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[PMID]: 29486351
[Au] Autor:Chen Y; Xu K; Li J; Wang X; Ye Y; Qi P
[Ad] Address:National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Marine Science and Technology College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316004, China.
[Ti] Title:Molecular characterization of complement component 3 (C3) in Mytilus coruscus improves our understanding of bivalve complement system.
[So] Source:Fish Shellfish Immunol;76:41-47, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9947
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Complement component 3 (C3) plays a central role in the complement system whose activation is essential for all the important functions performed by this system. Here, a novel C3 gene, termed Mc-C3, was identified from thick shell mussel (Mytilus coruscus). The deduced Mc-C3 protein possessed the characteristic structure features present in its homologs and contained the A2M_N_2, ANATO, A2M, A2M_comp, A2M_recep, and C345C domains, as well as the C3 convertase cleavage site, thioester motif, and conserved Cys, His, and Glu residues. Mc-C3 gene constitutively expressed in all examined tissues and predominantly expressed in immune-related tissues such as gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas. After stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or Cu , the expression of Mc-C3 was significantly induced in gills. Further luciferase reporter assays showed the ability for activation of NF-κB signaling transduction of Mc-C3a. Taken together, these results show that C3 may play an essential role in the immune defense of M. coruscus. The present data therefore provide a more detailed insight into the functional activities of the bivalve complement system.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29471134
[Au] Autor:Baldissera MD; Souza CF; Junior GB; Moreira KLS; da Veiga ML; da Rocha MIUM; Baldisserotto B
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: mdbaldissera@mail.ufsm.br.
[Ti] Title:Citrobacter freundii impairs the phosphoryl transfer network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen: Impairment of bioenergetics homeostasis.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:157-161, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-producing and ATP-consuming, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is a critical process in the bioenergetics of tissues with high energy demand, such as the branchial tissue. The effects of Citrobacter freundii infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by C. freundii impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) and AK activities decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals, while the PK activity did not differ between groups. The gill histopathology of infected animals revealed extensive degeneration with fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae, detachment of superficial epithelium, aneurysm, vessel congestion and inflammatory process. Based on these evidences, the inhibition and absence of an efficient communication between CK compartments caused the impairment of the branchial bioenergetics homeostasis, which was not compensated by the augmentation on branchial AK activity in an attempt to restore energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue in animals infected with C. freundii.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29520548
[Au] Autor:Dos Santos Barbosa Ortega A; Maranho LA; Nobre CR; Moreno BB; Guimarães RS; Lebre DT; de Souza Abessa DM; Ribeiro DA; Pereira CDS
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Ciências do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Maria Máximo, 168, Santos, 11030-100, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Detoxification, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity of crack cocaine in the brown mussel Perna perna.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The presence of cocaine and its metabolites and by-products has been identified in different aquatic matrices, making crack cocaine the target of recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sublethal effects of crack on the brown mussel Perna perna. Mussels were exposed to three concentrations of crack cocaine (0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 µg L ) for 168 h. Gills, digestive glands, and hemolymph were extracted and analyzed after three different exposure times using a suite of biomarkers (EROD, DBF, GST, GPX, LPO, DNA damage, ChE, and lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). After 48 and 96 h of exposure, EROD, DBF, GST, GPX activities and DNA strand breaks in the gills increased significantly after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Alterations in LMS were also observed in the mussels exposed to all crack concentrations after 96 and 168 h. Our results demonstrated that crack cocaine is metabolized by CYP-like and GST activities in the gills. GPX was not able to prevent primary genetic damage, and cytotoxic effects in the hemocytes were also observed in a dose- and time-dependent response. Our study shows that the introduction of illicit drugs into coastal ecosystems must be considered a threat to marine organisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-018-1600-7

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[PMID]: 29518430
[Au] Autor:Wang Y; Yoshinaga T; Itoh N
[Ad] Address:Fish Disease Laboratory, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
[Ti] Title:New insights into the entrance of Perkinsus olseni in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.
[So] Source:J Invertebr Pathol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0805
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In order to understand interactions between Perkinsus olseni and its host mollusk species Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, this study focused on invasion processes of the parasite, particularly the mechanisms of zoospore transformation to trophozoites in its portal entry into the host. We exposed Manila clam to P. olseni zoospores, then periodically quantified parasite intensity in various host organs and tissues. We detected large numbers of parasite cells within gills and labial palps of the host clam from the early to the final stages, moderately within mantle and digestive organs but low numbers within hemolymph, foot and adductor muscles. Our results suggest that P. olseni first invades the gills and labial palps of the host clam with limited translocation throughout the host body via the host's circulatory system until 12 days post exposure to zoospores. P. olseni zoospores exposed to extracts of gills and labial palps transformed into trophozoites more efficiently than they did when exposed to other tissues; this transformation was not observed when zoospores were exposed to heated organ extracts. Our results suggest the involvement of a host molecule in the transformation of P. olseni zoospores, leading to initial infection primarily within gills and labial palps of the host clam.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29518429
[Au] Autor:Lau YT; Gambino L; Santos B; Espinosa EP; Allam B
[Ad] Address:School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
[Ti] Title:Transepithelial migration of mucosal hemocytes in Crassostrea virginica and potential role in Perkinsus marinus pathogenesis.
[So] Source:J Invertebr Pathol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0805
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We have recently described the presence of hemocytes associated with mucus covering the pallial organs (mantle, gills, and body wall) 3 of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. These hemocytes, hereby designated "pallial hemocytes" share common general characteristics with circulating hemocytes but also display significant differences particularly in their cell surface epitopes. The specific location of pallial hemocytes as peripheral cells exposed directly to the marine environment confers them a putative sentinel role. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the source of these pallial hemocytes by evaluating possible exchanges between circulatory and pallial hemocyte populations and whether these exchanges are regulated by pathogen exposure. Bi-directional transepithelial migrations of hemocytes between pallial surfaces and the circulatory system were monitored using standard cell tracking approaches after staining with the vital fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in conjunction with fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Results showed bi-directional migration of hemocytes between both compartments and suggest that hemocyte migration from the pallial mucus layer to the circulatory system may occur at a greater rate compared to migration from the circulatory system to the pallial mucus layer, further supporting the role of pallial hemocytes as sentinel cells. Subsequently, the effect of the obligate parasite Perkinsus marinus and the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus on transepithelial migration of oyster hemocytes was investigated. Results showed an increase in hemocyte migration in response to P. marinus exposure. Furthermore, P. marinus cells were acquired by pallial hemocytes before being visible in underlying tissues and the circulatory system suggesting that this parasite could use pallial hemocytes as a vehicle facilitating its access to oyster tissues. These results are discussed in light of new evidence highlighting the role of oyster pallial organs as a portal for the initiation of P. marinus infections in oysters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29518405
[Au] Autor:Liu Y; Zhang P; Wang W; Dong M; Wang M; Gong C; Jia Z; Liu Z; Zhang A; Wang L; Song L
[Ad] Address:Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology and Disease Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China; Functional Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Process, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China.
[Ti] Title:A DM9-containing protein from oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgDM9CP-2) serves as a multipotent pattern recognition receptor.
[So] Source:Dev Comp Immunol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0089
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:DM9 is a novel protein domain with unknown function originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Recently, a protein harboring DM9 repeats was identified as mannose-specific lectin (CgCGL1, renamed as CgDM9CP-1) from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In the present study, another DM9 containing protein was identified from oyster C. gigas (designated as CgDM9CP-2). The open reading frame of CgDM9CP-2 gene was of 432 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids with two tandem DM9 repeats. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgDM9CP-2 shared 60.8% identity with that of CgDM9CP-1. In the unrooted phylogenetic tree, CgDM9CP-2 was closely clustered with CgDM9CP-1, and then assigned into the branch of invertebrate DM9CPs. The mRNA transcripts of CgDM9CP-2 were expressed in all the tested tissues, including mantle, gonad, gills, adductor muscle, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas, with the highest expression level in gills. CgDM9CP-2 protein was mainly distributed on the cytomembrane of oyster hemocytes. After mannose stimulation, the mRNA expression of CgDM9CP-2 in gills was up-regulated to the peak level (5.90-fold of that in SSW group, p < 0.05) at 24 h, and kept at a significantly higher level compared with that in control group at 6-48 h. It significantly increased at 6 h (2.33-fold, p < 0.05), and 12 h (3.08-fold, p < 0.05) post Vibrio splendidus stimulation, and then gradually decreased from 48 to 72 h (p < 0.05) with significant difference comparing with that in control group. The recombinant CgDM9CP-2 protein (rCgDM9CP-2) displayed higher binding affinity to D-(+)-mannose while lower binding affinity to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. rCgDM9CP-2 also exhibited binding activity towards fungi (Pichia pastoris and Yarrowia lipolytica), gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus), and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas hydrophila and V. splendidus). It could agglutinate fungi P. pastoris and Y. lipolytica, and inhibit the growth of P. pastoris, S. aureus, V. anguillarum, and V. splendidus. These results collectively indicated that CgDM9CP-2 not only served as a pattern recognition receptor with a broad range of recognition spectrum, but also involved in inhibiting the growth of invading microbe in the innate immune response of oyster, which would provide further evidence for the function of DM9 domain in the innate immune system.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29501824
[Au] Autor:Saibu Y; Jamwal A; Feng R; Peak D; Niyogi S
[Ad] Address:Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. Electronic address: yusuf.saibu@usask.ca.
[Ti] Title:Distribution and speciation of zinc in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute waterborne zinc exposure: Interactions with cadmium or copper.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol;206-207:23-31, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1532-0456
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (µ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (µ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source. The primary lamellae of the fish gill were found to be the primary area of Zn accumulation. These regions also correspond to the zones of mitochondria rich cells localization in fish gills, supporting the putative roles of these cells in metal uptake. Zn was also found to predominantly co-localize with Ca and S, but not with Fe, indicating the roles of Ca and S in intracellular Zn handling. Zn distribution in the gill was markedly reduced during co-exposure to Cd, but not to Cu, suggesting a competitive interaction between Zn and Cd for uptake. The speciation of Zn in the gill was dominated by Zn-phosphate, Zn-histidine and Zn-cysteine species; however, the interactions of Zn with Cd or Cu resulted in the loss of Zn-cysteine. Overall, our findings provide important novel insights into the interactions of Zn, Cd and Cu in the fish gill, which may ultimately help to explain the mechanisms underlying the acute toxicity of these metals in binary mixture to fish.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29427600
[Au] Autor:Jeswin J; Joo MS; Jeong JM; Bae JS; Choi KM; Cho DH; Park SI; Park CI
[Ad] Address:Department of Marine Biology & Aquaculture, College of Marine Science, Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong, 53064, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:The first report of siglec-3/CD33 gene in a teleost (rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus): An analysis of its spatial expression during stimulation to red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) and two bacterial pathogens.
[So] Source:Dev Comp Immunol;84:117-122, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0089
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Siglec-3/CD33 is a myeloid-specific inhibitory receptor that is expressed on cells of the immune system, where it is believed to play a regulatory role, modulating the inflammatory and immune responses. We characterized CD33 (RbCD33) in rock bream which is a transmembrane protein with two IG-like domains and a cytoplasmic tail. It has a deduced amino acid sequence of 390 residues and has tyrosine-based signaling motifs in the cytoplasmic tail. The RbCD33 mRNA was highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes and was also detected in the muscle, spleen, skin, head kidney, gills, trunk kidney, heart, stomach, brain, intestine and liver by quantitative real-time PCR. A temporal variation in expression of RbCD33 was observed in different tissues after stimulating with E. tarda, S. iniae and red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). In the head kidney tissue, E. tarda and S. iniae induced RbCD33, while a down regulation was observed with RSIV. In addition, in spleen tissue, S. iniae caused a very high induction of RbCD33 in comparison with an E. tarda and RSIV challenge. In the liver and gill tissues, all three pathogens induced a high expression of RbCD33. The expression pattern in various tissues and its high induction after pathogen stimulation suggests that RbCD33 plays an important role in initiating the immune response via the inhibition of signal transduction of the myeloid lineage cells.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29425805
[Au] Autor:Milne DJ; Campoverde C; Andree KB; Chen X; Zou J; Secombes CJ
[Ad] Address:Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:The discovery and comparative expression analysis of three distinct type I interferons in the perciform fish, meagre (Argyrosomus regius).
[So] Source:Dev Comp Immunol;84:123-132, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0089
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Type I interferons (IFN) play an important role in anti-viral responses. In teleost fish multiple genes exist, that are classified by group/subgroup. That multiple subgroups are present in Acanthopterygian fish has only become apparent recently, and 3 subgroups are now known to be expressed, including a new subgroup termed IFNh. However, the potential to express multiple IFN subgroups and their interplay is not well defined. Hence this study aims to clarify the situation and undertook the first in-depth analysis into the nature and expression of IFNc, IFNd and IFNh in the perciform fish, meagre. Constitutive expression was analysed initially during larval development and in adult tissues (gills, mid-gut, head kidney, spleen). During early ontogeny IFNc was the highest expressed IFN, and this was also the case in adult tissues with the exception of gills where IFNd was highest. However, comparison between tissues for individual isoforms showed that spleen had high transcript levels of all three IFNs, IFNd/IFNh were also highly expressed in gills. The expression of each sub-group was increased significantly in the four tissues following injection of poly I:C, however, this increase was only seen in the mid-gut for IFNh. Following in vitro stimulation with poly I:C again all three isoforms were upregulated, although with differences in kinetics and the cell source used. For example, early induction was seen for IFNc/IFNh in gill cells, IFNd/IFNh in splenocytes and all three isoforms in head kidney cells. Induction was sustained in splenocytes and head kidney cells, but in gut cells only a late induction was seen. These results demonstrate a complex pattern of regulation between the different IFN isoforms present in meagre and highlights potential sub-functionalisation of these IFN subgroups during perciform anti-viral responses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29409789
[Au] Autor:Wang H; Zhang JX; Wang Y; Fang WH; Wang Y; Zhou JF; Zhao S; Li XC
[Ad] Address:East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory of East China Sea and Oceanic Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200090, China; School of Aquaculture and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.
[Ti] Title:Newly identified type II crustin (SpCrus2) in Scylla paramamosain contains a distinct cysteine distribution pattern exhibiting broad antimicrobial activity.
[So] Source:Dev Comp Immunol;84:1-13, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0089
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Type II crustins are the most abundant type of crustins in shrimps that exhibit remarkable sequence diversities and broad antibacterial activities. This study characterized a novel type II crustin, SpCrus2, in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The SpCrus2 cDNA sequence is 620-bp long with a 495-bp open reading frame encoding a 164-amino acid protein. In the deduced protein, a 17-amino acid signal peptide, a glycine-rich hydrophobic region (GRR), and a cysteine-rich region (CRR) containing a whey acidic protein domain were predicted. SpCrus2 shares high similarity with most type II crustins (types IIa and IIb crustins) in shrimps but has a novel distribution pattern of cysteine residues that is distinct from most crustins. SpCrus2 and PlCrus3 from Pacifastacus leniusculus share high similarity and the same distribution pattern of cysteine residues. Thus, we proposed them as type IIc crustins. SpCrus2 is mainly distributed in the gills and can be up-regulated through Vibrio parahemolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus challenge. To investigate the biological functions of SpCrus2 and the underlying mechanisms, SpCrus2, GRR, CRR, and the mutant of CRR (CRR-M, the cysteine distribution pattern is mutated into that in most conventional crustins) were all overexpressed and purified. SpCrus2 GRR itself, as a glycine-rich amphiphilic peptide, exhibited evident antibacterial ability against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas CRR possessed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Either GRR or CRR exhibited weaker antibacterial activity than the whole protein of SpCrus2, indicating that GRR and CRR synergized to exert their potential antibacterial functions. In addition, CRR exhibited slightly stronger antimicrobial activity than CRR-M, suggesting that SpCrus2 containing this novel cysteine distribution pattern may exhibit stronger antimicrobial activity than most type II crustins with the conventional distribution pattern of cysteine residues. The likely antimicrobial ability of SpCrus2 may result from its microbial polysaccharide-binding and agglutination activities. Overall, this study characterized the first type II crustin in crabs and provided new insights into understanding the sequence and functional diversity of crustins and their immune functions in crustaceans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher


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