Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524898
[Au] Autor:McGrew AK; O'Hara TM; Stricker CA; Salman MD; Van Bonn W; Gulland FMD; Whiting A; Ballweber LR
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Electronic address: ashley.mcgrew@colostate.edu.
[Ti] Title:Ecotoxicoparasitology of the gastrointestinal tracts of pinnipeds: the effect of parasites on the potential bioavailability of total mercury (THg).
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:233-238, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acanthocephalans, cestodes, and some species of nematodes acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of their definitive host. These parasites are exposed to toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), through passive or active feeding mechanisms; therefore, the focus of this study was to determine if there is an effect of parasites on the dietary availability of total mercury (THg) within piscivorous pinniped hosts. THg concentrations ([THg]) in selected host tissues, parasites, and GI lumen contents from 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and 4 spotted seals (Phoca largha) were determined. Among all pinnipeds, [THg] in acanthocephalans of the large intestine were significantly higher than concentrations in other samples (host lumen contents, other parasites and host intestinal wall), irrespective of location within the host GI tract. δ N values of parasites depended both on parasite group and location within the GI tract. δ N values were consistently higher in parasites inhabiting the large intestine, compared to elsewhere in the GI tract, for both sea lions and seals. δ C values in parasites did not differ significantly from host GI tissues. Based on both [THg] and stable isotope values, parasites are likely affecting the Hg bioavailability within the GI lumen contents and host tissues, and toxicant-parasite interactions appear to depend on both parasitic taxon as well as their location within the host intestine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524855
[Au] Autor:Mulkerrin G; Hogan NM; Sheehan M; Joyce MR
[Ad] Address:Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospital Galway, Ireland. Electronic address: mulkerrg@tcd.ie.
[Ti] Title:Melena as an unusual presentation of gastrointestinal stromal tumour, a case report.
[So] Source:Int J Surg Case Rep;44:172-175, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:2210-2612
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are a rare slow growing malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. These tumors are usually discovered incidentally by endoscopy, surgery or radiology. However on occasions they may present with significant symptoms including GI blood loss. This case report discusses an atypical presentation of a GIST in a 57-year-old female. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following one episode of melena. This occurred on a background of two previous presentations with melena over a 10-year period. She had a preceding surgery for a Meckel's Diverticulum. She was admitted for monitoring and investigation. An emergency upper endoscopy showed no upper gastrointestinal pathology to account for the bleeding. Her condition deteriorated with development of hypovolemic shock, requiring blood transfusion. An urgent CT angiogram identified a large mass in the distal ileum. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, where a 9.1 cm tumor located on the distal one-third of the ileum was resected. Histopathology confirmed the mass was a GIST. The patient had a successful post-operative period and subsequent treatment with Imatinib. DISCUSSION: The majority of GISTs are found incidentally. This case report describes an unusual presentation of a GIST in which the tumor bled into the intestinal lumen causing significant melena and life threatening hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: We conclude that GIST should be considered as a possible differential in rare cases of GI bleeding where more common causes have been ruled out.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510665
[Au] Autor:Sugiaman-Trapman D; Vitezic M; Jouhilahti EM; Mathelier A; Lauter G; Misra S; Daub CO; Kere J; Swoboda P
[Ad] Address:Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of the human RFX transcription factor family by regulatory and target gene analysis.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;19(1):181, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Evolutionarily conserved RFX transcription factors (TFs) regulate their target genes through a DNA sequence motif called the X-box. Thereby they regulate cellular specialization and terminal differentiation. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of all the eight human RFX genes (RFX1-8), their spatial and temporal expression profiles, potential upstream regulators and target genes. RESULTS: We extracted all known human RFX1-8 gene expression profiles from the FANTOM5 database derived from transcription start site (TSS) activity as captured by Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) technology. RFX genes are broadly (RFX1-3, RFX5, RFX7) and specifically (RFX4, RFX6) expressed in different cell types, with high expression in four organ systems: immune system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system and nervous system. Tissue type specific expression profiles link defined RFX family members with the target gene batteries they regulate. We experimentally confirmed novel TSS locations and characterized the previously undescribed RFX8 to be lowly expressed. RFX tissue and cell type specificity arises mainly from differences in TSS architecture. RFX transcript isoforms lacking a DNA binding domain (DBD) open up new possibilities for combinatorial target gene regulation. Our results favor a new grouping of the RFX family based on protein domain composition. We uncovered and experimentally confirmed the TFs SP2 and ESR1 as upstream regulators of specific RFX genes. Using TF binding profiles from the JASPAR database, we determined relevant patterns of X-box motif positioning with respect to gene TSS locations of human RFX target genes. CONCLUSIONS: The wealth of data we provide will serve as the basis for precisely determining the roles RFX TFs play in human development and disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-018-4564-6

  4 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29477359
[Au] Autor:Sadeghi M; Erickson A; Castro J; Deiteren A; Harrington AM; Grundy L; Adams DJ; Brierley SM
[Ad] Address:Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Contribution of membrane receptor signalling to chronic visceral pain.
[So] Source:Int J Biochem Cell Biol;98:10-23, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5875
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease are major forms of chronic visceral pain, which affect over 15% of the global population. In order to identify new therapies, it is important to understand the underlying causes of chronic visceral pain. This review provides recent evidence demonstrating that inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract triggers specific changes in the neuronal excitability of sensory pathways responsible for the transmission of nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Specific changes in the expression and function of a variety of ion channels and receptors have been documented in inflammatory and chronic visceral pain conditions relevant to irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. An increase in pro-nociceptive mechanisms enhances peripheral drive from the viscera and provides an underlying basis for enhanced nociceptive signalling during chronic visceral pain states. Recent evidence also highlights increases in anti-nociceptive mechanisms in models of chronic visceral pain, which present novel targets for pharmacological treatment of this condition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29466709
[Au] Autor:Mandal A; Prabhavalkar KS; Bhatt LK
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, SVKM's Dr Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.
[Ti] Title:Gastrointestinal hormones in regulation of memory.
[So] Source:Peptides;102:16-25, 2018 Feb 18.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake. These hormones act peripherally and influence the different responses of the tissues to the food intake, but do also have effects on the brain. The hypothalamus, in turn, integrates visceral function with limbic system structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus has been known for its involvement in the cognitive function and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to establish the role of various gut hormones in learning and memory, through the interaction of various receptors in the hippocampus. Understanding their role in memory can also aid in finding novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the neurological disorders associated with memory dysfunctions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29444768
[Au] Autor:Shen X; Lu M; Feng R; Cheng J; Chai J; Xie M; Dong X; Jiang T; Wang D
[Ad] Address:School of Health Service Management, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
[Ti] Title:Web-Based Just-in-Time Information and Feedback on Antibiotic Use for Village Doctors in Rural Anhui, China: Randomized Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:J Med Internet Res;20(2):e53, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8871
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Excessive use of antibiotics is very common worldwide, especially in rural China; various measures that have been used in curbing the problem have shown only marginal effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test an innovative intervention that provided just-in-time information and feedback (JITIF) to village doctors on care of common infectious diseases. METHODS: The information component of JITIF consisted of a set of theory or evidence-based ingredients, including operation guideline, public commitment, and takeaway information, whereas the feedback component tells each participating doctor about his or her performance scores and percentages of antibiotic prescriptions. These ingredients were incorporated together in a synergetic way via a Web-based aid. Evaluation of JITIF adopted a randomized controlled trial design involving 24 village clinics randomized into equal control and intervention arms. Measures used included changes between baseline and endpoint (1 year after baseline) in terms of: percentages of patients with symptomatic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections (RTIs or GTIs) being prescribed antibiotics, delivery of essential service procedures, and patients' beliefs and knowledge about antibiotics and infection prevention. Two researchers worked as a group in collecting the data at each site clinic. One performed nonparticipative observation of the service process, while the other performed structured exit interviews about patients' beliefs and knowledge. Data analysis comprised mainly of: (1) descriptive estimations of beliefs or knowledge, practice of indicative procedures, and use of antibiotics at baseline and endpoint for intervention and control groups and (2) chi-square tests for the differences between these groups. RESULTS: A total of 1048 patients completed the evaluation, including 532 at baseline (intervention=269, control=263) and 516 at endpoint (intervention=262, control=254). Patients diagnosed with RTIs and GTIs accounted for 76.5% (407/532) and 23.5% (125/352), respectively, at baseline and 80.8% (417/532) and 19.2% (99/532) at endpoint. JITIF resulted in substantial improvement in delivery of essential service procedures (2.6%-24.8% at baseline on both arms and at endpoint on the control arm vs 88.5%-95.0% at endpoint on the intervention arm, P<.001), beliefs favoring rational antibiotics use (11.5%-39.8% at baseline on both arms and at endpoint on the control arm vs 19.8%-62.6% at endpoint on the intervention arm, P<.001) and knowledge about side effects of antibiotics (35.7% on the control arm vs 73.7% on the intervention arm, P<.001), measures for managing or preventing RTIs (39.1% vs 66.7%, P=.02), and measures for managing or preventing GTIs (46.8% vs 69.2%, P<.001). It also reduced antibiotics prescription (from 88.8%-62.3%, P<.001), and this decrease was consistent for RTIs (87.1% vs 64.3%, P<.001) and GTIs (94.7% vs 52.4%, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: JITIF is effective in controlling antibiotics prescription at least in the short term and may provide a low-cost and sustainable solution to the widespread excessive use of antibiotics in rural China.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2196/jmir.8922

  7 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29438718
[Au] Autor:Ben Braek O; Morandi S; Cremonesi P; Smaoui S; Hani K; Ghrairi T
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Microorganisms and Active Biomolecules (LMBA), Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El-Manar, Tunisia; Research Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology (RLEST), ISSTE, Technopole de Borj Cedria, Tunisia. Electronic address: olfa_bbraiek@yahoo.fr.
[Ti] Title:Safety, potential biotechnological and probiotic properties of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus lactis strains isolated from raw shrimps.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:109-117, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aims of this study are to isolate new bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterial strains from white (Penaeus vannamei) and pink (Palaemon serratus) raw shrimps and evaluate their technological and probiotic potentialities. Seven strains were selected, among fifty active isolates, as producing interesting antimicrobial activity. Identified as Enterococcus lactis, these isolates were able to produce enterocins A, B and/or P. The safety aspect, assessed by microbiological and molecular tests, demonstrated that the strains were susceptible to relevant antibiotics such as vancomycin, negative for haemolysin and gelatinase activities, and did not harbour virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. The assessment of potential probiotic and technological properties showed a low or no lipolytic activity, moderate milk-acidifying ability, high reducing power, proteolytic activity and tolerance to bile (P < 0.05) and good autoaggregation and coaggregation capacities. Two strains designated as CQ and C43 exhibiting high enzymatic activities and bile salt hydrolase activity were found to display high survival under simulated in vitro oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract conditions caused by presence of lysozyme, pepsin, pancreatin, bile salts and acidic pH. This study highlights safe Enterococcus lactis strains with great technological and probiotic potentials for future application as new starter, adjunct, protective or probiotic cultures in food industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29425862
[Au] Autor:Macheras P; Iliadis A; Melagraki G
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics-Pharmacokinetics, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Pharmainformatics Unit "Athena" Research and Innovation Center, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: macheras@pharm.uoa.gr.
[Ti] Title:A reaction limited in vivo dissolution model for the study of drug absorption: Towards a new paradigm for the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;117:98-106, 2018 Feb 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this work is to develop a gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption model based on a reaction limited model of dissolution and consider its impact on the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs. Estimates for the fraction of dose absorbed as a function of dose, solubility, reaction/dissolution rate constant and the stoichiometry of drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution were derived by numerical solution of the model equations. The undissolved drug dose and the reaction/dissolution rate constant drive the dissolution rate and determine the extent of absorption when high-constant drug permeability throughout the gastrointestinal tract is assumed. Dose is an important element of drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution while solubility exclusively acts as an upper limit for drug concentrations in the lumen. The 3D plots of fraction of dose absorbed as a function of dose and reaction/dissolution rate constant for highly soluble and low soluble drugs for different "stoichiometries" (0.7, 1.0, 2.0) of the drug-reaction/dissolution with the GI fluids revealed that high extent of absorption was found assuming high drug- reaction/dissolution rate constant and high drug solubility. The model equations were used to simulate in vivo supersaturation and precipitation phenomena. The model developed provides the theoretical basis for the interpretation of the extent of drug's absorption on the basis of the parameters associated with the drug-GI fluids reaction/dissolution. A new paradigm emerges for the biopharmaceutic classification of drugs, namely, a model independent biopharmaceutic classification scheme of four drug categories based on either the fulfillment or not of the current dissolution criteria and the high or low % drug metabolism.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29353017
[Au] Autor:Naeem M; Oshi MA; Kim J; Lee J; Cao J; Nurhasni H; Im E; Jung Y; Yoo JW
[Ad] Address:College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea.
[Ti] Title:pH-triggered surface charge-reversal nanoparticles alleviate experimental murine colitis via selective accumulation in inflamed colon regions.
[So] Source:Nanomedicine;14(3):823-834, 2018 Jan 17.
[Is] ISSN:1549-9642
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we developed pH-triggered surface charge-reversal lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), loaded with budesonide, which could precisely deliver the drug to inflamed colon segments for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used to render LNPs cationic (PEI-LNPs), and Eudragit S100 (ES) was coated on PEI-LNPs to obtain pH-triggered charge-reversal LNPs (ES-PEI-LNPs). ES coating avoided a burst drug release under acidic conditions mimicking the stomach and early small intestine environments and showed a sustained release in the colon. The surface charge of ES-PEI-LNPs switched from negative to positive under colonic conditions owing to pH-triggered removal of the ES coating. Bioimaging of the mouse gastrointestinal tract and confocal analysis of colon tissues revealed that ES-PEI-LNPs selectively accumulated in an inflamed colon. Furthermore, ES-PEI-LNPs mitigated experimental colitis in mice. These results suggest that the pH-triggered charge-reversal LNPs could be a promising drug carrier for ulcerative colitis therapy and other colon-targeted treatments.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 99999 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29330723
[Au] Autor:Deng Y; Zhao B; Yang M; Li C; Zhang L
[Ad] Address:Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), No. 30, GaoTanYan Street, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Association Between the Incidence of Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy and the Degree of Pancreatic Fibrosis.
[So] Source:J Gastrointest Surg;22(3):438-443, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4626
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the association between the incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and the degree of pancreatic fibrosis. METHOD: Between January 2013 and December 2016, the analysis of the clinical data of 529 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy patients of our hospital was performed in a retrospective fashion. The univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were done using the Pearson chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis model; correlations were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. The value of the degree of pancreatic fibrosis to predict the incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The total incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 28.5% (151/529). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis showed that BMI ≥ 25kg/m , pancreatic duct size ≤ 3mm, pancreatic CT value< 30, the soft texture of the pancreas (judged during the operation), and the percent of fibrosis of pancreatic lobule ≤ 25% are prognostic factors of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (P < 0.05); the pancreatic CT value and the percent of fibrosis of pancreatic lobule in pancreatic fistula group were both lower than those in non-pancreatic fistula group (P < 0.05). Results indicated that there is a negative correlation between the severity of pancreatic fistula and the pancreatic CT value or the percent of fibrosis of pancreatic lobule (r = - 0.297, - 0.342, respectively). The areas under the ROC curve of the percent of fibrosis of pancreatic lobule and the pancreatic CT value were 0.756 and 0.728, respectively. CONCLUSION: The degree of pancreatic fibrosis is a prognostic factor which can influence the pancreatic texture and the incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The pancreatic CT value can be used as a quantitative index of the degree of pancreatic fibrosis to predict the incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11605-017-3660-2


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