Database : MEDLINE
Search on : fur and seals [Words]
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[PMID]: 29093175
[Au] Autor:Wierucka K; Pitcher BJ; Harcourt R; Charrier I
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, 2109 NSW, Australia kaja.wierucka@hdr.mq.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:The role of visual cues in mother-pup reunions in a colonially breeding mammal.
[So] Source:Biol Lett;13(11), 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1744-957X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parental care is an important factor influencing offspring survival and adult reproductive success in many vertebrates. Parent-offspring recognition ensures care is only directed to filial young, avoiding the costs of misallocated resource transfer. It is essential in colonial mammal species, such as otariids (fur seals and sea lions), in which repeated mother-offspring separations increase the risk of misdirecting maternal effort. Identification of otariid pups by mothers is known to be multi-modal, yet the role of visual cues in this process remains uncertain. We used three-dimensional visual models to investigate the importance of visual cues in maternal recognition of pups in Australian sea lions ( ). We showed that the colour pattern of pup pelage in the absence of any other sensory cues served to attract the attention of females and prompt investigation. Furthermore, females were capable of accurately distinguishing between models imitating the age-class of their own pup and those resembling older or younger age-classes. Our results suggest that visual cues facilitate age-class discrimination of pups by females and so are likely to play an important role in mother-pup reunions and recognition in otariid species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28845022
[Au] Autor:Oba M; Katayama Y; Naoi Y; Tsuchiaka S; Omatsu T; Okumura A; Nagai M; Mizutani T
[Ad] Address:Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animals, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Discovery of fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus in swine feces in Japan.
[So] Source:J Vet Med Sci;79(10):1664-1666, 2017 Oct 07.
[Is] ISSN:1347-7439
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fur seal feces-associated circular ssDNA virus (FSfaCV) was discovered in a pig for the first time in Japan using a next-generation sequencer with duplex-specific nuclease. Full genome of the virus showed approximately 92% similarity to FSfaCVs from New Zealand fur seals. Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of the ssDNA virus in 85 piglets in Japan, and 65 piglets were positive (76%) for the virus.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1292/jvms.16-0642

  3 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29073927
[Au] Autor:Nonnemann B; Chriél M; Larsen G; Hansen MS; Holm E; Pedersen K
[Ad] Address:Department for Immunology and Vaccinology, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 204, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. benon@vet.dtu.dk.
[Ti] Title:Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra).
[So] Source:Acta Vet Scand;59(1):74, 2017 Oct 26.
[Is] ISSN:1751-0147
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. RESULTS: In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark, detected in dead seals (n = 9) (lungs, throat or wounds) and otters (n = 2) (throat and foot). CONCLUSIONS: An infectious skin disorder in mink associated with A. phocae has started to occur in Danish farmed mink. The origin of the infection has not been identified and it is still not clear what the pathogenesis or the port of entry for A. phocae infections are.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171101
[Lr] Last revision date:171101
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13028-017-0342-8

  4 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28207376
[Au] Autor:Seguel M; Muñoz F; Navarrete MJ; Paredes E; Howerth E; Gottdenker N
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
[Ti] Title:Hookworm Infection in South American Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus australis) Pups.
[So] Source:Vet Pathol;54(2):288-297, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1544-2217
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343.3 intestinal hookworms and marked fibrinohemorrhagic peritonitis. In all pups that died as a consequence of hookworm infection, the intestinal villi were short, blunt, and fused, and there were variable numbers of free and intrahistiocytic gram-negative bacteria in submucosal hookworm feeding tracks, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, blood vessels, and liver sinusoids. Pups that died of causes unrelated to the hookworm infection (trauma) had hookworm feeding tracks confined to the apical portions of the mucosa, and moderate to marked catarrhal eosinophilic enteritis. The number of hookworms was negatively correlated with intestinal villous length and number of leukocytes in the intestine. Pups with hookworm peritoneal penetration had nematodes with little or no blood in the hookworm intestine, suggesting that lack of food for the nematode could be associated with peritoneal penetration. Findings suggest that the initial burden of larval infection, the level of the host tissue response, or a combination determine the number of nematodes in the intestine, the severity of hookworm tissue damage, and pup mortality.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fur Seals/parasitology
Hookworm Infections/veterinary
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bacteremia/complications
Bacteremia/mortality
Bacteremia/parasitology
Bacteremia/veterinary
Enteritis/complications
Enteritis/mortality
Enteritis/parasitology
Enteritis/veterinary
Female
Hookworm Infections/mortality
Hookworm Infections/parasitology
Male
Wounds and Injuries/mortality
Wounds and Injuries/veterinary
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171030
[Lr] Last revision date:171030
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0300985816677151

  5 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29051074
[Au] Autor:Shero MR; Bergfelt DR; Testa JW; Adams GP
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK 99508-4614, USA. Electronic address: mrshero@alaska.edu.
[Ti] Title:Pairing ultrasonography with endocrinology to elucidate underlying mechanisms of successful pregnancy in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus).
[So] Source:Gen Comp Endocrinol;255:78-89, 2017 Oct 16.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6840
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause. Within the first 3-4 weeks of active gestation, pregnant fur seals (n = 126) had a larger corpus luteum and fewer antral follicles than non-pregnant fur seals, or those still in diapause (n = 46). This suggests that the conceptus drives changes in ovarian status to convey its presence to the female. Morphological changes in the reproductive tract associated with pregnancy were not reflected in differences in endocrine profiles (estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and relaxin) between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Hormone concentrations correlated more strongly with calendar date than with the presence or size of the conceptus, demonstrating that none of these reproductive hormones were reliable markers for early pregnancy diagnosis. Instead, the northern fur seal's long diestrus may serve to reduce the probability of a temporal mismatch between corpus luteum regression and embryo implantation. Indeed, conception rates were high and confirmed rates of pregnancy loss were relatively low (11%). In this study, minimally-invasive ultrasonography was used in wild pinnipeds to detect very early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles >2 mm) in combination with ovarian and endocrine dynamics at the time of embryo implantation, shedding light on mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy. This study is also the first to track whether these same animals carried the embryo to term, by observing fur seals during the birthing season the following year. Data do not support the notion that decreased pregnancy rates or higher pregnancy loss rates are major contributing factors to the northern fur seal's population decline.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171027
[Lr] Last revision date:171027
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28539070
[Au] Autor:Emami-Khoyi A; Paterson AM; Hartley DA; Boren LJ; Cruickshank RH; Ross JG; Murphy EC; Else TA
[Ad] Address:a Center for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation , University of Johannesburg , Auckland Park , South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Mitogenomics data reveal effective population size, historical bottlenecks, and the effects of hunting on New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri).
[So] Source:Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal;:1-13, 2017 May 25.
[Is] ISSN:2470-1408
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) passed through a population bottleneck due to commercial sealing during the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries. To facilitate future management options, we reconstructed the demographic history of New Zealand fur seals in a Bayesian framework using maternally inherited, mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mitogenomic data suggested two separate clades (most recent common ancestor 5000 years ago) of New Zealand fur seals that survived large-scale human harvest. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity was high, with 45 singletons identified from 46 individuals although mean nucleotide diversity was low (0.012 ± 0.0061). Variation was not constrained geographically. Analyses of mitogenomes support the hypothesis for a population bottleneck approximately 35 generations ago, which coincides with the peak of commercial sealing. Mitogenomic data are consistent with a pre-human effective population size of approximately 30,000 that first declined to around 10,000 (due to the impact of Polynesian colonization, particularly in the first 100 years of their arrival into New Zealand), and then to 100-200 breeding individuals during peak of commercial sealing.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171026
[Lr] Last revision date:171026
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/24701394.2017.1325478

  7 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28981550
[Au] Autor:Hernández-Orts JS; Brandão M; Georgieva S; Raga JA; Crespo EA; Luque JL; Aznar FJ
[Ad] Address:Centro de Investigación Aplicada y Transferencia Tecnológica en Recursos Marinos Almirante Storni (CIMAS-CCT CONICET-CENPAT) y Escuela Superior de Ciencias Marinas (ESCiMar), Universidad Nacional del Comahue, San Antonio Oeste, Río Negro, Argentina.
[Ti] Title:From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0183809, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis) to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs) was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host) resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acanthocephala
Fur Seals/parasitology
Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology
Sea Lions/parasitology
Spheniscidae/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ecology
Female
Male
Phylogeny
Sex Ratio
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171022
[Lr] Last revision date:171022
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183809

  8 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28906018
[Au] Autor:Kohyama K; Inoshima Y
[Ad] Address:Izu Mito Sea Paradise, Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Normal hematology and serum chemistry of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in captivity.
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;36(5):345-350, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are endemic to the North Pacific Ocean. They were hunted for their fur and became endangered in the late 1800s, but their populations recovered following the introduction of protection laws. Recently, populations have been decreasing again, although the reasons are unclear. For individuals that are bred and reared in captivity as part of ex situ conservation projects, details of blood characteristics are essential to ensure good health. However, the normal ranges of hematology and serum chemistry of captive northern fur seals have not been defined. This study determined the normal ranges of hematology and serum chemistry of captive fur seals. Blood samples were collected every month for 2 years from four captive northern fur seals in Japan (three born in an aquarium and one kept in the same aquarium following rescue). Fifteen blood characteristics and 29 serum chemistry properties were compared with those previously reported for wild northern fur seals in the USA. Several parameters were not within the normal ranges reported previously in wild northern fur seals. In particular, levels of alkaline phosphatase was outside of the normal ranges previously reported. The hematological and serum chemistry ranges in this study can help provide a guideline for understanding the health of northern fur seals in captivity.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Erythrocytes/physiology
Fur Seals/blood
Hematocrit/veterinary
Hemoglobins/metabolism
Leukocytes/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Animals, Zoo
Blood Chemical Analysis/veterinary
Blood Platelets/physiology
Erythrocyte Indices
Erythrocyte Volume
Female
Male
Reference Books
Reticulocytes
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hemoglobins)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170914
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21376

  9 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28796843
[Au] Autor:Trukhanova IS; Grachev AI; Somov AG; Burkanov VN; Laidre KL; Boveng PL
[Ad] Address:Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:The commercial harvest of ice-associated seals in the Sea of Okhotsk, 1972-1994.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182725, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sealing log books from 75 out of 79 commercial harvest cruises carried out between 1972 and 1994 in the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia, were analyzed to describe spatial and temporal allocation of ice-associated seal harvest effort, species composition of catches, total harvest rates, and related parameters for species including ringed (Pusa hispida), ribbon (Histriophoca fasciata), bearded (Erignathus barbatus) and spotted (Phoca largha) seal. Variations in catch per unit effort were explored in relation to year, sea ice conditions, day of the year, and geographic location. In most years, the harvest was predominantly represented by ringed seals (mean = 0.43, range 0.25-0.67), followed by ribbon (mean = 0.31, range 0.15-0.43), spotted (mean = 0.19, range 0.11-0.35) and bearded seals (mean = 0.07, range 0.03-0.14). The struck-and-lost percentages were as high as 30-35% for ringed, bearded and spotted seals and 15-20% for ribbon seals. Catch per unit effort (number of seals/skiff*day) for ringed, ribbon, and spotted seals had a similar seasonal pattern with a distinct spike in catches for spotted seals in the first week of May, for ribbon seals in the last week of May, and for ringed seals in the second week of June. Catches of bearded seals showed a less pronounced temporal structure with a gradual increase toward the end of the harvest season in the majority of years. Spatial distribution of harvest effort followed closely with seal distribution obtained from aerial surveys. These data could be used as a source of information on seal herd location throughout the breeding and molting seasons and for more complex demographic or life-table models. We did not find any evidence of the decline of catch per unit effort over the study period. Timely introduction of state regulations and efficient harvest management apparently prevented severe depletion of ice-associated seal populations in the Sea of Okhotsk during the periods of their intense exploitation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fur Seals
Seals, Earless
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Distribution
Animals
Ice
Population
Russia
Seasons
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Ice)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170810
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182725

  10 / 632 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28250318
[Au] Autor:Mizukawa H; Ikenaka Y; Kakehi M; Nakayama S; Ishizuka M
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of Species Differences in Xenobiotic Metabolism in Non-experimental Animals.
[So] Source:Yakugaku Zasshi;137(3):257-263, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5231
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:jpn
[Ab] Abstract:The ability to metabolize xenobiotics in organisms has a wide degree of variation among organisms. This is caused by differences in the pattern of xenobiotic bioaccumulation among organisms, which affects their tolerance. It has been reported in the veterinary field that glucuronidation (UGT) activity in cats, acetylation activity in dogs and sulfation (SULT) activity in pigs are sub-vital in these species, respectively, and require close attention when prescribing the medicine. On the other hand, information about species differences in xenobiotics metabolism remains insufficient, especially in non-experimental animals. In the present study, we tried to elucidate xenobiotic metabolism ability, especially in phase II UGT conjugation of various non-experimental animals, by using newly constructed in vivo, in vitro and genomic techniques. The results indicated that marine mammals (Steller sea lion, northern fur seal, and Caspian seal) showed UGT activity as low as that in cats, which was significantly lower than in rats and dogs. Furthermore, UGT1A6 pseudogenes were found in the Steller sea lion and Northern fur seal; all Otariidae species are thought to have the UGT1A6 pseudogene as well. Environmental pollutants and drugs conjugated by UGT are increasing dramatically in the modern world, and their dispersal into the environment can be of great consequence to Carnivora species, whose low xenobiotic glucuronidation capacity makes them highly sensitive to these compounds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Species Specificity
Xenobiotics/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cats
Dogs
Environmental Pollutants
Fur Seals
Glucuronosyltransferase/genetics
Glucuronosyltransferase/physiology
Pseudogenes
Sea Lions
Swine
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Xenobiotics); EC 2.4.1.- (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT1A6); EC 2.4.1.17 (Glucuronosyltransferase)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171016
[Lr] Last revision date:171016
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/yakushi.16-00230-2


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