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[PMID]: 25240393
[Au] Autor:von Rueden C; Gurven M; Kaplan H; Stieglitz J
[Ad] Address:Jepson School of Leadership Studies, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA, 23173, USA, cvonrued@richmond.edu.
[Ti] Title:Leadership in an egalitarian society.
[So] Source:Hum Nat;25(4):538-66, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1936-4776
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact or differentially benefit from collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12110-014-9213-4

  2 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25473196
[Au] Autor:Takahashi M; Ohara M; Kimura N; Domen H; Yamabuki T; Komuro K; Tsuchikawa T; Hirano S; Iwashiro N
[Ad] Address:Mizuna Takahashi, Masanori Ohara, Hiromitsu Domen, Takumi Yamabuki, Kazuteru Komuro, Nozomu Iwashiro, Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Hakodate Hospital, Hakodate 041-8512, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Giant primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine showing severe sepsis.
[So] Source:World J Gastroenterol;20(43):16359-63, 2014 Nov 21.
[Is] ISSN:2219-2840
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Primary malignant tumors of the small intestine are rare, comprising less than 2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with fever of 40  °C and marked abdominal distension. Her medical history was unremarkable, but blood examination showed elevated inflammatory markers. Abdominal computed tomography showed a giant tumor with central necrosis, extending from the epigastrium to the pelvic cavity. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine communicating with the gastrointestinal tract or with superimposed infection was suspected. Because no improvement occurred in response to antibiotics, surgery was performed. Laparotomy revealed giant hemorrhagic tumor adherent to the small intestine and occupying the peritoneal cavity. The giant tumor was a solid tumor weighing 3490 g, measuring 24 cm × 17.5 cm × 18 cm and showing marked necrosis. Histologically, the tumor comprised spindle-shaped cells with anaplastic large nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for vimentin, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen, but negative for c-kit and CD34. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed. Although no postoperative complications occurred, the patient experienced enlargement of multiple metastatic tumors in the abdominal cavity and died 42 d postoperatively. The prognosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma is very poor, even after volume-reducing palliative surgery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i43.16359

  3 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25473187
[Au] Autor:Sewitch MJ; Jiang M; Fon Sing M; Barkun A; Joseph L
[Ad] Address:Maida J Sewitch, Alan Barkun, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1Y6, Canada....
[Ti] Title:Screening polypectomy rates below quality benchmarks: A prospective study.
[So] Source:World J Gastroenterol;20(43):16300-5, 2014 Nov 21.
[Is] ISSN:2219-2840
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: To estimate and compare sex-specific screening polypectomy rates to quality benchmarks of 40% in men and 30% in women. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of patients aged 50-75, scheduled for colonoscopy, and covered by the Québec universal health insurance plan. Endoscopist and patient questionnaires were used to obtain screening and non-screening colonoscopy indications. Patient self-report was used to obtain history of gastrointestinal conditions/symptoms and prior colonoscopy. Sex-specific polypectomy rates (PRs) and 95%CI were calculated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 45 endoscopists and 2134 (mean age = 61, 50% female) of their patients participated. According to patients, screening PRs in males and females were 32.4% (95%CI: 23.8-41.8) and 19.4% (95%CI: 13.1-25.4), respectively. According to endoscopists, screening PRs in males and females were 30.2% (95%CI: 27.0-41.9) and 16.6% (95%CI: 16.3-28.6), respectively. Sex-specific PRs did not meet quality benchmarks at all ages except for: males aged 65-69 (patient screening indication), and males aged 70-74 (endoscopist screening indication). For all patients aged 50-54, none of the CI included the quality benchmarks. CONCLUSION: Most sex-specific screening PRs in Québec were below quality benchmarks; PRs were especially low for all 50-54 year olds.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i43.16300

  4 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25471953
[Au] Autor:Rottmann J; Berbeco R
[Ad] Address:Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
[Ti] Title:Using an external surrogate for predictor model training in real-time motion management of lung tumors.
[So] Source:Med Phys;41(12):121706, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0094-2405
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Precise prediction of respiratory motion is a prerequisite for real-time motion compensation techniques such as beam, dynamic couch, or dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. Collection of tumor motion data to train the prediction model is required for most algorithms. To avoid exposure of patients to additional dose from imaging during this procedure, the feasibility of training a linear respiratory motion prediction model with an external surrogate signal is investigated and its performance benchmarked against training the model with tumor positions directly. METHODS: The authors implement a lung tumor motion prediction algorithm based on linear ridge regression that is suitable to overcome system latencies up to about 300 ms. Its performance is investigated on a data set of 91 patient breathing trajectories recorded from fiducial marker tracking during radiotherapy delivery to the lung of ten patients. The expected 3D geometric error is quantified as a function of predictor lookahead time, signal sampling frequency and history vector length. Additionally, adaptive model retraining is evaluated, i.e., repeatedly updating the prediction model after initial training. Training length for this is gradually increased with incoming (internal) data availability. To assess practical feasibility model calculation times as well as various minimum data lengths for retraining are evaluated. Relative performance of model training with external surrogate motion data versus tumor motion data is evaluated. However, an internal-external motion correlation model is not utilized, i.e., prediction is solely driven by internal motion in both cases. RESULTS: Similar prediction performance was achieved for training the model with external surrogate data versus internal (tumor motion) data. Adaptive model retraining can substantially boost performance in the case of external surrogate training while it has little impact for training with internal motion data. A minimum adaptive retraining data length of 8 s and history vector length of 3 s achieve maximal performance. Sampling frequency appears to have little impact on performance confirming previously published work. By using the linear predictor, a relative geometric 3D error reduction of about 50% was achieved (using adaptive retraining, a history vector length of 3 s and with results averaged over all investigated lookahead times and signal sampling frequencies). The absolute mean error could be reduced from (2.0 ± 1.6) mm when using no prediction at all to (0.9 ± 0.8) mm and (1.0 ± 0.9) mm when using the predictor trained with internal tumor motion training data and external surrogate motion training data, respectively (for a typical lookahead time of 250 ms and sampling frequency of 15 Hz). CONCLUSIONS: A linear prediction model can reduce latency induced tracking errors by an average of about 50% in real-time image guided radiotherapy systems with system latencies of up to 300 ms. Training a linear model for lung tumor motion prediction with an external surrogate signal alone is feasible and results in similar performance as training with (internal) tumor motion. Particularly for scenarios where motion data are extracted from fluoroscopic imaging with ionizing radiation, this may alleviate the need for additional imaging dose during the collection of model training data.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1118/1.4901252

  5 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25064525
[Au] Autor:Squires RB; Pickett BE; Das S; Scheuermann RH
[Ad] Address:Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, Office of Cyber Infrastructure and Computational Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: richard.squires@nih.gov....
[Ti] Title:Toward a method for tracking virus evolutionary trajectory applied to the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;28:351-7, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In 2009 a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) emerged as the first official influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Early genomic sequence analysis pointed to the swine origin of the virus. Here we report a novel computational approach to determine the evolutionary trajectory of viral sequences that uses data-driven estimations of nucleotide substitution rates to track the gradual accumulation of observed sequence alterations over time. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments show that sequences belonging to the resulting evolutionary trajectory of the H1N1pdm09 lineage exhibit a gradual accumulation of sequence variations and tight temporal correlations in the topological structure of the phylogenetic trees. These results suggest that our evolutionary trajectory analysis (ETA) can more effectively pinpoint the evolutionary history of viruses, including the host and geographical location traversed by each segment, when compared against either BLAST or traditional phylogenetic analysis alone.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25473273
[Au] Autor:Lin L; Wang Y; Zha X; Tang F; Lv L; Liu X
[Ad] Address:Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China....
[Ti] Title:Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration.
[So] Source:Clin Interv Aging;9:2019-25, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1178-1998
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014. RESULTS: The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100%) and sputum (five cases, 62.5%). Only one patient (12.5%) could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT) was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%). The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%), especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%). The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5%) and scattered in three cases (37.5%). CONCLUSION: The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2147/CIA.S73985

  7 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25472677
[Au] Autor:Altekruse SF; Rosenfeld GE; Carrick DM; Pressman EJ; Schully SD; Mechanic LE; Cronin KA; Hernandez BY; Lynch CF; Cozen W; Khoury MJ; Penberthy LT
[Ad] Address:Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, Maryland. altekrusesf@mail.nih.gov....
[Ti] Title:SEER Cancer Registry Biospecimen Research: Yesterday and Tomorrow.
[So] Source:Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev;23(12):2681-7, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1538-7755
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries have been a source of biospecimens for cancer research for decades. Recently, registry-based biospecimen studies have become more practical, with the expansion of electronic networks for pathology and medical record reporting. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens are now used for next-generation sequencing and other molecular techniques. These developments create new opportunities for SEER biospecimen research. We evaluated 31 research articles published during 2005 to 2013 based on authors' confirmation that these studies involved linkage of SEER data to biospecimens. Rather than providing an exhaustive review of all possible articles, our intent was to indicate the breadth of research made possible by such a resource. We also summarize responses to a 2012 questionnaire that was broadly distributed to the NCI intra- and extramural biospecimen research community. This included responses from 30 investigators who had used SEER biospecimens in their research. The survey was not intended to be a systematic sample, but instead to provide anecdotal insight on strengths, limitations, and the future of SEER biospecimen research. Identified strengths of this research resource include biospecimen availability, cost, and annotation of data, including demographic information, stage, and survival. Shortcomings include limited annotation of clinical attributes such as detailed chemotherapy history and recurrence, and timeliness of turnaround following biospecimen requests. A review of selected SEER biospecimen articles, investigator feedback, and technological advances reinforced our view that SEER biospecimen resources should be developed. This would advance cancer biology, etiology, and personalized therapy research. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Biomarkers, Biospecimens, and New Technologies in Molecular Epidemiology." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2681-7. ©2014 AACR.
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0490

  8 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25249326
[Au] Autor:Kitahara CM; Trabert B; Katki HA; Chaturvedi AK; Kemp TJ; Pinto LA; Moore SC; Purdue MP; Wentzensen N; Hildesheim A; Shiels MS
[Ad] Address:Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. meinholdc@mail.nih.gov....
[Ti] Title:Body mass index, physical activity, and serum markers of inflammation, immunity, and insulin resistance.
[So] Source:Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev;23(12):2840-9, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1538-7755
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies examining circulating levels of inflammatory markers in relation to obesity and physical inactivity may aid in our understanding of the role of inflammation in obesity-related cancers. However, previous studies on this topic have focused on a limited set of markers. METHODS: We evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and vigorous physical activity level, based on self-report, and serum levels of 78 inflammation-related markers. Markers were measured using a bead-based multiplex method among 1,703 men and women, ages 55-74 years, and with no prior history of cancer at blood draw, and selected for case-control studies nested within the Prostate, Lung, Ovarian, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Trial. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, case-control study, physical activity, and BMI. RESULTS: Twelve markers were positively associated with BMI after FDR correction. ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for highest versus lowest levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL5/ENA-78, sTNFRII, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL6/GCP2, CCL13/MCP-4, amylin, CRP, C-peptide, CCL19/MIP-3b, insulin, and leptin were: 1.50 (1.14-1.98), 1.52 (1.12-2.05), 1.61 (1.17-2.20), 1.69 (1.25-2.28), 1.74 (1.24-2.44), 1.75 (1.22-2.50), 1.91 (1.31-2.78), 2.41 (1.36-4.25), 2.78 (1.83-4.24), 3.30 (2.28-4.78), 4.05 (2.51-6.55), and 50.03 (19.87-125.99) per 5 kg/m(2), respectively. Only CXCL12/SDF-1a was associated with physical activity (≥3 vs. <1 h/wk; OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.55-6.94) after FDR correction. CONCLUSIONS: BMI was associated with a wide range of circulating markers involved in the inflammatory response. IMPACT: This cross-sectional analysis identified serum markers could be considered in future studies aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms linking inflammation with obesity and obesity-related cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2840-9. ©2014 AACR.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0699-T

  9 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25472866
[Au] Autor:Sagri E; Reczko M; Tsoumani KT; Gregoriou ME; Harokopos V; Mavridou AM; Tastsoglou S; Athanasiadis K; Ragoussis J; Mathiopoulos KD
[Ti] Title:The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age.
[So] Source:BMC Genet;15 Suppl 2:S8, 2014 Dec 1.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. RESULTS: Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-α locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. CONCLUSIONS: Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1471-2156-15-S2-S8

  10 / 743219 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25463628
[Au] Autor:Wang A; Li Z; Luo Y; Liu X; Guo X; Wu S; Zhao X; Jonas JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Capital Medical University,...
[Ti] Title:Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis and Metabolic Syndrome: The APAC Study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(12):e113205, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated potential associations between MetS and asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) in a general population. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a Chinese population aged 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Asymptomatic ICAS was diagnosed by transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography. RESULTS: Out of 5393 study participants, asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 713 (13.2%) participants, and MetS in 1323 (24.5%) individuals. Prevalence of asymptomatic ICAS increased significantly from 7.5% to 24.2% with increasing number of MetS components. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MetS was significantly associated with asymptomatic ICAS (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.23,1.83). Compared with the subgroup without MetS, the ORs for asymptomatic ICAS increased (P<0.0001) for each of 5 components of MetS from 1.71 (95%CI: 1.27,2.30), to 2.20 (95%CI: 1.63,2.98), 2.79 (95CI: 2.01,3.88), 3.08 (95%CI: 2.11,4.51) and 4.27 (95%CI: 2.22,8.20). CONCLUSIONS: In multivariate analysis, MetS was an independent and additional factor associated with asymptomatic ICAS. Study participants with 5 MetS components had a 4 times higher risk of asymptomatic ICAS than participants with no MetS component.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113205


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