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[PMID]: 26725141
[Au] Autor:Taylor KM; Saint-Hilaire MH; Sudarsky L; Simon DK; Hersh B; Sparrow D; Hu H; Weisskopf MG
[Ad] Address:Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Dept of Environmental Health, 401 Park Dr., Landmark Building, 3rd Floor, Boston MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: kmt691@mail.harvard.edu....
[Ti] Title:Head injury at early ages is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease.
[So] Source:Parkinsonism Relat Disord;23:57-61, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5126
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The literature on the effect of head injuries on the risk of PD is inconclusive. Some researchers have hypothesized that studies that have seen an effect are simply capturing injury related to pre-clinical PD. However in animal models brain inflammation, which can be initiated by head trauma, has been shown to produce PD-like effects. Furthermore, animal studies have found that early life inflammation in particular is of relevance for PD pathology. METHODS: We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 379 neurologist confirmed PD patients and 230 controls from the greater Boston, Massachusetts area with questionnaire data on history of head injury and other covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for PD. RESULTS: When we excluded injuries that occurred less than 10 years prior to the diagnosis of PD (in order to avoid reverse causation), we found an increased risk of PD associated with a head injury that resulted in a loss of consciousness, but it did not reach statistical significance (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 0.89-2.80). We found a significant (p = 0.04) effect of age at first head injury. For every 5 year earlier age at first head injury with loss of consciousness the OR for PD was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.01-1.86). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that head injury in early life increases the risk of PD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26606868
[Au] Autor:Sung MS; Kang YS; Heo H; Park SW
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology and Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea....
[Ti] Title:Characteristics of Optic Disc Rotation in Myopic Eyes.
[So] Source:Ophthalmology;123(2):400-7, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1549-4713
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of optic disc rotation and ocular parameters affecting optic disc rotation in healthy myopic eyes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, comparative study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 220 participants with healthy myopic eyes. METHODS: Spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error, axial length, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated. Optic disc tilt ratio, degree of optic disc rotation, and area of ß-zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) were measured. Optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) were measured using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA). Subjects were divided into 2 groups, group 1 with superior rotation and group 2 with inferior rotation of the optic disc, and various parameters were compared. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between the degree of optic disc rotation and several parameters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Degree of optic disc rotation. RESULTS: Among 220 eyes, 147 showed superior rotation of the optic disc and 73 showed inferior rotation. The mean tilt ratio and rotation degree were 1.16 and -19.51°, respectively, in group 1 and 1.20 and 28.93°, respectively, in group 2, showing significant differences between the groups (P = 0.028 and P = 0.035, respectively). There were also significant between-group differences in IOP (15.59 vs. 16.34 mmHg), SE refractive error (-4.05 vs. -5.66 diopters [D]), axial length (25.51 vs. 26.26 mm), and area of ß-zone PPA (0.32 vs. 0.70 mm(2)). Overall, a multivariate linear regression analysis showed that IOP, axial length, and area of ß-zone PPA were significant parameters related to the degree of optic disc rotation (P = 0.011, P = 0.043, and P = 0.030, respectively). Group 2 showed thinner pRNFL and mGCIPL thickness in general compared with group 1. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy myopic eyes, superior rotation of the optic disc was more prevalent than inferior rotation. As the optic disc rotates inferiorly, there was a significant positive correlation with IOP, axial length, and area of the ß-zone PPA. Conversely, a significant negative correlation with pRNFL and mGCIPL thickness was observed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26581554
[Au] Autor:Lemke S; Cockerham GC; Glynn-Milley C; Lin R; Cockerham KP
[Ad] Address:Program Evaluation & Resource Center, Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California....
[Ti] Title:Automated Perimetry and Visual Dysfunction in Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.
[So] Source:Ophthalmology;123(2):415-24, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1549-4713
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To evaluate feasibility and results of automated perimetry in veterans with combat blast neurotrauma. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one patients in a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Center diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) from combat blast exposure. METHODS: Study participants underwent automated perimetry at baseline (median interval, 2 months after injury) (Humphrey Field Analyzer, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm 30-2 Standard or Fast), and 36 of them were followed up (median interval, 10 months after baseline). Presence of significant mean deviation and pattern standard deviation was determined for testing with reliability indices ≤20% for fixation loss, 15% for false-positives, and 33% for false-negatives. Test-retest stability of global visual field indices was assessed for tests with these cutoffs or with elevated fixation loss. Associations between global visual field defects and predictors were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Global visual field indices (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation). RESULTS: Among 61 study participants (109 study eyes) with baseline testing, a field that met reliability cutoffs was obtained for 48 participants (79%) and 78 eyes (72%). Fixation loss was found in 29% of eyes in initial testing. Nine study participants (15%) demonstrated hemianopia or quadrantanopia, and an additional 36% had an abnormal global visual field index. Global indices were relatively stable at follow-up testing for tests meeting fixation-loss cutoffs and tests that did not. Visual scotomas due to post-chiasmal lesions were associated with moderate to severe TBI or penetrating head injury, but other visual field deficits were prevalent across the range of mild to severe TBI. Ocular injury to the retina or choroid, poorer visual acuity, and pupillary defect were associated with visual field defects. Participants with depressed visual field sensitivity reported lower visual quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Reliable automated perimetry can be accomplished in most patients with TBI from combat blast exposure and reveals high rates of visual field deficits, indicating that blast forces may significantly affect the eye and visual pathways.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26802781
[Au] Autor:Yoncheva YN; Somandepalli K; Reiss PT; Kelly C; Di Martino A; Lazar M; Zhou J; Milham MP; Castellanos FX
[Ad] Address:New York University, New York....
[Ti] Title:Mode of Anisotropy Reveals Global Diffusion Alterations in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry;55(2):137-45, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1527-5418
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can identify structural connectivity alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most ADHD DTI studies have concentrated on regional differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) despite its limited sensitivity to complex white matter architecture and increasing evidence of global brain differences in ADHD. Here, we examine multiple DTI metrics in separate samples of children and adults with and without ADHD with a principal focus on global between-group differences. METHOD: Two samples: adults with ADHD (n = 42) and without (n = 65) and children with ADHD (n = 82) and without (n = 80) were separately group matched for age, sex, and head motion. Five DTI metrics (FA, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and mode of anisotropy) were analyzed via tract-based spatial statistics. Group analyses tested for diagnostic differences at the global (averaged across the entire white matter skeleton) and regional level for each metric. RESULTS: Robust global group differences in diffusion indices were found in adults, with the largest effect size for mode of anisotropy (MA; Cohen's d = 1.45). Global MA also differed significantly between groups in the pediatric sample (d = 0.68). In both samples, global MA increased classification accuracy compared to the model with clinical Conners' ADHD ratings alone. Regional diagnostic differences did not survive familywise correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: Global DTI metrics, particularly the mode of anisotropy, which is sensitive to crossing fibers, capture connectivity abnormalities in ADHD across both pediatric and adult samples. These findings highlight potential diffuse white matter microarchitecture differences in ADHD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26688509
[Au] Autor:Lustenberger T; Kern M; Relja B; Wutzler S; Störmann P; Marzi I
[Ad] Address:Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address: tom.lustenberg@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:The effect of brain injury on the inflammatory response following severe trauma.
[So] Source:Immunobiology;221(3):427-31, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3279
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory response is an important part of the pathophysiology of severe injury and, in particular, of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study evaluates the inflammatory course following major trauma and focuses on the effect of severe TBI on inflammatory markers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in 123 severely injured (ISS ≥16) trauma patients. The study cohort was divided into patients with isolated TBI (Head AIS ≥3, all other AIS <3), polytraumatized patients with severe TBI (Head AIS ≥3; AIS of other body area ≥3; Polytrauma+TBI) and polytraumatized patients without TBI (Head AIS <3; Polytrauma). Levels of inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive Protein [CRP], leukocytes) measured upon arrival and through hospital days 1-3 were compared between the groups. RESULTS: On admission and through hospital day 3, IL-6 levels were significantly different between the 3 groups (admission: isolated TBI vs. Polytrauma+TBI vs. Polytrauma; 94±16 vs. 149±20 vs. 245±50pg/mL; p<0.05). Interleukin-6 levels peaked on hospital day 1 and declined thereafter. C-reactive protein and leukocyte counts were not significantly different between the cohorts on arrival and peaked on hospital day 2 and 1, respectively. In patients with severe TBI, admission IL-6 levels significantly predicted the development of septic complications (ROC analysis, AUC: 0.88, p=0.001, 95% CI: 0.79-0.97) and multiple organ dysfunction (ROC analysis, AUC: 0.83, p=0.001, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96). CONCLUSION: Severe TBI reduced the inflammatory response following trauma. Significant correlations between admission IL-6 values and the development of MOF, sepsis and the neurological outcome were found in patients with TBI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26691221
[Au] Autor:Vogel TJ; Jeon C; Karlan B; Walsh C
[Ad] Address:Women's Cancer Program at the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Suite 290 West Tower, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Electronic address: tilley.jenkinsvogel@cshs.org....
[Ti] Title:Digoxin therapy is not associated with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer: A SEER-Medicare database analysis.
[So] Source:Gynecol Oncol;140(2):285-8, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6859
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Both in vitro and clinical trial data suggest that cardiac glycosides demonstrate a synergistic anti-tumor effect when administered with platinum chemotherapy. Epidemiologic studies have also demonstrated improved cancer survival in colorectal, breast, head and neck and hepatocellular carcinoma patients on digoxin therapy at the time of cancer treatment. We sought to determine whether digoxin improves survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum. METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) tumor registries program data on ovarian cancer patients diagnosed in 2007-2009 were linked to Medicare claims data to capture platinum administration, digoxin use and cardiac comorbidities. We analyzed 762 patients who underwent cancer-directed surgery and received platinum chemotherapy. Patients were considered digoxin users during platinum administration if a prescription was filled within 6months of cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the impact of digoxin use on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 762 epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with surgery and platinum chemotherapy, 53 (7%) used digoxin ever and 38 (5%) used digoxin specifically during platinum administration. Adjusting for age, heart disease and Charlson comorbidity score, digoxin use was not associated with OS (HR=1.29, 95% CI 0.81, 2.06). CONCLUSIONS: In this SEER-Medicare database analysis, digoxin use during chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer treated with surgery and platinum chemotherapy. These conclusions are limited, however, by a small sample size and bias intrinsic to claims-based data and should be further evaluated in a larger cohort.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26708064
[Au] Autor:Alqadi K; Sankaraneni R; Thome U; Kotagal P
[Ad] Address:Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA; Neurosciences Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia....
[Ti] Title:Semiology of hypermotor (hyperkinetic) seizures.
[So] Source:Epilepsy Behav;54:137-41, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1525-5069
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hypermotor seizures (HMSs) consist of complex movements involving proximal segments of the limbs and trunk that appear violent and inappropriate for the situation. METHODS: We analyzed hypermotor seizure videos in seizure-free patients (Engel class I) following resective epilepsy surgery. After completion of video analysis, we reviewed EEG and neuroimaging data. RESULTS: Search of our epilepsy surgery database yielded 116 patients classified as having hypermotor seizures between 1996 and 2013. From this subset, 17/31 (55%) patients had been seizure-free for >6months (mean follow-up: 3.3years). Mean seizure duration was 35s (range: 6-91s), of which the HM phase lasted a mean of 22s (range: 3-53s). In 16 patients (95%), hypermotor activity was seen at or within 10s of clinical seizure onset. Type I semiology occurred in 6 patients, type II semiology in 10 patients, and 1 patient exhibited features of both. Type I and type II semiologies were noted in patients who had frontal lobe as well as extrafrontal resections. Nonversive head and body turning occurred in 10 patients (ranging from 90° to 270°) which was ipsilateral to the side of resection in all patients and seen both in frontal and extrafrontal resections. Six out of eleven patients with abnormal MRI and 4/6 patients with nonlesional MRI underwent invasive EEG evaluation. Eight patients (47%) had frontal lobe resection, 4/17 (23%) patients had temporal lobe resection, and one patient each had parietal lobe, insular, temporoparietooccipital, or motor sparing resection; 1 patient had functional hemispherectomy. CONCLUSION: Hypermotor semiology typically occurs at or within 10s after seizure onset. Ipsilateral head/body turning appears to be of lateralizing value whereas asymmetry of limb movement was not lateralizing. Hypermotor semiology is most often seen in frontal lobe epilepsy but may occur in seizures arising from other locations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26708062
[Au] Autor:Lagunju IA; Oyinlade AO; Babatunde OD
[Ad] Address:Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address: ilagunju@yahoo.co.uk.
[Ti] Title:Seizure-related injuries in children and adolescents with epilepsy.
[So] Source:Epilepsy Behav;54:131-4, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1525-5069
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Children with epilepsy are reported to be at a greater risk of injuries compared with their peers who do not have epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: We set out to determine the frequency and pattern of seizure-related injuries in children with epilepsy seen at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: Consecutive cases of epilepsy seen at the pediatric neurology clinic of the UCH, Ibadan over a period of 6months were evaluated for injuries in the preceding 12months using a structured questionnaire. These were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: A total of 125 children with epilepsy and 125 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Injuries occurred more frequently in children with epilepsy than in their peers (p=0.01, OR 1.935, 95% CI 1.142-3.280). Epilepsy was generalized in 80 (64.0%), and localization-related in 45 (36.0%). Idiopathic epilepsy accounted for 74 (59.2%), and the remaining 51 (40.8%) had remote symptomatic epilepsy. Fifty-seven (45.6%) children had suffered seizure-related injuries with multiple injuries in 31 (24.8%). The most frequent were skin/soft tissue lacerations (26.4%), injuries to the tongue and soft tissues of the mouth (19.2%), minor head injuries (15.2%), and dental injuries with tooth loss (8.0%). There was a statistically significant association between seizure frequency and seizure-related injuries (p=0.002). Children on polytherapy had a significantly higher frequency of seizure-related injuries (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Epilepsy is a major risk factor for injuries in childhood. High seizure frequency increases the risk of multiple injuries in children with epilepsy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26774945
[Au] Autor:May PA; de Vries MM; Marais AS; Kalberg WO; Adnams CM; Hasken JM; Tabachnick B; Robinson LK; Manning MA; Jones KL; Hoyme D; Seedat S; Parry CD; Hoyme HE
[Ad] Address:The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, United States; Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, South Africa. Electronic address: philip_may@unc.edu....
[Ti] Title:The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in south africa: Prevalence and characteristics.
[So] Source:Drug Alcohol Depend;159:207-18, 2016 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0046
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). METHODS: Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. RESULTS: FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. CONCLUSIONS: Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 356093 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26702513
[Au] Autor:Yamaguchi E; Dannenberg LC; Amiel AR; Seaver EC
[Ad] Address:Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii, 41 Ahui St., Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. Electronic address: yamaguchi.emi@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Regulative capacity for eye formation by first quartet micromeres of the polychaete Capitella teleta.
[So] Source:Dev Biol;410(1):119-30, 2016 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-564X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The stereotypic cleavage pattern shared by spiralian embryos provides unique opportunities to compare mechanisms of cell fate specification of homologous blastomeres, and can give insights into how changes in fate may have influenced the evolution of novel structures and morphological diversity. The potential of cells to undergo regulation and the timing of cell fate specification were investigated during early development in the polychaete annelid, Capitella teleta. Targeted laser deletions of the first quartet micromeres were performed, with a focus on the eye-forming cells 1a and 1c. Most of the larvae resulting from deletion of the 1a or 1c micromeres lack both the pigment cell and sensory cell of the eye as predicted by the C. teleta fate map. In a minority of cases, however, both left and right larval eye spots develop, suggesting that other blastomeres within the embryo regulate for loss of these cells. Deletion of the 1a and 1c derivatives, 1a(1) or 1c(1), also largely result in larvae with one pigment spot, although there are larvae with two eye spots, suggesting that the ability to regulate for loss of an eye-generating cell persists for an additional cell cycle. Cell deletion in conjunction with intracellular labeling indicates that all four quadrants retain the ability to generate eyes, including those that normally do not. Deletion of all four first quartet micromeres provides evidence that only the first quartet micromeres have eye-forming potential. Additionally, in contrast to the right side of the head where larval and adult eye sensory cells are derived from the same cell (1c), on the left side, the larval and adult eye sensory cells are generated by different embryonic lineages. We hypothesize that cell-cell interactions and cell position are important for regulative ability in Capitella. To our knowledge, this is one of the first detailed deletion studies of the first quartet micromeres and the first convincing example of regulation in polychaetes, which are often thought to be non-regulative in nature.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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