Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29477742
[Au] Autor:Kobayashi-Sakamoto M; Tamai R; Isogai E; Kiyoura Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, Koriyama, Fukushima, Japan. Electronic address: m-kobayashi@den.ohu-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Gastrointestinal colonisation and systemic spread of Candida albicans in mice treated with antibiotics and prednisolone.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:191-199, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Normally, Candida albicans is a commensal microbe that resides in the human oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, the fungus can cause mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism by which local mucosal infections progress to systemic candidiasis is poorly understood. Here, a murine model of gastrointestinal (GI) candidiasis was developed by inoculation of the oral cavity, followed by treatment with tetracycline (TC) and prednisolone (PSL). Temporal progression from a local infection of the oral cavity to a systemic infection was then monitored. Histological analysis of tissues from mice treated with both TC and PSL revealed massive infiltration of the tongue and stomach by hyphae. PSL increased the fungal burden in the tongue, stomach and small intestine, and facilitated dissemination to the spleen, kidney and liver within 3 days post-infection. Treatment with both TC and PSL supressed interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 (cytokines that play key roles in host defence against fungal infection) levels in the tongue, which were induced by C. albicans infection. In addition, the mucosal layer of the small intestine of mice treated with both TC and PSL was almost destroyed by the fungal infection; this may be a critical event that allows passage of the fungus across the mucosa and into the systemic circulation. Thus, this mouse model is useful for studying mechanisms underlying progression of C. albicans from a local infection of the oral cavity to a systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432910
[Au] Autor:de Barros PP; Scorzoni L; Ribeiro FC; Fugisaki LRO; Fuchs BB; Mylonakis E; Jorge AOC; Junqueira JC; Rossoni RD
[Ad] Address:Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Francisco Jose Longo 777, Sao Dimas, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12245-000, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: barrosdnapp@yahoo.com.br.
[Ti] Title:Lactobacillus paracasei 28.4 reduces in vitro hyphae formation of Candida albicans and prevents the filamentation in an experimental model of Caenorhabditis elegans.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:80-87, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of microbe-microbe interactions to identify a strain of Lactobacillus that could reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. Thus presenting a probiotic effect against the fungal pathogen. First, we analyzed the ability of 25 clinical isolates of Lactobacillus to reduce filamentation in C. albicans in vitro. We found that L. paracasei isolate 28.4 exhibited the greatest reduction of C. albicans hyphae (p = 0.0109). This reduction was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The influence of C. albicans filamentation was found to be contributed through reduced gene expression of filament associated genes (TEC1 and UME6). In an in vivo study, prophylactic provisions with L. paracasei increased the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans worms infected with C. albicans (p = 0.0001) by 29%. Prolonged survival was accompanied by the prevention of cuticle rupture of 27% of the worms by filamentation of C. albicans, a phenotype that is characteristic of C. albicans killing of nematodes, compared to the control group. Lactobacillus paracasei isolate 28.4 reduced the filamentation of C. albicans in vitro by negatively regulating the TEC1 and UME6 genes that are essential for the production of hyphae. Prophylactic provision of Lactobacillus paracasei 28.4 protected C. elegans against candidiasis in vivo. L. paracasei 28.4 has the potential to be employed as an alternative method to control candidiasis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29453964
[Au] Autor:Lee SJ; Lee MR; Kim S; Kim JC; Park SE; Shin TY; Kim JS
[Ad] Address:Department of Agricultural Biology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54596, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Conidiogenesis-related DNA photolyase gene in Beauveria bassiana.
[So] Source:J Invertebr Pathol;153:85-91, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0805
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi used in environmentally mindful pest management. Its main active ingredient, conidia, is commercially available as a fungal biopesticide. Many studies of conidia production have focused on how to optimize culture conditions for maximum productivity and stability against unfavorable abiotic factors. However, understanding of how conidiogenesis-related genes provide improved conidial production remains unclear. In this study, we focus on identifying conidiogenesis-related genes in B. bassiana ERL1170 using a random mutagenesis technique. Transformation of ERL1170 using restriction enzyme-mediated integration generated one morphologically different transformant, ERL1170-pABeG #163. The transformant was confirmed to represent B. bassiana, and the binary vector was successfully integrated into the genome of ERL1170. Compared to the wild type, transformant #163 showed very slow hyphal growth and within 6 days only produced <1  10 conidia/0.28 cm agar block (wild type: 6.2  10 conidia/agar block). Transformant #163 also exhibited different morphology than the wild type, including thicker hyphae with some club-shaped parts. In contrast, the typical morphology of wild type B. bassiana exhibits thread-like hyphae and conidiophore structures and circular conidia. To determine the location of the randomly inserted DNA, we conducted thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR and Escherichia coli cloning to clearly sequence the disrupted region. We identified one colony (colony No. 7) with an insertion site identified as DNA photolyase. This was confirmed through a gene knock-out study. It is possible the gene that encodes for DNA photolyase was disrupted during the insertion process and might be involved in fungal conidiogenesis. This work serves as a platform for exploring the function of a variety of B. bassiana genes involved in pest management and their downstream processing.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29481557
[Au] Autor:Dong B; Tong Z; Li R; Chen SC; Liu W; Liu W; Chen Y; Zhang X; Duan Y; Li D; Chen L
[Ad] Address:Center for Infectious Skin Diseases, Department of Dermatology, No. 1 Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, China.
[Ti] Title:Transformation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi into sclerotic cells links to the refractoriness of experimental chromoblastomycosis in BALB/c mice via a mechanism involving a chitin-induced impairment of IFN-γ production.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(2):e0006237, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fonsecaea pedrosoi (F. pedrosoi) is the most common agent of chromoblastomycosis. Transformation of this fungus from its saprophytic phase into pathogenic sclerotic cells in tissue is an essential link to the refractoriness of this infection. Experimental studies in murine models have shown that the absence of CD4+ T cells impairs host defense against F. pedrosoi infection. Clinical research has also suggested that a relatively low level of the Th1 cytokine INF-γ and inefficient T cell proliferation are simultaneously present in patients with severe chromoblastomycosis upon in vitro stimulation with ChromoAg, an antigen prepared from F. pedrosoi. In the present study, we show that in mice intraperitoneally infected with F. pedrosoi-spores, -hyphae or in vitro-induced sclerotic cells respectively, the transformation of this causative agent into sclerotic cells contributes to a compromised Th1 cytokine production in the earlier stage of infection with impaired generation of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pan-inhibition of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine production with disseminated infection in the later stage by using a CBA murine Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine kit. In addition, we have further demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of recombinant mouse IFN-γ (rmIFN-γ) effectively reduces the fungal load in the infected mouse spleen, and dampens the peritoneal dissemination of F. pedrosoi-sclerotic cells. Meanwhile, exogeneous rmIFN-γ contributes to the formation and maintenance of micro-abscess and restores the decrease in neutrophil ROS generation in the mouse spleen infected with F. pedrosoi-sclerotic cells. Of note, we have once again demonstrated that it is a chitin-like component, but not -glucans or mannose moiety, that exclusively accumulates on the outer cell wall of F. pedrosoi-sclerotic cells which were induced in vitro or isolated from the spleens of intraperitoneally infected BALB/c mice. In addition, our results indicate that decreased accumulation of chitin on the surface of live F. pedrosoi-sclerotic cells after chitinase treatment can be self-compensated in a time-dependent manner. Importantly, we have for the first time demonstrated that exclusive accumulation of chitin on the transformed sclerotic cells of F. pedrosoi is involved in an impaired murine Th1 cytokine profile, therefore promoting the refractoriness of experimental murine chromoblastomycosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006237

  5 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29458721
[Au] Autor:Wuensch A; Trusch F; Iberahim NA; van West P
[Ad] Address:Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK; International Centre for Aquaculture Research and Development (ICARD), University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. Electronic address: a.wuensch.12@aberdeen.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Galleria melonella as an experimental invivo host model for the fish-pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica.
[So] Source:Fungal Biol;122(2-3):182-189, 2018 Feb - Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1878-6146
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Oomycetes are eukaryotic pathogens infecting animals and plants. Amongst them Saprolegnia parasitica is a fish pathogenic oomycete causing devastating losses in the aquaculture industry. To secure fish supply, new drugs are in high demand and since fish experiments are time consuming, expensive and involve animal welfare issues the search for adequate model systems is essential. Galleria mellonella serves as a heterologous host model for bacterial and fungal infections. This study extends the use of G.mellonella for studying infections with oomycetes. Saprolegniales are highly pathogenic to the insects while in contrast, the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans showed no pathogenicity. Melanisation of hyphae below the cuticle allowed direct macroscopic monitoring of disease progression. However, the melanin response is not systemic as for other pathogens but instead is very local. The mortality of the larvae is dose-dependent and can be induced by cysts or regenerating protoplasts as an alternative source of inoculation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29370698
[Au] Autor:Mohammad H; Elghazawy NH; Eldesouky HE; Hegazy YA; Younis W; Avrimova L; Hazbun T; Arafa RK; Seleem MN
[Ad] Address:Department of Comparative Pathobiology , College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University , 625 Harrison Street , West Lafayette , Indiana 47907 , United States.
[Ti] Title:Discovery of a Novel Dibromoquinoline Compound Exhibiting Potent Antifungal and Antivirulence Activity That Targets Metal Ion Homeostasis.
[So] Source:ACS Infect Dis;4(3):403-414, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2373-8227
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Globally, invasive fungal infections pose a significant challenge to modern human medicine due to the limited number of antifungal drugs and the rise in resistance to current antifungal agents. A vast majority of invasive fungal infections are caused by species of Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. Novel antifungal molecules consisting of unexploited chemical scaffolds with a unique mechanism are a pressing need. The present study identifies a dibromoquinoline compound (4b) with broad-spectrum antifungal activity that inhibits the growth of pertinent species of Candida (chiefly C. albicans), Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus at a concentration of as low as 0.5 g/mL. Furthermore, 4b, at a subinhibitory concentration, interfered with the expression of two key virulence factors (hyphae and biofilm formation) involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Three yeast deletion strains ( cox17Δ, ssa1Δ, and aft2Δ) related to metal ion homeostasis were found to be highly sensitive to 4b in growth assays, indicating that the compound exerts its antifungal effect through a unique, previously unexploited mechanism. Supplementing the media with either copper or iron ions reversed the strain sensitivity to 4b, further corroborating that the compound targets metal ion homeostasis. 4b's potent antifungal activity was validated in vivo, as the compound enhanced the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. The present study indicates that 4b warrants further investigation as a novel antifungal agent.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00215

  7 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517434
[Au] Autor:Picquet P; Heckers KO; Kolesnik E; Heusinger A; Marschang RE
[Ti] Title:DETECTION OF OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA IN TWO CAPTIVE BOCOURT WATER SNAKES ( SUBSESSOR BOCOURTI) AND ONE CAPTIVE PUEBLAN MILK SNAKE ( LAMPROPELTIS TRIANGULUM CAMPBELLI).
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;49(1):219-222, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Two captive Bocourt water snakes ( Subsessor bocourti) presented with chronic white skin lesions on their heads; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin scrapings from both snakes. Histopathology performed in one Bocourt water snake revealed fungal hyphae in epidermal structures of lesions. One Pueblan milk snake ( Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli) from the same zoologic institution presented with yellow crusts and white blisters on its body, from which O. ophiodiicola was identified by culture and PCR. Two of the three snakes apparently recovered from lesions after multiple natural sheds, whereas the third snake died. This is the first report of O. ophiodiicola infection in Bocourt water snakes and in a Pueblan milk snake, as well as the first report of O. ophiodiicola in France.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1638/2017-0112R.1

  8 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29514288
[Au] Autor:Xiao C; Li L; Lao L; Liu Y; Wei Q; Ji Q; Sun G; Lin F; Wang J; Bao G
[Ad] Address:Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China.
[Ti] Title:Application of the red fluorescent protein mCherry in mycelial labeling and organelle tracing in the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
[So] Source:FEMS Microbiol Lett;365(6), 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1574-6968
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a fungus that causes skin disease in humans and other animals worldwide. Studies on molecular biology and fluorescent labeling of the fungus are limited. Here, we applied mCherry for the first time in T. mentagrophytes to label the fungus and its organelles. We constructed four expression vectors of mCherry or mCherry fusions containing a variety of resistance markers and promoters, which were then integrated, together with two previous mCherry expression vectors, in T. mentagrophytes via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT). The resulting transformants emitted bright red fluorescence. We used the histone protein H2B and the peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1) peptide to target the nucleus and peroxisomes, respectively, in T. mentagrophytes. In the transformants expressing mCherry-fused H2B, the fluorescence was distinctly localized to the nuclei in hyphae, spores and the fungal cells in infected animal tissue. In the T. mentagrophytes transformants where the peroxisome was targeted, the mCherry was present as small dots (0.2-1 m diameter) throughout the spores and the hyphae. We also constructed a T. mentagrophytes AtMT library containing more than 1000 hygromycin-resistant transformants that were genetically stable. Our results provide useful tools for further investigations on molecular pathogenesis of T. mentagrophytes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/femsle/fny006

  9 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29365030
[Au] Autor:Chavez JA; Brat DJ; Hunter SB; Velazquez Vega J; Guarner J
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus.
[Ti] Title:Practical Diagnostic Approach to the Presence of Hyphae in Neuropathology Specimens With Three Illustrative Cases.
[So] Source:Am J Clin Pathol;149(2):98-104, 2018 Jan 29.
[Is] ISSN:1943-7722
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objectives: Early and accurate diagnosis remains crucial in the therapeutic management of invasive central nervous system fungal infections. Different molds have intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents; thus, morphologic differentiation is helpful to clinicians. Methods: Using three examples, we present a guide on how to approach neuropathology specimens where hyphae are identified on initial histologic examination. Results: Hyphae can be classified into three basic groups: hyaline pauciseptated, hyaline septated, and pigmented or dematiaceous. The hyaline pauciseptated group includes the order of the Mucorales (previously Zygomyces) and is frequent in patients with decompensated diabetes and severe neutropenia. Aspergillus species constitutes the most frequently isolated mold in the hyaline septated group. However, other invasive hyaline septated molds include Fusarium species, which is frequently resistant to multiple antifungals, and Candida species Last, dematiaceous molds, although infrequent, can be found in neuropathology specimens, as happened during the outbreak of Exserohilum associated with manufacturing practices in a compound pharmacy. Conclusions: Categorizing hyphae into the three groups described allows pathologists to provide information that is useful for infectious disease treatment with an inclusive differential diagnosis of diverse fungal genera that share the same morphological features.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/ajcp/aqx144

  10 / 9806 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29325120
[Au] Autor:Kobae Y; Kameoka H; Sugimura Y; Saito K; Ohtomo R; Fujiwara T; Kyozuka J
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657 Japan.
[Ti] Title:Strigolactone Biosynthesis Genes of Rice are Required for the Punctual Entry of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi into the Roots.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Physiol;59(3):544-553, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1471-9053
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the pre-symbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17. Interestingly, most of the colonization process is normal, i.e. AM fungal hyphae approach the roots and cling around them, and epidermal penetration, arbuscule size, arbuscule number per hyphopodium and metabolic activity of the intraradical mycelium are not affected in d10 and d17 mutants. In contrast, hyphopodium formation is severely attenuated. Our observations establish the requirement for SL biosynthesis genes for efficient hyphopodium formation, suggesting that SLs are required in this process. Efficient hyphopodium formation is required for the punctual internalization of hyphae into roots and maintaining the expansion of colonization.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcy001


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