12984-018-0355-1

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[PMID]: 29491344
[Au] Autor:Pfirman KS; Haile R
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Education, Camden Clark Medical Center, Parkersburg, WV, USA.
[Ti] Title:Intracardiac Abscess and Pacemaker Lead Infection Secondary to Hematogenous Dissemination of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus from a Prior Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Osteomyelitis.
[So] Source:Am J Case Rep;19:224-228, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1941-5923
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND Intracardiac abscesses are an unusual occurrence in developed countries. With the increase in use of implantable cardiac devices, the increase use of and advancements in antibiotics, and the longevity of patients with cardiac devices, one may expect an increase in such infections; however, case reports are rare. We are presenting a case in which hematogenous dissemination of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection from a lower extremity diabetic ulcer propagated into an infected pacemaker lead and ultimately an intracardiac abscess of the right atrium. CASE REPORT A 77-year-old male with a history of MSSA diabetic foot infection complicated by osteomyelitis presented with fever, syncope, and wide complex tachycardia, and he was found to have an intracardiac abscess and fibrinous lead vegetations. The patient was deemed too ill for invasive surgical intervention given his comorbidities, pacemaker generator replacement requirement, and intermittent ventricular tachycardia. The patient was subsequently sent home with oral antibiotics and home hospice per patient and family wishes. CONCLUSIONS This case demonstrated how hematogenous dissemination of MSSA infections from a diabetic foot ulcer and osteomyelitis can seed pacemaker hardware resulting in an intracardiac abscess. Unfortunately, our patient was too ill to undergo all procedures required to eradicate the abscess and infected pacemaker hardware. The standard of care would be complete hardware removal. Conservative management would include indefinite or prolonged antibiotic therapy, with the notion that intracardiac abscesses cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. This conservative management approach would be deemed necessary in a select population that cannot undergo surgical intervention.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29466720
[Au] Autor:Yokota H; Mizuguchi N; Kakigi R; Nakata H
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University, Nara City, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Modulation of corticospinal excitability during positive and negative motor imageries.
[So] Source:Neurosci Lett;672:1-5, 2018 Feb 18.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7972
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigated corticospinal excitability during positive (execution) and negative (suppression) imageries for the right and left upper and lower limbs. In the Positive Imagery tasks, sixteen subjects were instructed to repeatedly imagine rotation of the index finger of the right or left hand, or the ankle of the right or left foot. In the Negative Imagery tasks, they were asked to imagine the suppression of movements for the index finger of the right or left hand, or the ankle of the right or left foot. A single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the left hand primary motor cortex, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle under all conditions. The MEP amplitudes of the FDI were significantly larger in the Positive and Negative Imagery tasks than in the resting control task during motor imagery of the right hand, left hand, and left foot, but not during that of right foot. Our results indicate that imageries of suppressing hand and foot movements enhanced corticospinal excitability.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 120351 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29462715
[Au] Autor:Bai X; Li X; Tian J; Xu L; Wan J; Liu Y
[Ad] Address:Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address: xiaoyanbai@smu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:A new model of diabetic nephropathy in C57BL/6 mice challenged with advanced oxidation protein products.
[So] Source:Free Radic Biol Med;118:71-84, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4596
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:There remains a lack of robust mouse models with key features of advanced human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Few options of murine models of DN require mutations to be superimposed to obtain desired phenotypic characteristics. Most genetically modified mice are on the C57BL/6 background; however, they are notorious for resistance to develop DN. To overcome these conundrums, this study reports a novel DN model by challenging with advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. AOPPs-challenged diabetic C57BL/6 mice were more sensitive to develop progressive proteinuria, causing a 5.59-fold increase in urine albumin to creatinine ratio as compared to diabetic controls by 24 weeks. Typical lesions were present as demonstrated by significant diffuse mesangial expansion, diffuse podocyte foot process effacement, increased glomerular basement membrane thickness, focal arteriolar hyalinosis, mesangiolysis, and mild interstitial fibrosis. These changes were alleviated by losartan treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that AOPPs can accelerate the progression of DN in the resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain. Our studies offer a novel model for studying the pathogenesis of DN that resembles human diabetic kidney disease. It also makes it possible to interrogate the role of specific genetic modifications and to evaluate novel therapeutics to treat DN in preclinical setting.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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