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[PMID]: 24747090
[Au] Autor:Liang Y; Ketchum NS; Goodman PJ; Klein EA; Thompson IM
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas; Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas; Cancer Therapy & Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Ce...
[Ti] Title:Is there a role for body mass index in the assessment of prostate cancer risk on biopsy?
[So] Source:J Urol;192(4):1094-9, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1527-3792
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: We examine the role of body mass index in the assessment of prostate cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 3,258 participants who underwent biopsy (including 1,902 men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer) were identified from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. The associations of body mass index with prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer were examined using logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, body mass index adjusted prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, family history of prostate cancer, biopsy history, prostate specific antigen velocity, and time between study entry and the last biopsy. The prediction models were compared with our previously developed body mass index adjusted Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial prostate cancer risk calculator. RESULTS: Of the study subjects 49.1% were overweight and 29.3% were obese. After adjustment, among men without a known family history of prostate cancer, increased body mass index was not associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (per one-unit increase in logBMI OR 0.83, p=0.54) but was significantly associated with a higher risk of high grade prostate cancer (ie Gleason score 7 or greater prostate cancer) (OR 2.31, p=0.03). For men with a known family history of prostate cancer the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer increased rapidly as body mass index increased (prostate cancer OR 3.73, p=0.02; high grade prostate cancer OR 7.95, p=0.002). The previously developed risk calculator generally underestimated the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index provided independently predictive information regarding the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer after adjusting for other risk factors. Body mass index, especially in men with a known family history of prostate cancer, should be considered for inclusion in any clinical assessment of prostate cancer risk and recommendations regarding prostate biopsy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24237966
[Au] Autor:Morgan CC; Mc Cartney AM; Donoghue MT; Loughran NB; Spillane C; Teeling EC; O'Connell MJ
[Ti] Title:Molecular adaptation of telomere associated genes in mammals.
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;13(1):251, 2013.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Placental mammals display a huge range of life history traits, including size, longevity, metabolic rate and germ line generation time. Although a number of general trends have been proposed between these traits, there are exceptions that warrant further investigation. Species such as naked mole rat, human and certain bat species all exhibit extreme longevity with respect to body size. It has long been established that telomeres and telomere maintenance have a clear role in ageing but it has not yet been established whether there is evidence for adaptation in telomere maintenance proteins that could account for increased longevity in these species. RESULTS: Here we carry out a molecular investigation of selective pressure variation, specifically focusing on telomere associated genes across placental mammals. In general we observe a large number of instances of positive selection acting on telomere genes. Although these signatures of selection overall are not significantly correlated with either longevity or body size we do identify positive selection in the microbat species Myotis lucifugus in functionally important regions of the telomere maintenance genes DKC1 and TERT, and in naked mole rat in the DNA repair gene BRCA1. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the multifarious selective pressures acting across the mammal phylogeny driving lineage-specific adaptations of telomere associated genes. Our results show that regardless of the longevity of a species, these proteins have evolved under positive selection thereby removing increased longevity as the single selective force driving this rapid rate of evolution. However, evidence of molecular adaptations specific to naked mole rat and Myotis lucifugus highlight functionally significant regions in genes that may alter the way in which telomeres are regulated and maintained in these longer-lived species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-13-251

  3 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25297933
[Au] Autor:Krawczyk M; Milkiewicz M; Marschall HU; Bartz C; Grünhage F; Wunsch E; Milkiewicz P; Lammert F
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Variant adiponutrin confers genetic protection against cholestatic itch.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;4:6374, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates cholestatic pruritus. Recently the enzyme PNPLA3, expressed in liver and skin, was demonstrated to metabolise LPA. Here we assess the association of the PNPLA3 variant p.Ile148Met, known to be associated with (non-)alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in genome-wide association studies, with cholestatic itch in 187 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 250 PBC-free controls as well as 201 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and 198 female controls without a history of ICP. Our hypothesis was that the intensity of cholestatic itch differs in carriers of distinct PNPLA3 p.Ile148Met genotypes. Patients with PBC carrying the allele p.148Met that confers an increased NAFLD risk reported less itching than carriers of the p.148Ile allele (ANOVA P = 0.048). The PNPLA3 p.148Ile allele increased the odds of requiring plasmapheresis for refractory pruritus (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 0.91-17.00, P = 0.048). In line with these findings, the PNPLA3 p.148Met allele was underrepresented in the ICP cohort (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47-0.92, P = 0.013). Notwithstanding the need for further replication of these findings, we conclude that the PNPLA3 allele p.148Met might confer protection against cholestatic pruritus, possibly due to increased LPA-acyltransferase activity in liver and/or skin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep06374

  4 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25296174
[Au] Autor:López-Arbarello A; Stockar R; Bürgin T
[Ad] Address:SNSB- Bavarian State Collection for Palaeontology and Geology, and GeoBio-Center Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Phylogenetic relationships of the triassic archaeosemionotus deecke (halecomorphi, ionoscopiformes) from the 'perledo fauna'.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e108665, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The lagerstätten in the Monte San Giorgio have provided excellent fossils representing one of the most important windows to the marine life during the Triassic. Among these fossils, fishes are abundant and extraordinarily well preserved. Most of these fishes represent extinct lineages and were difficult to understand and classify during the early years after discovery. These difficulties usually led to a mixture of species under the same taxonomic name. This is the case of fishes referred to the genus Archaeosemionotus. The name bearing type of A. connectens, the type species of this genus, represents a basal halecomorph, but most other fishes referred to this genus represent basal ginglymodians. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of A. connectens, which is a member of the family Furidae (Halecomorphi, Ionoscopiformes) representing the second cladistically supported evidence of ionoscopiforms in the Triassic and it is thus one of the two oldest reliable records of this group. Ionoscopiforms have a long stratigraphic range, though their fossil record is rather patchy. In our analysis, the sister taxon of Archaeosemionotus is Robustichthys from the Anisian of China, and they together form a clade with Furo, which is known from several localities ranging from the Early to the Late Jurassic. Other ionoscopiforms are so far known from the Kimmeridgian to the Albian and it is thus evident that recent efforts have concentrated on the later history of the group (Late Jurassic to Cretaceous). The phylogenetic relationships obtained for the Ionoscopiformes do not show a clear palaeobiogeographic pattern, but give important new insights into the origin, divergence date and early history of this clade.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108665

  5 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25296034
[Au] Autor:Kisoka WJ; Simonsen PE; Malecela MN; Tersbøl BP; Mushi DL; Meyrowitsch DW
[Ad] Address:National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tumaini University, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania....
[Ti] Title:Factors Influencing Drug Uptake during Mass Drug Administration for Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in Rural and Urban Tanzania.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109316, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interruption within reasonable time. The present study aimed to identify predictors and barriers to individual drug uptake during MDA implementation by the National LF Elimination Programme in Tanzania. METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional household survey was carried out in two rural and two urban districts in Lindi and Morogoro regions shortly after the 2011 MDA. 3279 adults (≥15 years) were interviewed about personal characteristics, socio-economic status, MDA drug uptake among themselves and their children, reasons for taking/not taking drugs, and participation in previous MDA activities for LF control. FINDINGS: The overall drug uptake rate was 55.1% (range of 44.5-75.6% between districts). There was no overall major difference between children (54.8%) and adults (55.2%) or between females (54.9%) and males (55.8%), but the role of these and other predictors varied to some extent between study sites. Major overall predictors of drug uptake among the interviewed adults were increasing age and history of previous drug uptake. Being absent from home during drug distribution was the main reason for not taking the drugs (50.2%) followed by clinical contraindications to treatment (10.8%), missing household visits of drug distributors (10.6%), and households not being informed about the distribution (9.0%). CONCLUSION: Drug uptake relied more on easily modifiable provider-related factors than on individual perceptions and practices in the target population. Limited investments in appropriate timing, dissemination of accurate timing information to recipients and motivation of drug distributors to visit all households (repeatedly when residents are absent) are likely to have considerable potential for increasing drug uptake, in support of successful LF transmission elimination.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109316

  6 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25295734
[Au] Autor:Chitwood DH
[Ad] Address:Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Imitation, genetic lineages, and time influenced the morphological evolution of the violin.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109229, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109229

  7 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25295517
[Au] Autor:Viruel J; Catalán P; Segarra-Moragues JG
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Agricultura y Economía Agraria, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Huesca, Universidad de Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Latitudinal Environmental Niches and Riverine Barriers Shaped the Phylogeography of the Central Chilean Endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae).
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e110029, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110029

  8 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298612
[Au] Autor:Sabageh D; Oguntola AS; Oguntola AM; Bajowa OO
[Ad] Address:Department of Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, Lautech Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria....
[Ti] Title:Incidental detection of microfilariae in a lymph node aspirate: A case report.
[So] Source:Niger Med J;55(5):438-40, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0300-1652
[Cp] Country of publication:Nigeria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lymphatic filariasis is a global health problem endemic in Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears are frequently negative for microfilariae in a significant number of infected patients in whom conventional diagnostic methods may also fail to identify the disease. In such cases, fine needle aspiration cytology may play an important role in disease identification. A 49-year-old South-western male Nigerian farmer, presented with a one-year history of a right groin swelling, which became painful 2 weeks before coming to the hospital. A clinical assessment of lymphogranuloma venereum was made to rule out a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial laboratory investigations only showed mild eosinophilia and haematuria. However, fine needle aspiration cytology performed on the swelling showed microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti for which appropriate treatment was instituted with excellent outcome. This case demonstrates that lymphatic filariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymph node swellings in the groin and that aspiration cytology may play an important role in its diagnosis, especially in an endemic resource poor country.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.140392

  9 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298602
[Au] Autor:Singh S; Ahmed EB; Egondu SC; Ikechukwu NE
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria....
[Ti] Title:Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy among pregnant women in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital.
[So] Source:Niger Med J;55(5):384-8, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0300-1652
[Cp] Country of publication:Nigeria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) represent a group of conditions associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy. It is an important cause of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aims of the study were to find the prevalence of hypertensive disorders and its associated risk factors among women attending the antenatal clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,(UDUTH) Sokoto. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study of 216 consecutively recruited women that were less than 20 weeks pregnant at booking was carried out. Blood pressure was measured for each woman at booking and at subsequent visits. Urinalysis was done at booking and whenever blood pressure was elevated. Patients were followed-up to delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) statistical package. RESULTS: The prevalence of HDP in the study was 17% while preeclampsia was 6%. Previous history of preeclampsia (P < 0.001; Relative risk (RR) 4.2; conficence interval (CI) 2.144-6.812), multiple gestation (P < 0.03; RR 3.8; CI 1.037-6.235), gestational diabetes (P < 0.02; RR 4.8; CI 1.910-6.751) and obesity (P < 0.002; RR 2.7; CI 1.373-5.511) were the significant risk factors in the development of HDP among the study population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HDP in the study group is high. Therefore, paying attention to the risk factors will ensure early detection and prevention of the progression of the disease and its sequelae.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.140377

  10 / 737996 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298719
[Au] Autor:Surendran S; Venkatachalapathy A; Vimalageetha K; Thomas AE
[Ad] Address:Department of Paediatric Dentitsry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, India....
[Ti] Title:Concomitant hypo-hyperdontia with an endocrine etiology.
[So] Source:Natl J Maxillofac Surg;5(1):51-3, 2014 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0975-5950
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The simultaneous occurrence of hypodontia and supernumerary teeth in the same individual is termed as "concomitant hypohyperdontia" and it is an uncommon condition with the etiology still unknown. Presented here is a very rare case of simultaneous presence of multiple supernumerary teeth and multiple missing teeth (bilateral maxillary second premolars and bilateral mandibular second molars) involving both jaws with a history of subclinical hypothyroidism. Systemic diseases could probably play a role in the etiologic occurrence of co-existent partial anodontia and supernumerary teeth.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0975-5950.140174


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