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[PMID]: 26948266
[Au] Autor:Sabater González M; Calvo Carrasco D
[Ad] Address:Exoticsvet, Marqués de San Juan 23, Valencia 46015, Spain. Electronic address: exoticsvet@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Emergencies and Critical Care of Commonly Kept Fowl.
[So] Source:Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract;19(2):543-65, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1558-4232
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fowl are birds belonging to one of the 2 biological orders, the game fowl or land fowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes). Studies of anatomic and molecular similarities suggest these two groups are close evolutionary relatives. Multiple fowl species have a long history of domestication. Fowl are considered food-producing animals in most countries and clinicians should follow legislation regarding reportable diseases and antibiotic use, even if they are pets. This article reviews aspects of emergency care for most commonly kept fowl, including triage, patient assessment, diagnostic procedures, supportive care, short-term hospitalization, and common emergency presentations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26948265
[Au] Autor:Hildreth CD
[Ad] Address:Avian and Exotic Pet Service, Carolina Veterinary Specialists, 12117 Statesville Road, Huntersville, NC 28078, USA. Electronic address: Childreth@carolinavet.com.
[Ti] Title:Preparing the Small Animal Hospital for Avian and Exotic Animal Emergencies.
[So] Source:Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract;19(2):325-45, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1558-4232
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Small animal veterinary hospitals will have exotic animal emergencies. Preparing the hospital space, equipment, and staff will provide optimal exotic animal emergency medicine and care. A well-gathered history can be more valuable in exotic pet medicine than most diagnostics. A gentle, well-planned approach, combined with common sense and focused observational skills, is necessary for avian and exotic patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27038131
[Au] Autor:Terranella A; Rea V; Griffith M; Manning S; Sears S; Farmer A; Martin S; Patel M
[Ad] Address:National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Bacterial Diseases, CDC, United States; Epidemic Intelligence Service, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, CDC, United States. Electronic ...
[Ti] Title:Vaccine effectiveness of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine during a pertussis outbreak in Maine.
[So] Source:Vaccine;34(22):2496-500, 2016 May 11.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Multiple school-associated pertussis outbreaks were reported in Maine from 2010 to 2011. These outbreaks were associated with an overall increase in pertussis cases statewide. Waning of protection in students recently vaccinated with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) has been implicated in the increase in reported rates of pertussis nationally. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate Tdap vaccine effectiveness (VE) among students aged 11-19 years in two schools reporting outbreaks in 2011. All pertussis cases reported from August through November, 2011 at the two schools were included. Vaccination history was verified using provider information, state vaccine registry data, and parental verification. Attack rates (AR) were calculated. VE and duration of protection was calculated as VE=1-(ARvaccinated/ARunvaccinated)×100% using a log binomial regression model. RESULTS: Of 416 students enrolled, 314 were included in the analyses. Twenty-nine cases collectively in Schools A and B. Tdap coverage was 65% at School A and 42% at School B before the start of the outbreak. Among students enrolled in the study, attack rates were 11.9% and 7.7% at Schools A and B, respectively. Overall VE was 68.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.7-86.2). VE was 70.4% (95% CI 17.5-89.4) for School A and 65.2% (95% CI -19.2 to 89.9) for School B. VE <2 years versus ≥2 years from outbreak onset was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Tdap was moderately effective in preventing disease among vaccinated students. Vaccine coverage of 65% or less was suboptimal and might contribute to outbreaks. Waning VE was not demonstrated. Increased vaccination coverage rates as well as further evaluation of the role of acellular vaccine on VE is needed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26776752
[Au] Autor:Roe AL; Paine MF; Gurley BJ; Brouwer KR; Jordan S; Griffiths JC
[Ad] Address:Product Safety & Regulatory Affairs, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45040, United States. Electronic address: roe.al@pg.com....
[Ti] Title:Assessing Natural Product-Drug Interactions: An End-to-End Safety Framework.
[So] Source:Regul Toxicol Pharmacol;76:1-6, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0295
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The use of natural products (NPs), including herbal medicines and other dietary supplements, by North Americans continues to increase across all age groups. This population has access to conventional medications, with significant polypharmacy observed in older adults. Thus, the safety of the interactions between multi-ingredient NPs and drugs is a topic of paramount importance. Considerations such as history of safe use, literature data from animal toxicity and human clinical studies, and NP constituent characterization would provide guidance on whether to assess NP-drug interactions experimentally. The literature is replete with reports of various NP extracts and constituents as potent inhibitors of drug metabolizing enzymes, and transporters. However, without standard methods for NP characterization or in vitro testing, extrapolating these reports to clinically-relevant NP-drug interactions is difficult. This lack of a clear definition of risk precludes clinicians and consumers from making informed decisions about the safety of taking NPs with conventional medications. A framework is needed that describes an integrated robust approach for assessing NP-drug interactions; and, translation of the data into formulation alterations, dose adjustment, labelling, and/or post-marketing surveillance strategies. A session was held at the 41st Annual Summer Meeting of the Toxicology Forum in Colorado Springs, CO, to highlight the challenges and critical components that should be included in a framework approach.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26769304
[Au] Autor:Castro LF; Tocher DR; Monroig O
[Ad] Address:CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Biology Department, FCUP, University of Porto, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in chordates: Insights into the evolution of Fads and Elovl gene repertoire.
[So] Source:Prog Lipid Res;62:25-40, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2194
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are major components of complex lipid molecules and are also involved in numerous critical biological processes. Studies conducted mainly in vertebrates have demonstrated that LC-PUFA can be biosynthesized through the concerted action of two sets of enzymes, namely fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) proteins. While LC-PUFA research is a thriving field, mainly focused on human health, an integrated view regarding the evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genetic machinery in chordates is yet to be produced. Particularly important is to understand whether lineage specific life history trajectories, as well as major biological transitions, or particular genomic processes such as genome duplications have impacted the evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. Here we review the gene repertoire of Fads and Elovl in chordate genomes and the diversity of substrate specificities acquired during evolution. We take advantage of the magnitude of genomic and functional data to show that combination duplication processes and functional plasticity have generated a wide diversity of physiological capacities in extant lineages. A clear evolutionary framework is provided, which will be instrumental for the full clarification of functional capacities between the various vertebrate groups.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26931814
[Au] Autor:Debska A; Luniewska M; Chyl K; Banaszkiewicz A; Zelechowska A; Wypych M; Marchewka A; Pugh KR; Jednoróg K
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Psychophysiology, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Faculty of Psychology, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland....
[Ti] Title:Neural basis of phonological awareness in beginning readers with familial risk of dyslexia-Results from shallow orthography.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;132:406-16, 2016 May 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phonological processing ability is a key factor in reading acquisition, predicting its later success or causing reading problems when it is weakened. Our aim here was to establish the neural correlates of auditory word rhyming (a standard phonological measure) in 102 young children with (FHD+) and without familial history of dyslexia (FHD-) in a shallow orthography (i.e. Polish). Secondly, in order to gain a deeper understanding on how schooling shapes brain activity to phonological awareness, a comparison was made of children who had had formal literacy instruction for several months (in first grade) and those who had not yet had any formal instruction in literacy (in kindergarten). FHD+ children compared to FHD- children in the first grade scored lower in an early print task and showed longer reaction times in the in-scanner rhyme task. No behavioral differences between FHD+ and FHD- were found in the kindergarten group. On the neuronal level, overall familial risk was associated with reduced activation in the bilateral temporal, tempo-parietal and inferior temporal-occipital regions, as well as the bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyri. Subcortically, hypoactivation was found in the bilateral thalami, caudate, and right putamen in FHD+. A main effect of the children's grade was present only in the left inferior frontal gyrus, where reduced activation for rhyming was shown in first-graders. Several regions in the ventral occipital cortex, including the fusiform gyrus, and in the right middle frontal and postcentral gyri, displayed an interaction between familial risk and grade. The present results show strong influence of familial risk that may actually increase with formal literacy instruction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27131008
[Au] Autor:Sariko ML; Mpagama SG; Gratz J; Kisonga R; Saidi Q; Kibiki GS; Heysell SK
[Ad] Address:Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Moshi, Tanzania. magesariko@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Glycated hemoglobin screening identifies patients admitted for retreatment of tuberculosis at risk for diabetes in Tanzania.
[So] Source:J Infect Dev Ctries;10(4):423-6, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1972-2680
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization recommendations of bidirectional screening for tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes have been met with varying levels of uptake by national TB programs in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY: Kibong'oto Infectious Diseases Hospital (KIDH) is a referral hospital for TB from northern Tanzania, and the national referral hospital for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. Glycated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) testing was done on patients admitted to KIDH for newly diagnosed TB, retreatment TB, and MDR-TB, to determine the point prevalence of diabetes (HgbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and prediabetes (HgbA1c 5.7%-6.4%). RESULTS: Of 148 patients hospitalized at KIDH over a single week, 59 (38%) had no prior TB treatment, 22 (15%) were retreatment cases, and 69 (47%) had MDR-TB. Only 3 (2%) had a known history of diabetes. A total of 144 (97%) had successful screening, of which 110 (77%) had an HgbA1c ≤ 5.6%, 28 (19%) had ≥ 5.7 < 6.5, and 6 (4%) had ≥ 6.5. Comparing subjects with prediabetes or diabetes to those with normal A1c levels, retreatment patients were significantly more likely to have a A1c ≥ 5.7% (odds ratio: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-9.0; p = 0.02) compared to those without prior TB treatment. No retreatment case was a known diabetic, thus the number needed to screen to diagnose one new case of diabetes among retreatment cases was 11. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes prevalence by HgbA1c was less common than expected, but higher HgA1c values were significantly more frequent among retreatment cases, allowing for a rational, resource-conscious screening approach.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3855/jidc.7324

  8 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26896287
[Au] Autor:Gibbons P; Stoklosa H
[Ad] Address:University of Massachusetts Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
[Ti] Title:Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report.
[So] Source:J Emerg Med;50(5):715-9, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:0736-4679
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Human trafficking victims experience extreme exploitation and have unique health needs, yet too often go undetected by physicians and providers in the Emergency Department (ED). We report a clinical case of human trafficking of a white, English-speaking United States citizen and discuss the features of presentation and treatment options for human trafficking victims upon presentation to the ED. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for intravenous drug abuse and recent relapse presented to the ED after a reported sexual assault. The patient was discharged that evening and returned to the ED the following day acutely suicidal. The patient divulged that she had been kidnapped and raped at gunpoint by numerous individuals as a result of a debt owed to her drug dealers. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Many human trafficking victims present to an ED during the course of their exploitation. To that end, EDs provide one of a limited set of opportunities to intervene in the human trafficking cycle of exploitation, and physicians as well as other ED staff should be equipped to respond.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26753606
[Au] Autor:Woelfle-Roos JV; Dautel L; Wernerus D; Woelfle KD; Reichel H
[Ad] Address:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Vascular Calcifications on the Preoperative Radiograph: Predictor of Ischemic Complications in Total Knee Arthroplasty?
[So] Source:J Arthroplasty;31(5):1078-82, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8406
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Vascular calcifications seen on the preoperative radiograph of patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are intuitively seen as a risk factor for ischemic complications though there is no empiric evidence to support this assumption. The aim of this study was the correlation of perioperative ischemic complications and vascular calcifications of patients undergoing TKA. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all 825 patients who had undergone primary TKA in the period 2009-2011 with intraoperative use of a tourniquet were included. Patients with pathologic pulse status and history of vascular intervention were excluded. Vascular calcifications seen on the preoperative radiograph were classified as intimal-type and medial-type calcifications and were correlated to perioperative ischemic complications. RESULTS: Vascular calcifications were seen in 268 patients (medial type: n = 54, intimal type: n = 214). Major ischemic complications such as arterial thrombosis were seen in 2 patients, one of them with intimal-type calcifications and one without (complication rate 0.5% vs 0.2%, P = .715). The rate of minor ischemic complications such as protracted wound healing was significantly elevated in patients with intimal-type calcifications (6.1%) when compared to patients with medial-type calcifications (1.9%) and those without (1.6%, P = .003) even when multiple regression analysis was performed taking into account 2 potential influencing factors "age" and "diabetes mellitus" (P = .008). CONCLUSION: Owing to the significantly increased risk of ischemic complications in patients with intimal-type calcifications undergoing TKA, we recommend high alertness to the presence of calcifications on preoperative radiographs, careful intraoperative soft tissue management, and postoperative monitoring of the vascular status.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 801842 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26829113
[Au] Autor:Yoruk A; Sherazi S; Massey HT; Kutyifa V; McNitt S; Hallinan W; Huang DT; Chen L; Aktas MK
[Ad] Address:University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York....
[Ti] Title:Predictors and clinical relevance of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ambulatory patients with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device.
[So] Source:Heart Rhythm;13(5):1052-6, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1556-3871
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are at high risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify clinical predictors of VTAs and subsequent outcomes after VTA in ambulatory LVAD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 149 patients with a continuous flow HeartMate II LVAD who survived to discharge from index hospitalization after LVAD implantation was performed from January 10, 2005, to September 3, 2013. A multivariate Cox model was used to assess clinical predictors of VTAs. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 2.1 ± 1.2 years, 41 patients (28%) experienced VTAs; 30 of these patients (71%) had ventricular tachycardia, and 11 (29%) had ventricular fibrillation. History of VTAs before LVAD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-5.96; P = .001) and history of atrial fibrillation (AF) (HR 3.13; 95% CI 1.60-6.11; P = .008) were the most powerful predictors of VTAs after LVAD implantation. There were 19 deaths (46%) among patients with VTAs and 15 deaths (14%) among patients without VTAs (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, time-dependent VTAs after LVAD implantation were associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality when compared with those without VTAs (HR 7.28; 95% CI 3.50-15.15; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In ambulatory LVAD patients, history of VTAs before LVAD implantation and history of AF predict VTAs after LVAD implantation. VTAs are associated with an increased risk of mortality. In such patients, aggressive measures to control VTAs and AF should be considered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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