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[PMID]: 29438680
[Au] Autor:McGarr GW; Hodges GJ; Mallette MM; Cheung SS
[Ad] Address:Environmental Ergonomics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Ischemia-reperfusion injury alters skin microvascular responses to local heating of the index finger.
[So] Source:Microvasc Res;118:12-19, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9319
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury impairs microcirculatory function by reducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increasing sympathetic tone. This study non-invasively examined the effects of acute upper limb IR injury on local thermal hyperemia (LTH) in glabrous and non-glabrous finger skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In ten healthy males, LTH was examined twice (~7-10 d apart) for each skin type on the index finger using laser-Doppler flowmetry in a counterbalanced design with either 1) 20 min ischemia, followed by reperfusion (ISCH) or 2) time-matched control (SHAM). LTH tests were performed using a standard heating protocol (33-42 C at 1 C20 s + 20 min at 44 C) and baseline, initial peak, nadir, delayed plateau and maximal heating phases were identified as well as vasodilatory onset time and time to initial peak. Cutaneous vasomotion was evaluated using spectral analysis and comparing absolute and normalized wavelet amplitudes between conditions for both skin types at baseline and during LTH. RESULTS: In non-glabrous skin, IR injury delayed the vasodilatory onset of local heating by 27.4 [11.3, 43.4] s (p = 0.004) and attenuated cutaneous vasodilation during the initial peak and sustained heating by -44.5 [-73.0, -15.9] PU (p = 0.003) and -34.4 [-62.9, -5.8] PU (p = 0.020), respectively. Analysis of normalized wavelet amplitudes in non-glabrous skin identified impaired microvascular function at baseline via NO-dependent mechanisms (-3.64 [-7.22, -0.05] %, p = 0.047), and during LTH via respiratory influences (-2.83 [-5.39, -0.21] %, p = 0.031). In glabrous skin, IR injury delayed vasodilatory onset time by 24.9 [1.1, 67.6] s (p = 0.042). The vasodilatory response to sustained local skin heating in glabrous skin was increased following IR injury (+56.3 [15.1, 116.5], p = 0.012), however, this was not evident when accounting for differences in blood pressure between conditions. Additionally, no other differences in vasodilatory or vasomotor functions were observed in this skin type between conditions (all, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The current IR model elicits impaired cutaneous vasodilatory responses to local heating in young males, primarily in non-glabrous skin, and may be useful for exploring mechanisms of IR-injury and for testing potential countermeasures in otherwise healthy humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522371
[Au] Autor:Tremblay JC; Howe CA; Ainslie PN; Pyke KE
[Ad] Address:School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Canada.
[Ti] Title:UBC-Nepal Expedition: Imposed oscillatory shear stress does not further attenuate flow-mediated dilation during acute and sustained hypoxia.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1539
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Experimentally-induced oscillatory shear stress (OSS) and hypoxia reduce endothelial function in humans. Acute and sustained hypoxia may cause increases in resting OSS; however, whether this influences endothelial susceptibility to further increases in OSS is unknown. Healthy lowlanders (n=15, 30{plus minus}6 years [mean{plus minus}SD]) participated in three OSS interventions; two at sea level (normoxia and following 20-minutes of normobaric hypoxia [acute hypoxia, 11% O ]) and one 5-7 days after a 9-day ascent to 5050m (sustained hypoxia). OSS was provoked in the brachial artery using a 30-minute distal cuff inflation (75-mmHg). Endothelial function was assessed before and after each intervention by reactive hyperemia flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Shear stress magnitude and patterns were obtained via Duplex ultrasound. Baseline retrograde shear stress and OSS were greater in acute hypoxia versus normoxia (P<0.001) and OSS was elevated in sustained hypoxia versus normoxia (P=0.011). The intervention further augmented OSS during each condition. Pre-intervention FMD was decreased by 29{plus minus}48% in acute hypoxia and by 25{plus minus}31% in sustained hypoxia compared to normoxia (P=0.001, 0.026); these changes correlated with changes in baseline mean and antegrade shear stress. Following the intervention, FMD decreased during normoxia (-41{plus minus}26%; P<0.001), and was unaltered during acute or sustained hypoxia. Therefore, a 30-minute exposure to OSS reduced FMD during normoxia, a condition with an unchallenged, healthy endothelium; however, imposed OSS did not appear to worsen endothelial function during acute or sustained hypoxia. Exposure to an altered magnitude and pattern of shear stress at baseline in hypoxia may contribute to the insensitivity to further acute augmentation of OSS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00717.2017

  3 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29378248
[Au] Autor:Gilliard CN; Lam JK; Cassel KS; Park JW; Schechter AN; Piknova B
[Ad] Address:Molecular Medicine Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States; Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Hershey, PA, United States.
[Ti] Title:Effect of dietary nitrate levels on nitrate fluxes in rat skeletal muscle and liver.
[So] Source:Nitric Oxide;75:1-7, 2018 Jan 29.
[Is] ISSN:1089-8611
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rodent skeletal muscle has high levels of nitrate ions and this endogenous nitrate reservoir can supply nitrite/nitric oxide (NO) for functional hyperemia and/or for other physiological processes in muscle during exercise. Mice with a NOS1 knockout have markedly reduced muscle nitrate levels, suggesting NO production by NOS and its reaction with oxymyoglobin as a source of nitrate. However, oxygen levels are normally low in most internal organs, which raises the possibility that nitrate-derived NO pathway is physiologically important even at "normoxia", and muscle nitrate reservoir is the main endogenous NO backup when exogeneous (dietary) nitrate intake is low. Using dietary nitrate manipulations, we explore the importance of diet for maintaining and renewal of muscle nitrate reservoir and its levels in other tissues. We found that skeletal muscle nitrate is extensively used when nitrate in diet is low. One week of nitrate starvation leads to dramatic nitrate depletion in skeletal muscle and a substantial decrease in liver. Nitrate depleted from skeletal muscle during starvation is quickly recovered from new dietary sources, with an unexpected significant "overload" compared with animals not subjected to nitrate starvation. Our results suggest the importance of dietary nitrate for nitrate reserves in muscle and in other tissues, when compared with endogenous NOS-derived sources. This requires an active transport mechanism for sequestering nitrate into cells, stimulated by lack of dietary nitrate or other enzymatic changes. These results confirm the hypothesis that muscle is a major storage site for nitrate in mammals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29499384
[Au] Autor:Castro AJG; Baptista IE; de Moura KRS; Padilha F; Tonietto J; de Souza AZP; Soares CHL; Silva FRMB; Van Der Kraak G
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Bioqumica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianpolis, SC, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Exposure to a Brazilian pulp mill effluent impacts the testis and liver in the zebrafish.
[So] Source:Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol;206-207:41-47, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1532-0456
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:While many studies have shown that pulp mill effluents can affect ovarian physiology in fish, far fewer studies have considered the effects in males. We conducted a lab study to examine the effects of effluent from a Brazilian pulp and paper mill on hepatic and testicular morphology and various aspects of testicular physiology in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Males were exposed to lab water (control) or 4% effluent for 14 days. Effluent exposure did not affect testis size as measured by the gonadosomatic index, but contributed to morphological changes in the seminiferous tubules. The number of cysts with histopathological changes was elevated in effluent-exposed fish and the number of cysts containing spermatids was significantly reduced. The testis of effluent exposed fish had reduced levels of lactate, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, increased levels of reactive oxygen species and reduced levels of phosphorylated P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (pP38 MAPK). Separate studies showed that the addition of lactate to testicular tissue incubated in vitro increased the activation of P38 MAPK. Effluent exposure also increased vacuolization, necrosis, apoptosis, hyperemia, and fat infiltration of the hepatocytes. Collectively, we provide evidence of short term effects of pulp mill effluent on testicular and hepatic physiology and biochemistry in the zebrafish.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29338981
[Au] Autor:Ibrahimi K; De Graaf Y; Draijer R; Jan Danser AH; Maassen VanDenBrink A; van den Meiracker AH
[Ad] Address:Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Reproducibility and agreement of different non-invasive methods of endothelial function assessment.
[So] Source:Microvasc Res;117:50-56, 2018 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9319
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is an established, but investigator-demanding method, used to non-invasively determine nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial function in humans. Local thermal hyperemia (LTH) or post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) of the skin measured with a laser Doppler flow imager may be a less demanding alternative of FMD. We investigated the reproducibility of the different measures of vascular function, their interrelationship and the NO-dependency of LTH. Measurements were performed twice in 27 healthy men (8 smokers), one week apart. Local application of NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) by means of iontophoresis was used to determine the NO-dependency of LTH. Using L-NMMA, the peak and plateau responses of LTH were reduced by 31% (p < .001) and 65% (<0.001), respectively. For all measurements the coefficient of variation (CV) was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. For non-smokers the CV of FMD was 12%, of LTH peak response 17%, of LTH plateau response 12%, of PORH peak response 14% and of PORH area under the curve response 11%. FMD correlated weakly with the PORH peak and area under the curve response (r = 0.39 and 0.43, p < .05), whereas the LTH-plateau response correlated with the PORH peak response (r = 0.68, p < .01) in non-smokers, but FMD and LTH peak or plateau responses were unrelated. In conclusion, the LTH plateau response is for two-third NO-dependent, but unrelated to FMD. Furthermore, despite easy to perform the LTH responses are not more reproducible than FMD. Given the weak associations, the different methods of vascular function assessment are not interchangeable.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29247720
[Au] Autor:Fujii N; Halili L; Nishiyasu T; Kenny GP
[Ad] Address:Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Voltage-gated potassium channels and NOS contribute to a sustained cutaneous vasodilation elicited by local heating in an interactive manner in young adults.
[So] Source:Microvasc Res;117:22-27, 2018 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9319
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Local skin heating to 42C causes rapid increases in cutaneous perfusion (initial peak), followed by a brief nadir and subsequent sustained elevation (plateau). Several studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) largely contributes to the plateau response during local heating. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels contribute to the plateau of the cutaneous vasodilation during local heating through NOS-dependent mechanisms. Eleven young males (254years) participated in this study wherein cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was measured at four intradermal microdialysis sites that were continuously perfused with either 1) lactated Ringer (Control), 2) 10mM 4-aminopyridine (Kv channel blocker), 3) 10mM Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (NOS inhibitor), or 4) a combination of 4-aminopyridine and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine. In comparison to the Control site, the inhibition of Kv channels alone attenuated the increase in CVC observed at the initial peak, nadir, and plateau phases measured during local heating; in contrast, the inhibition of NOS alone attenuated the increase in CVC at the nadir and plateau phases only (e.g., plateau response: Control site: 595%max, Kv channel blockade site: 498%max, NOS inhibition site: 3511%max, combined inhibition site: 4012%max). Further, no effect of Kv channel blockade on CVC was measured at any phase of the local heating response when the modulating influence of NOS was simultaneously removed. We show that Kv channels and NOS contribute to the local heating mediated sustained increase (i.e., plateau) in cutaneous vasodilation in an interactive manner. (243/250 words).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29222709
[Au] Autor:Viana PG; Figueiredo ABF; Gremio IDF; de Miranda LHM; da Silva Antonio IM; Boechat JS; de S Machado AC; de Oliveira MME; Pereira SA
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonosis in Domestic Animals, Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil. paulaviana.veterinaria@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Successful Treatment of Canine Sporotrichosis with Terbinafine: Case Reports and Literature Review.
[So] Source:Mycopathologia;183(2):471-478, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1573-0832
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sporotrichosis occurs worldwide, and the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a main endemic area, with a large number of human and animal cases in the last 19years. This mycosis is more frequently described in cats rather than in dogs. There are a limited number of oral antifungal agents for the treatment of sporotrichosis in animals. In this context, the effectiveness of terbinafine in the treatment of sporotrichosis in humans, as well as the promising results of in vitro susceptibility tests, inspired us to use this drug in the therapy of this mycosis in dogs. We reported for the first time the use of terbinafine in the treatment of two dogs with sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis. Moreover, we provided an overview of therapeutic features of canine sporotrichosis cases reported since the 1960s. One of the dogs presented the fixed cutaneous form of the disease, while the other patient presented hyperemia of the nasal mucosa and respiratory signs only. Terbinafine showed high antifungal activity in vitro against the canine Sporothrix isolates. The dogs were successfully treated with terbinafine, with remission of all clinical signs initially presented. The current reports indicate that this drug can emerge as a therapeutic option for canine sporotrichosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11046-017-0225-6

  8 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29203235
[Au] Autor:Matheus ASM; da Matta MFB; Clemente ELS; Rodrigues MLG; Valena DCT; Gomes MB
[Ad] Address:Diabetes Unit, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: alessandramatheus79@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Sensibility and specificity of laser speckle contrast imaging according to Endo-PAT index in type 1 diabetes.
[So] Source:Microvasc Res;117:10-15, 2018 May.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9319
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To find out an normality value for microvascular response (physiological and pharmacological) assessed through laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based on Endo-PAT, which identifies the ones with Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Patients with T1D, aged ≥12years underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were obtained (lipid profile, glycemic control and levels of C-reactive protein). Vascular reactivity was assessed in the forearm through the technique of LSCI at baseline, during post occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and during iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and peripheral arterial tonometry was performed by supplying the RHI through Endo-PAT device. RESULTS: 189 patients were evaluated, 97 women (51.3%) with T1D, aged 3213years and with a disease duration of 16 (6-21) years and mean A1c of 9.2% (2.2). Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (ROC) analysis according to RHI showed that the Area under curve (AUC) of ACh of 10,369 Laser Speckle Perfusion Unit (LSPU) presented sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 87,5%, respectively, (p=0.002) in those patients with T1D's duration <5years. Overall, no test of vascular reactivity was able to distinguish the ideal cuttoff based on RHI. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we could find an ideal cut off value of microcirculation assessment through endothelium-dependent vasodilation to ACh using LSCI according to Endo-PAT's score, only in those under 5years of disease duration. Further prospective studies shall be conducted to evaluate its predictive cardiovascular value.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515156
[Au] Autor:Li Y; Wei W; Wang RK
[Ad] Address:Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
[Ti] Title:Capillary flow homogenization during functional activation revealed by optical coherence tomography angiography based capillary velocimetry.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):4107, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Elaborate modeling study suggests an important role of capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) reduction in brain oxygenation during functional hyperemia. Here, we use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) capillary velocimetry to probe blood flow dynamics in cerebral capillary beds and validate the change in CTTH during functional activation in an in vivo rodent model. Through evaluating flow dynamics and consequent transit time parameters from thousands of capillary vessels within three-dimensional (3-D) tissue volume upon hindpaw electrical stimulation, we observe reductions in both capillary mean transit time (MTT) (9.8% 2.2) and CTTH (5.9% 1.4) in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex (HLS1). Additionally, capillary flow pattern modification is observed with a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the HLS1 and non-activated cortex regions. These quantitative findings reveal a localized microcirculatory adjustment during functional activation, consistent with previous studies, and support the critical contribution of capillary flow homogenization to brain oxygenation. The OCTA velocimetry is a useful tool to image microcirculatory dynamics in vivo using animal models, enabling a more comprehensive understanding as to hemodynamic-metabolic coupling.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-22513-4

  10 / 12060 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29514070
[Au] Autor:Almaa J; Weitz J; Rodriguez-Diaz R; Pereira E; Caicedo A
[Ad] Address:Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. Electronic address: jalmaca@med.miami.edu.
[Ti] Title:The Pericyte of the Pancreatic Islet Regulates Capillary Diameter and Local Blood Flow.
[So] Source:Cell Metab;27(3):630-644.e4, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1932-7420
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Efficient insulin secretion requires a well-functioning pancreatic islet microvasculature. The dense network of islet capillaries includes the islet pericyte, a cell that has barely been studied. Here we show that islet pericytes help control local bloodflow by adjusting islet capillary diameter. Isletpericytes cover 40% of the microvasculature, are contractile, and are innervated by sympathetic axons. Sympathetic adrenergic input increases pericyte activity and reduces capillary diameter and local blood flow. By contrast, activating beta cells by increasing glucose concentration inhibits pericytes, dilates islet capillaries, and increases local blood flow. These effects on pericytes are mediated by endogenous adenosine, which is likely derived from ATP co-released with insulin. Pericyte coverage of islet capillaries drops drastically in type 2 diabetes, suggesting that, under diabetic conditions, islets lose this mechanism to control their own blood supply. This may lead to inadequate insulin release into the circulation, further deteriorating glycemic control.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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