Database : MEDLINE
Search on : illusions [Words]
References found : 9276 [refine]
Displaying: 1 .. 10   in format [Detailed]

page 1 of 928 go to page                         

  1 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29508698
[Au] Autor:Park WJ; Schauder KB; Tadin D
[Ad] Address:Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.
[Ti] Title:Consciousness reflected in the eyes.
[So] Source:Elife;7, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2050-084X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:People with higher autistic traits display stronger fluctuations in pupil size when presented with an optical illusion.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29485020
[Au] Autor:Rahnev D; Denison RN
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology,Georgia Institute of Technology,Atlanta,GA.
[Ti] Title:Suboptimality in Perceptual Decision Making.
[So] Source:Behav Brain Sci;:1-107, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1469-1825
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human perceptual decisions are often described as optimal. Critics of this view have argued that claims of optimality are overly flexible and lack explanatory power. Meanwhile, advocates for optimality have countered that such criticisms single out a few selected papers. To elucidate the issue of optimality in perceptual decision making, we review the extensive literature on suboptimal performance in perceptual tasks. We discuss eight different classes of suboptimal perceptual decisions, including improper placement, maintenance, and adjustment of perceptual criteria, inadequate tradeoff between speed and accuracy, inappropriate confidence ratings, misweightings in cue combination, and findings related to various perceptual illusions and biases. In addition, we discuss conceptual shortcomings of a focus on optimality, such as definitional difficulties and the limited value of optimality claims in and of themselves. We therefore advocate that the field drop its emphasis on whether observed behavior is optimal and instead concentrate on building and testing detailed observer models that explain behavior across a wide range of tasks. To facilitate this transition, we compile the proposed hypotheses regarding the origins of suboptimal perceptual decisions reviewed here. We argue that verifying, rejecting, and expanding these explanations for suboptimal behavior - rather than assessing optimality per se - should be among the major goals of the science of perceptual decision making.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0140525X18000936

  3 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29398218
[Au] Autor:Cassidy CM; Balsam PD; Weinstein JJ; Rosengard RJ; Slifstein M; Daw ND; Abi-Dargham A; Horga G
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA; The Royal's Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, 1145 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1Z 7K4, Canada.
[Ti] Title:A Perceptual Inference Mechanism for Hallucinations Linked to Striatal Dopamine.
[So] Source:Curr Biol;28(4):503-514.e4, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0445
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine. To test for such a dopamine-dependent gain-control mechanism of hallucinations, we studied unmedicated patients with schizophrenia with varying degrees of hallucination severity and healthy individuals using molecular imaging with a pharmacological manipulation of dopamine, structural imaging, and a novel task designed to measure illusory changes in the perceived duration of auditory stimuli under different levels of uncertainty. Hallucinations correlated with a perceptual bias, reflecting disproportional gain on expectations under uncertainty. This bias could be pharmacologically induced by amphetamine, strongly correlated with striatal dopamine release, and related to cortical volume of the dorsal anterior cingulate, a brain region involved in tracking environmental uncertainty. These findings outline a novel dopamine-dependent mechanism for perceptual modulation in physiological conditions and further suggest that this mechanism may confer vulnerability to hallucinations in hyper-dopaminergic states underlying psychosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy

[PMID]: 29384612
[Au] Autor:Grove PM; Robertson C; Harris LR
[Ti] Title:Disambiguating the Stream/Bounce Illusion With Inference.
[So] Source:Multisens Res;29(4-5):453-64, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2213-4794
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The 'stream/bounce' illusion refers to the perception of an ambiguous visual display in which two discs approach each other on a collision course. The display can be seen as two discs streaming through each other or bouncing off each other. Which perception dominates, may be influenced by a brief transient, usually a sound, presented around the time of simulated contact. Several theories have been proposed to account for the switching in dominance based on sensory processing, attention and cognitive inference, but a universally applicable, parsimonious explanation has not emerged. We hypothesized that only cognitive inference would be influenced by the perceptual history of the display. We rendered the display technically unambiguous by vertically offsetting the targets' trajectories and manipulated their history by allowing the objects to switch from one trajectory to the other up to four times before the potential collision point. As the number of switches increased, the number of 'bounce' responses also increased. These observations show that expectancy is a critical factor in determining whether a bounce or streaming is perceived and may form the basis for a universal explanation of instances of the stream/bounce illusion.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Auditory Perception/physiology
Motion Perception/physiology
Optical Illusions/physiology
Visual Perception/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cues
Female
Humans
Male
Signal Detection, Psychological
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  5 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy

[PMID]: 29384610
[Au] Autor:Dobias JJ; Papathomas TV; Sarwate A
[Ti] Title:Ponzo's Illusion in 3D: Perspective Gradients Dominate Differences in Retinal Size.
[So] Source:Multisens Res;29(4-5):421-38, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2213-4794
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A common form of the Ponzo illusion involves two test probes of equal size, embedded in a planar linear perspective painting depicting a three-dimensional (3D) scene, where the probe perceived to be farther is judged to be larger than the probe perceived closer to the viewer. In this paper, the same perspective 3D scene was painted on three surfaces: (a) A 2D surface incongruent with the 3D painted scene (flat perspective). (b) A 3D surface with a geometry congruent with the 3D scene (proper perspective). (c) A 3D surface with an opposite depth arrangement to the 3D scene (reverse perspective). This last stimulus was bistable and could be perceived veridically, as it physically existed, or as a depth-inverting illusion. For all experiments, observers relied on perspective gradients to estimate the size of a test probe placed within the scene; objects placed in a 'far' position as defined by perspective cues were perceived to be larger regardless of their physical distance. Further, illusion strength was tied to retinal size; small retinal-size differences (Experiments 1 and 2) did not affect illusion strength, whereas larger retinal-size differences (Experiment 3) did play a minor role.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Optical Illusions/physiology
Retina/physiology
Visual Perception/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Humans
Reaction Time
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29505860
[Au] Autor:Jepson M; Elliott D; Conefrey C; Wade J; Rooshenas L; Wilson C; Beard D; Blazeby JM; Birtle A; Halliday A; Stein R; Donovan JL; CSAW study group; Chemorad study group; POUT study group; ACST-2 study group; Optima prelim study group
[Ad] Address:Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol BS8 2PS, Bristol, United Kingdom. Electronic address: marcus.jepson@bristol.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:An observational study showed that explaining randomization using gambling-related metaphors and computer-agency descriptions impeded RCT recruitment.
[So] Source:J Clin Epidemiol;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5921
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore how the concept of randomisation is described by clinicians and understood by patients in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), and how it contributes to patient understanding and recruitment. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative analysis of seventy-three audio recordings of recruitment consultations from five, multi-centre, UK based RCTs with identified or anticipated recruitment difficulties. RESULTS: One in ten appointments did not include any mention of randomisation. Most included a description of the method or process of allocation. Descriptions often drew on gambling-related metaphors or similies, or referred to allocation by a computer. Where reference was made to a computer, some patients assumed that they would receive the treatment that was 'best for them'. Descriptions of the rationale for randomisation were rarely present, and often only came about as a consequence of patients questioning the reason for a random allocation. CONCLUSIONS: The methods and processes of randomisation were usually described by recruiters, but often without clarity, which could lead to patient misunderstanding. The rationale for randomisation was rarely mentioned. Recruiters should avoid problematic gambling metaphors and illusions of agency in their explanations, and instead focus on clearer descriptions of the rationale and method of randomisation to ensure patients are better informed about randomisation and RCT participation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29447186
[Au] Autor:Gonzalez de Artaza M; Catalan A; Angosto V; Valverde C; Bilbao A; van Os J; Gonzalez-Torres MA
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Basque Country, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Can an experimental white noise task assess psychosis vulnerability in adult healthy controls?
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0192373, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: This is an extension of a paper published earlier. We investigated the association between the tendency to detect speech illusion in random noise and levels of positive schizotypy in a sample of 185 adult healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subclinical positive, negative and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE); positive and negative schizotypy was assessed with the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R). RESULTS: Speech illusions were associated with positive schizotypy (OR: 4.139, 95% CI: 1.074-15.938; p = 0.039) but not with negative schizotypy (OR: 1.151, 95% CI: 0.183-7.244; p = 0.881). However, the association of positive schizotypy with speech illusions was no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex and WAIS-III (OR: 2.577, 95% CI: 0.620-10.700; p = 0.192). Speech illusions were not associated with self-reported CAPE measures. CONCLUSIONS: The association between schizotypy and the tendency to assign meaning in random noise in healthy controls may be mediated by cognitive ability and not constitute an independent trait.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192373

  8 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29430753
[Au] Autor:Kaiser M; Senkowski D; Roa Romero Y; Riecke L; Keil J
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, St. Hedwig Hospital, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Große Hamburger Str. 5-11, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Reduced low-frequency power and phase locking reflect restoration in the auditory continuity illusion.
[So] Source:Eur J Neurosci;, 2018 Feb 11.
[Is] ISSN:1460-9568
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Interruptions in auditory input can be perceptually restored if they coincide with a masking sound, resulting in a continuity illusion. Previous studies have shown that this continuity illusion is associated with reduced low-frequency neural oscillations in the auditory cortex. However, the precise contribution of oscillatory amplitude changes and phase alignment to auditory restoration remains unclear. Using electroencephalography, we investigated induced power changes and phase locking in response to 3 Hz amplitude-modulated tones during the interval of an interrupting noise. We experimentally manipulated both the physical continuity of the tone (continuous vs. interrupted) and the masking potential of the noise (notched vs. full). We observed an attenuation of 3 Hz power during continuity illusions in comparison with both continuous tones and veridically perceived interrupted tones. This illusion-related suppression of low-frequency oscillations likely reflects a blurring of auditory object boundaries that supports continuity perception. We further observed increased 3 Hz phase locking during fully masked continuous tones compared with the other conditions. This low-frequency phase alignment may reflect the neural registration of the interrupting noise as a newly appearing object, whereas during continuity illusions, a spectral portion of this noise is delegated to filling the interruption. Taken together, our findings suggest that the suppression of slow cortical oscillations in both the power and phase domains supports perceptual restoration of interruptions in auditory input.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/ejn.13861

  9 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29385184
[Au] Autor:Barberia I; Tubau E; Matute H; Rodríguez-Ferreiro J
[Ad] Address:Departament de Cognició, Desenvolupament y Psicologia de la Educació, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:A short educational intervention diminishes causal illusions and specific paranormal beliefs in undergraduates.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191907, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided. Compared to a control group, participants who received the intervention showed diminished causal illusions in a contingency learning task and a decrease in the precognition dimension of a paranormal belief scale. Overall, results suggest that evidence-based educational interventions like the one presented here could be used to significantly improve critical thinking skills in our students.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191907

  10 / 9276 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29471714
[Au] Autor:Caola B; Montalti M; Zanini A; Leadbetter A; Martini M
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology, 117128 University of East London , London, UK.
[Ti] Title:The Bodily Illusion in Adverse Conditions: Virtual Arm Ownership During Visuomotor Mismatch.
[So] Source:Perception;:301006618758211, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1468-4233
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Classically, body ownership illusions are triggered by cross-modal synchronous stimulations, and hampered by multisensory inconsistencies. Nonetheless, the boundaries of such illusions have been proven to be highly plastic. In this immersive virtual reality study, we explored whether it is possible to induce a sense of body ownership over a virtual body part during visuomotor inconsistencies, with or without the aid of concomitant visuo-tactile stimulations. From a first-person perspective, participants watched a virtual tube moving or an avatar's arm moving, with or without concomitant synchronous visuo-tactile stimulations on their hand. Three different virtual arm/tube speeds were also investigated, while all participants kept their real arms still. The subjective reports show that synchronous visuo-tactile stimulations effectively counteract the effect of visuomotor inconsistencies, but at slow arm movements, a feeling of body ownership might be successfully induced even without concomitant multisensory correspondences. Possible therapeutical implications of these findings are discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/0301006618758211


page 1 of 928 go to page                         
   


Refine the search
  Database : MEDLINE Advanced form   

    Search in field  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/PAHO/WHO - Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information