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[PMID]: 29443461
[Au] Autor:Stovall WR; Taylor HR; Black M; Grosser S; Rutherford K; Gemmell NJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Genetic sex assignment in wild populations using genotyping-by-sequencing data: A statistical threshold approach.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol Resour;, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1755-0998
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Establishing the sex of individuals in wild systems can be challenging and often requires genetic testing. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and other reduced-representation DNA sequencing (RRS) protocols (e.g., RADseq, ddRAD) have enabled the analysis of genetic data on an unprecedented scale. Here, we present a novel approach for the discovery and statistical validation of sex-specific loci in GBS data sets. We used GBS to genotype 166 New Zealand fur seals (NZFS, Arctocephalus forsteri) of known sex. We retained monomorphic loci as potential sex-specific markers in the locus discovery phase. We then used (i) a sex-specific locus threshold (SSLT) to identify significantly male-specific loci within our data set; and (ii) a significant sex-assignment threshold (SSAT) to confidently assign sex in silico the presence or absence of significantly male-specific loci to individuals in our data set treated as unknowns (98.9% accuracy for females; 95.8% for males, estimated via cross-validation). Furthermore, we assigned sex to 86 individuals of true unknown sex using our SSAT and assessed the effect of SSLT adjustments on these assignments. From 90 verified sex-specific loci, we developed a panel of three sex-specific PCR primers that we used to ascertain sex independently of our GBS data, which we show amplify reliably in at least two other pinniped species. Using monomorphic loci normally discarded from large SNP data sets is an effective way to identify robust sex-linked markers for nonmodel species. Our novel pipeline can be used to identify and statistically validate monomorphic and polymorphic sex-specific markers across a range of species and RRS data sets.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180303
[Lr] Last revision date:180303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/1755-0998.12767

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[PMID]: 29352457
[Au] Autor:Ahonen H; Harcourt RG; Stow AJ; Charrier I
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. heidi.ahonen@npolar.no.
[Ti] Title:Geographic vocal variation and perceptual discrimination abilities in male Australian sea lions.
[So] Source:Anim Cogn;21(2):235-243, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1435-9456
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Vocal characteristics can vary among and within populations. In species with geographic variation in the structure of vocalizations, individuals may have the ability to discriminate between calls from local and non-local individuals. The ability to distinguish differences in acoustic signals is likely to have a significant influence on the outcome of social interactions between individuals, including potentially mate selection and breeding success. Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walruses) are highly vocal yet the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is the only eared seal known to show geographic vocal variation in male barks. Barks are produced in many social interactions and encode sufficient information for both individual and colony identity to be discriminable. Yet until now, whether males could themselves discriminate these bark differences was unclear. We performed playback experiments in four breeding colonies to investigate whether males can discriminate local from non-local barks. Overall, males responded more strongly to barks from their own colony compared to barks from other colonies regardless of whether those other colonies were close or distant. Competition for females is high in Australian sea lions, but mating periods are asynchronous across colonies. The ability to correctly assess whether a male is from the same colony, thus representing a potential competitor for mates, or merely a visitor from elsewhere, may influence how males interact with others. Given the high cost of fighting, the ability to discern competitors may influence the nature of male-male interactions and ultimately influence how they allocate reproductive effort.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180220
[Lr] Last revision date:180220
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10071-017-1158-7

  3 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29051074
[Au] Autor:Shero MR; Bergfelt DR; Testa JW; Adams GP
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK 99508-4614, USA. Electronic address: mrshero@alaska.edu.
[Ti] Title:Pairing ultrasonography with endocrinology to elucidate underlying mechanisms of successful pregnancy in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus).
[So] Source:Gen Comp Endocrinol;255:78-89, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6840
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause. Within the first 3-4 weeks of active gestation, pregnant fur seals (n = 126) had a larger corpus luteum and fewer antral follicles than non-pregnant fur seals, or those still in diapause (n = 46). This suggests that the conceptus drives changes in ovarian status to convey its presence to the female. Morphological changes in the reproductive tract associated with pregnancy were not reflected in differences in endocrine profiles (estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and relaxin) between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Hormone concentrations correlated more strongly with calendar date than with the presence or size of the conceptus, demonstrating that none of these reproductive hormones were reliable markers for early pregnancy diagnosis. Instead, the northern fur seal's long diestrus may serve to reduce the probability of a temporal mismatch between corpus luteum regression and embryo implantation. Indeed, conception rates were high and confirmed rates of pregnancy loss were relatively low (11%). In this study, minimally-invasive ultrasonography was used in wild pinnipeds to detect very early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles >2 mm) in combination with ovarian and endocrine dynamics at the time of embryo implantation, shedding light on mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy. This study is also the first to track whether these same animals carried the embryo to term, by observing fur seals during the birthing season the following year. Data do not support the notion that decreased pregnancy rates or higher pregnancy loss rates are major contributing factors to the northern fur seal's population decline.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Endocrine System/metabolism
Fur Seals/physiology
Ultrasonography
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Embryo, Mammalian/physiology
Female
Fur Seals/embryology
Hormones/metabolism
Linear Models
Male
Ovary/anatomy & histology
Ovary/diagnostic imaging
Pregnancy
Reproduction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hormones)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171021
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29435720
[Au] Autor:Kuzmina TA; Tkach VV; Spraker TR; Lyons ET; Kudlai O
[Ad] Address:I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky Street, 15, Kyiv, 01030, Ukraine. taniak@izan.kiev.ua.
[Ti] Title:Digeneans of northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae) from five subpopulations on St. Paul Island, Alaska.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;, 2018 Feb 12.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A parasitological survey of 651 northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus L. from five subpopulations was conducted on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during July-August 2012-2014. Digenean trematodes were found in 210 of 651 fur seals with a total prevalence of 32.3%. Intensity of infection varied from 1 to 1540 parasites with mean intensity 18.4 111.1 SD and median intensity of 2 specimens per host. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection in northern fur seals between separate rookeries was not observed (Mann-Whitney test; p > 0.05). Four species of digeneans belonging to the families Heterophyidae (Apophallus zalophi Price, 1932, Phocitrema fusiforme Goto and Ozaki, 1930, and Galactosomum ubelakeri (Dailey, 1969)) and Troglotrematidae (Nanophyetus salmincola (Chapin, 1926)) were found. Nanophyetus salmincola is reported from C. ursinus for the first time. We obtained partial 28S rDNA sequences for all digenean species and conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis to demonstrate their phylogenetic relationships.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180213
[Lr] Last revision date:180213
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-018-5784-z

  5 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28851151
[Au] Autor:Taylor S; Lynch M; Terkildsen M; Stevenson G; Yates A; Piro N; de Araujo J; Gray R
[Ad] Address:Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Utility of fur as a biomarker for persistent organic pollutants in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;610-611:1310-1320, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can cause toxic effects in many species which include endocrine dysfunction, immunotoxicity, developmental defects and neoplasia. Species dominating the upper trophic level are vulnerable to these effects due to bioaccumulation. In Bass Strait, the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) is an important top order predator and sentinel species for ecosystem health. An alopecia syndrome is seen at high prevalence in juvenile, female Australian fur seals at Lady Julia Percy Island, Victoria, Australia. Previous investigations suggest causality could be due to an endocrine-like toxicant. The alopecia syndrome has significance for thermoregulation and is a likely risk factor for mortality. Fur collected from case (alopecic) and control (unaffected) seals sampled at Lady Julia Percy Island were analysed for POPs. To investigate the utility of fur for monitoring POPs concentrations in pinnipeds, a comparison of POPs concentrations in the fur and blubber of Australian fur seals stranded along the Victorian coast was undertaken. The concentration of selected POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS/PFOA) were determined in fur using either High Resolution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry or Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Results indicate detectable, and in some individuals, elevated levels of dl-PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in juvenile fur seals sampled on Lady Julia Percy Island, with significantly higher levels of dl-PCBs in case compared to control seals. Elevated levels of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were found in blubber samples collected from stranded fur seals with significant correlations between blubber and fur concentrations seen, particularly for dl-PCBs. This study discusses the significance of POPs concentrations in relation to the causality of an alopecia syndrome in the Australian fur seal, and assesses the utility of fur as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor POPs exposure in this sentinel species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 180103
[Lr] Last revision date:180103
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29193090
[Au] Autor:Hammerschlag N; Meer M; Seakamela SM; Kirkman S; Fallows C; Creel S
[Ad] Address:Department of Marine Ecosystems and Society, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149, USA.
[Ti] Title:Physiological stress responses to natural variation in predation risk: evidence from white sharks and seals.
[So] Source:Ecology;98(12):3199-3210, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0012-9658
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Predators can impact ecosystems through consumptive or risk effects on prey. Physiologically, risk effects can be mediated by energetic mechanisms or stress responses. The predation-stress hypothesis predicts that risk induces stress in prey, which can affect survival and reproduction. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is both mixed and limited, and the conditions that cause predation risk to induce stress responses in some cases, but not others, remain unclear. Unusually clear-cut variation in exposure of Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) to predation risk from white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the waters of Southwestern Africa provides an opportunity to test the predation-stress hypothesis in the wild. Here, we measured fecal glucocorticoid concentrations (fGCM) from Cape fur seals at six discrete islands colonies exposed to spatiotemporal variation in predation risk from white sharks over a period of three years. We found highly elevated fGCM concentrations in seals at colonies exposed to high levels of unpredictable and relatively uncontrollable risk of shark attack, but not at colonies where seals were either not exposed to shark predation or could proactively mitigate their risk through antipredatory behavior. Differences in measured fGCM levels were consistent with patterns of risk at the site and seasonal level, for both seal adults and juveniles. Seal fGCM levels were not correlated with colony population size, density, and geographic location. Investigation at a high risk site (False Bay) also revealed strong correlations between fGCM levels and temporal variation in shark attack rates, but not with shark relative abundance. Our results suggest that predation risk will induce a stress response when risk cannot be predicted and/or proactively mitigated by behavioral responses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171201
[Lr] Last revision date:171201
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/ecy.2049

  7 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29093175
[Au] Autor:Wierucka K; Pitcher BJ; Harcourt R; Charrier I
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, 2109 NSW, Australia kaja.wierucka@hdr.mq.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:The role of visual cues in mother-pup reunions in a colonially breeding mammal.
[So] Source:Biol Lett;13(11), 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1744-957X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parental care is an important factor influencing offspring survival and adult reproductive success in many vertebrates. Parent-offspring recognition ensures care is only directed to filial young, avoiding the costs of misallocated resource transfer. It is essential in colonial mammal species, such as otariids (fur seals and sea lions), in which repeated mother-offspring separations increase the risk of misdirecting maternal effort. Identification of otariid pups by mothers is known to be multi-modal, yet the role of visual cues in this process remains uncertain. We used three-dimensional visual models to investigate the importance of visual cues in maternal recognition of pups in Australian sea lions ( ). We showed that the colour pattern of pup pelage in the absence of any other sensory cues served to attract the attention of females and prompt investigation. Furthermore, females were capable of accurately distinguishing between models imitating the age-class of their own pup and those resembling older or younger age-classes. Our results suggest that visual cues facilitate age-class discrimination of pups by females and so are likely to play an important role in mother-pup reunions and recognition in otariid species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29073927
[Au] Autor:Nonnemann B; Chril M; Larsen G; Hansen MS; Holm E; Pedersen K
[Ad] Address:Department for Immunology and Vaccinology, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 204, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. benon@vet.dtu.dk.
[Ti] Title:Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra).
[So] Source:Acta Vet Scand;59(1):74, 2017 Oct 26.
[Is] ISSN:1751-0147
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. RESULTS: In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark, detected in dead seals (n=9) (lungs, throat or wounds) and otters (n=2) (throat and foot). CONCLUSIONS: An infectious skin disorder in mink associated with A. phocae has started to occur in Danish farmed mink. The origin of the infection has not been identified and it is still not clear what the pathogenesis or the port of entry for A. phocae infections are.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171101
[Lr] Last revision date:171101
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13028-017-0342-8

  9 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28981550
[Au] Autor:Hernndez-Orts JS; Brando M; Georgieva S; Raga JA; Crespo EA; Luque JL; Aznar FJ
[Ad] Address:Centro de Investigacin Aplicada y Transferencia Tecnolgica en Recursos Marinos Almirante Storni (CIMAS-CCT CONICET-CENPAT) y Escuela Superior de Ciencias Marinas (ESCiMar), Universidad Nacional del Comahue, San Antonio Oeste, Ro Negro, Argentina.
[Ti] Title:From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0183809, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis) to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs) was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host) resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acanthocephala
Fur Seals/parasitology
Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology
Sea Lions/parasitology
Spheniscidae/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ecology
Female
Male
Phylogeny
Sex Ratio
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171022
[Lr] Last revision date:171022
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183809

  10 / 607 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28942299
[Au] Autor:Seguel M; Muoz F; Paredes E; Navarrete MJ; Gottdenker NL
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Dr., Athens, Georgia, USA. Electronic address: mseguel@uga.edu.
[Ti] Title:Pathological Findings in Wild Rats (Rattus rattus) Captured at Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia.
[So] Source:J Comp Pathol;157(2-3):163-173, 2017 Aug - Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1532-3129
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The black rat (Rattus rattus) is an invasive species and potential reservoir of significant pathogens of man, domestic animals and wildlife. During the 2012-2014 austral summers, 201 black rats were captured and examined on the uninhabited Guafo Island, in Northern Chilean Patagonia (43.593029S, 74.713481W). The mite Ornithonyssus bacoti caused lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic dermatitis in all infected rats (105/210, 52%), but no skin lesions were observed in rats infected with Nosopsyllus spp. and Plocopsylla spp. fleas. Eighty-eight rats (44%) had mild lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic enterocolitis and 61 of these rats were infected with the nematode Heterakis spumosa. In the liver, 63 animals (31%) had areas of necrosis with histiocytic and eosinophilic inflammation associated with multiple Calodium hepaticum eggs, and in 15 cases there was co-infection with several Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocerci. Mild interstitial lymphoplasmacytic sialadenitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies, suggesting cytomegalovirus infection, was observed in 28 rats (15%). In the lung, alveolar histiocytosis (69 rats, 34%) and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates (46 rats, 23%) were the most common findings. There was mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis in 52 rats (26%) and in 15% of these cases Leptospira spp. antigen was detected in the distal renal tubules. Some of the diseases of black rats on Guafo Island are likely to play a role in rat population dynamics. The endemic Guafo Island long-clawed mole mouse (Geoxus lafkenche), sea lions and fur seals may be at risk for infection by some of these rat pathogens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170924
[Lr] Last revision date:170924
[St] Status:In-Process


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