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[PMID]: 24932634
[Au] Autor:Schifferdecker AJ; Dashko S; Ishchuk OP; Piskur J
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, Lund, SE-223 62, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.
[So] Source:Yeast;31(9):323-32, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0061
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/yea.3023

  2 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24131747
[Au] Autor:Donaldson D; Matas Riera M; Holloway A; Beltran E; Barnett KC
[Ad] Address:Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, UK.
[Ti] Title:Contralateral optic neuropathy and retinopathy associated with visual and afferent pupillomotor dysfunction following enucleation in six cats.
[So] Source:Vet Ophthalmol;17(5):373-84, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1463-5224
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To investigate contralateral optic neuropathy and retinopathy following enucleation in 6 cats. METHODS: Retrospective study. The medical records of cats with contralateral visual and afferent pupillomotor dysfunction following enucleation presented to the Animal Health Trust (AHT), Newmarket, UK, between January 1994 and January 2010 were reviewed. Information recorded included history, signalment, ophthalmic findings, electroretinography (ERG) (2/6) and MRI (3/6) findings and long-term outcome. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare breed proportions (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Six cats aged 1.5 to 11 (median 5.5) years presented with mydriasis and/or visual deficits noted immediately following enucleation. Enucleation involved optic nerve (ON) ligation in all of the four cases for which this information was available. Ophthalmic findings included mydriasis with absent pupillary light reflex (PLR) (4/6), incomplete PLRs (2/6), absence of dazzle reflex (4/6) and absence of menace response (4/6). Funduscopy initially revealed multifocal peripapillary retinal lesions, with subsequent progressive optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal atrophy. ERG recordings revealed normal outer retinal function at 6 and 22 weeks (2/2). On MRI, the optic chiasm (OC) ipsilateral to the enucleation could not be identified and the contralateral OC was atrophied (3/3). CONCLUSIONS: The acute afferent ON deficits following enucleation, progressive ONH atrophy, normal outer retinal function and MRI demonstrating OC pathology are consistent with chiasmal injury due to traction on the ON during enucleation. Rostral traction on the globe to facilitate ON ligation is contraindicated in cats.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/vop.12104

  3 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23859597
[Au] Autor:Curto EM; Gemensky-Metzler AJ; Chandler HL; Wilkie DA
[Ad] Address:College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA; Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
[Ti] Title:Equine glaucoma: a histopathologic retrospective study (1999-2012).
[So] Source:Vet Ophthalmol;17(5):334-42, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1463-5224
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To characterize and describe the histopathologic findings in equine globes enucleated due to glaucoma. METHODS: Medical records at The Ohio State University from 1999 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, history, and treatment data were collected, and histologic slides of enucleated globes were examined and lesions recorded. Twenty-three eyes from 23 horses were eligible for inclusion in this study. RESULTS: The majority of affected horses were > 15 years of age (65%). The ages ranged from 5 to 35 years (mean = 17.4 years). The left eye was affected in 10 cases (43%) and the right eye in 13 cases (57%). There were 13 mares (56%) and 10 geldings (44%). Quarter Horses (30%), Appaloosas (26%), and Thoroughbreds (22%) were the most common breeds in the study population. The most common histopathologic changes included hypercellularity of the optic nerve (93%), retinal atrophy (89%), corneal vascularization (83%), descemetization of pectinate ligaments (83%), hypercellularity of the anterior corneal stroma (75%), posterior bowing of the iris base (74%), ciliary body atrophy (74%), corneal striae (70%), pars plana elongation (60%), cataract (53%), and collapsed ciliary cleft/trabecular meshwork (52%). Evidence of uveitis (cataract, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the uvea, and/or anterior or posterior synechiae) was present in 20/23 eyes (87%). CONCLUSIONS: Equine glaucoma most commonly occurs secondary to uveitis with Appaloosas and older horses predisposed. Histologic changes are comparable to prior reports of chronic glaucoma; notable findings not previously described in the horse were posterior bowing of the iris base and relative sparing of the superior retina from atrophy associated with elevated IOP.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/vop.12080

  4 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25132336
[Au] Autor:Vasudevan L; Labrique AB; Mehra S; Wu L; Levine O; Feikin D; Klemm R; Christian P; West KP
[Ad] Address:Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, NC, United States; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States....
[Ti] Title:Maternal determinants of timely vaccination coverage among infants in rural Bangladesh.
[So] Source:Vaccine;32(42):5514-9, 2014 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Timely vaccination, i.e., the receipt of all scheduled vaccinations in an age-appropriate fashion, is critical for the prevention of deadly diseases in infants and achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goal to reduce infant mortality. Infants, especially in rural or underprivileged settings often receive delayed vaccinations leaving them susceptible to vaccine-preventable illnesses early in the first year of life. In this study, we examined rates of timely vaccination among 24,435 infants born in Gaibandha and Rangpur rural districts of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2007. METHODS: Vaccinations due by 14 weeks of age and administered through routine government immunization services were assessed using interviews with enrolled mothers between 11 and 18 weeks postpartum. We created a Timely Vaccination (TV) score to classify infants as vaccinated fully and on schedule (TV=1) or not (TV=0), and used multivariable logistic regression to identify maternal characteristics associated with infant's timely vaccination status. RESULTS: Our results suggest that only 19% of infants in this cohort received scheduled vaccinations on time by 11-18 weeks postpartum. Mothers' engagement in paid employment [OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.03-1.23], receipt of tetanus toxoid vaccination [OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11-1.38], history of antenatal care [OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12-1.32], or higher socioeconomic status [OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.11] were positively associated with timely vaccination of their infants. Mother's perception of small infant size at birth was negatively associated with timely vaccination [OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97]. CONCLUSION: Timely vaccination coverage of infants in rural Gaibandha and Rangpur districts is extremely low. This analysis identifies important shortcomings associated with the 1-year vaccination benchmark of routine immunization performance and suggests the need for specific interventions based on potential maternal determinants as well as known system and programmatic barriers of timely vaccination among infants in rural Bangladesh.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25131744
[Au] Autor:Roland KB; Benard VB; Greek A; Hawkins NA; Saraiya M
[Ad] Address:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, MS F-76, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Electronic address: kroland@cdc.gov....
[Ti] Title:Primary care providers human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations for the medically underserved: A pilot study in U.S. Federally Qualified Health Centers.
[So] Source:Vaccine;32(42):5432-5, 2014 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: In the United States, Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) are safety-net clinics that provide cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to medically underserved women, some of whom may be at risk for developing cervical cancer. National guidelines recommend against using screening test results or sexual history to determine vaccine eligibility. Documenting HPV vaccine recommendations and beliefs of primary care providers in FQHCs may aid in promoting evidence-based practices and prioritizing health interventions for vulnerable populations. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2010, we collected data from 98 primary care providers in 15 FQHC clinics in IL, USA using a cross-sectional survey. Questions assessed provider and practice characteristics, HPV vaccine recommendations, and provider's belief about whether their screening and management procedures would change for women who were vaccinated. RESULTS: 93% of providers recommended the HPV vaccine, most frequently for females aged 13-26 years (98%). Some providers reported sometimes to always using HPV test results (12%), Pap test results (7%), and number of sexual partners (33%) to determine vaccine eligibility. More than half of providers (55%) reported they will not change their screening and management practices for vaccinated females, yet believe vaccination will yield fewer abnormal Pap tests (71%) and referrals for colposcopy (74%). CONCLUSION: Study providers routinely recommended the HPV vaccine for their patients. However, providers made fewer recommendations to vaccinate females ages 9-12 years (which includes the target age for vaccination) compared to older females, and used pre-vaccination assessments not recommended by U.S. guidelines, such as screening test results and number of sexual partners. In order to maximize the public health benefit of the HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, adherence to guidelines is necessary, especially in settings that provide care to medically underserved women.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25183428
[Au] Autor:Goeminne PC; Bijnens E; Nemery B; Nawrot TS; Dupont LJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Respiratory Disease, University Hospital of Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, B-3000, Belgium. pieter.goeminne@student.kuleuven.be.
[Ti] Title:Impact of traffic related air pollution indicators on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis mortality: a cohort analysis.
[So] Source:Respir Res;15(1):108, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1465-993X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Mortality in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is known to be influenced by a number of factors such as gender, age, smoking history and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the impact of traffic related air pollution indicators on NCFB mortality is unknown. METHODS: We followed 183 patients aged 18 to 65 years with a HRCT proven diagnosis of NCFB and typical symptoms, who had visited the outpatient clinic at the University Hospital of Leuven, Belgium, between June 2006 and October 2012. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) for mortality in relation to proximity of the home to major roads and traffic load, adjusting for relevant covariables (age, gender, disease severity, chronic macrolide use, smoking history, socioeconomic status and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization status). RESULTS: Fifteen out of the 183 included patients died during the observation period. Residential proximity to a major road was associated with the risk of dying with a HR 0.28 (CI 95% 0.10-0.77; p = 0.013) for a tenfold increase in distance to a major road. Mortality was also associated with distance-weighted traffic density within 100 meters (HR for each tenfold increase in traffic density 3.80; CI 95% 1.07-13.51; p = 0.04) and 200 meters from the patient's home address (HR for each tenfold increase in traffic density 4.14; CI 95% 1.13-15.22; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Traffic-related air pollution appears to increase the risk of dying in patients with NCFB. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the local ethical committee of the UZ Leuven, Belgium (ML-5028), registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01906047).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0108-z

  7 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24956360
[Au] Autor:Fernandes Gde C; Trarbach LJ; de Campos SB; Beneduzi A; Passaglia LM
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Caixa Postal 15.053, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: gabrieladcf@yahoo.com.br....
[Ti] Title:Alternative nitrogenase and pseudogenes: unique features of the Paenibacillus riograndensis nitrogen fixation system.
[So] Source:Res Microbiol;165(7):571-80, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1769-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a tightly regulated process that is carried out by diazotrophic microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of BNF-related genes are well characterized in Gram-negative models, but they are poorly understood in Gram-positive bacteria. Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T) is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming facultative aerobic diazotroph. Three clusters of BNF-related genes with dissimilar phylogenetic histories were identified in the P. riograndensis genome, and no regulatory genes were recognized. P. riograndensis nifH2 was considered inactive based on transcript and promoter analyses, whereas transcripts of nifH1 and anfH were induced upon nitrogen-limited conditions. The functionality of the alternative nitrogenase system was also validated by enzymatic activity analysis. Fragments upstream of the two active clusters seem to harbor primary functional promoter sequences, producing a constitutive expression pattern in Escherichia coli. Sequences upstream of the anf genes were not recognized by this heterologous host, indicating a very distinct promoter pattern. These results shed light upon the evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation genes in this Gram-positive bacterium and highlight the presence of novel regulatory elements that are yet to be described.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25136101
[Au] Autor:Perry GH; Foll M; Grenier JC; Patin E; Nédélec Y; Pacis A; Barakatt M; Gravel S; Zhou X; Nsobya SL; Excoffier L; Quintana-Murci L; Dominy NJ; Barreiro LB
[Ad] Address:Departments of Anthropology and Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802; ghp3@psu.edu luis.barreiro@umontreal.ca....
[Ti] Title:Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;111(35):E3596-603, 2014 Sep 2.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including enrichments for SNPs previously associated with stature variation in Europeans and for genes with growth hormone receptor and regulation functions. To test adaptive evolutionary hypotheses, we computed the haplotype-based integrated haplotype score (iHS) statistic and the level of population differentiation (FST) between the Batwa and their agricultural neighbors, the Bakiga, for each genomic SNP. Both |iHS| and FST values were significantly higher for SNPs within the Batwa pygmy phenotype-associated regions than the remainder of the genome, a signature of polygenic adaptation. In contrast, when we expanded our analysis to include Baka rainforest hunter-gatherers from Cameroon and Gabon (west central Africa) and Nzebi and Nzime neighboring agriculturalists, we did not observe elevated |iHS| or FST values in these genomic regions. Together, these results suggest adaptive and at least partially convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype even within Africa, supporting the hypothesis that small body size confers a selective advantage for tropical rainforest hunter-gatherers but raising questions about the antiquity of this behavior.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1402875111

  9 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25114217
[Au] Autor:Wilson EO; Nowak MA
[Ad] Address:Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; and ewilson@oeb.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:Natural selection drives the evolution of ant life cycles.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;111(35):12585-90, 2014 Sep 2.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The genetic origin of advanced social organization has long been one of the outstanding problems of evolutionary biology. Here we present an analysis of the major steps in ant evolution, based for the first time, to our knowledge, on combined recent advances in paleontology, phylogeny, and the study of contemporary life histories. We provide evidence of the causal forces of natural selection shaping several key phenomena: (i) the relative lateness and rarity in geological time of the emergence of eusociality in ants and other animal phylads; (ii) the prevalence of monogamy at the time of evolutionary origin; and (iii) the female-biased sex allocation observed in many ant species. We argue that a clear understanding of the evolution of social insects can emerge if, in addition to relatedness-based arguments, we take into account key factors of natural history and study how natural selection acts on alleles that modify social behavior.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1405550111

  10 / 734395 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25092345
[Au] Autor:Seager S
[Ad] Address:Department of Physics and Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 seager@mit.edu.
[Ti] Title:The future of spectroscopic life detection on exoplanets.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;111(35):12634-40, 2014 Sep 2.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The discovery and characterization of exoplanets have the potential to offer the world one of the most impactful findings ever in the history of astronomy-the identification of life beyond Earth. Life can be inferred by the presence of atmospheric biosignature gases-gases produced by life that can accumulate to detectable levels in an exoplanet atmosphere. Detection will be made by remote sensing by sophisticated space telescopes. The conviction that biosignature gases will actually be detected in the future is moderated by lessons learned from the dozens of exoplanet atmospheres studied in last decade, namely the difficulty in robustly identifying molecules, the possible interference of clouds, and the permanent limitations from a spectrum of spatially unresolved and globally mixed gases without direct surface observations. The vision for the path to assess the presence of life beyond Earth is being established.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1304213111


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