Database : MEDLINE
Search on : immunity [Words]
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[PMID]: 29524615
[Au] Autor:Chauhan V; Goyal K; Singh MP
[Ad] Address:Department of Virology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, Punjab 160012, India.
[Ti] Title:Identification of broadly reactive epitopes targeting major glycoproteins of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2 - An immunoinformatics analysis.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. The present study was aimed to identify the conserved T and B cell epitopes in the major glycoproteins of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via rigorous computational approaches. Identification of promiscuous T cell epitopes is of utmost importance in vaccine designing as such epitopes are capable of binding to several allelic forms of HLA and could generate effective immune response in the host. The criteria designed for identification of T and B cell epitopes was that it should be conserved in both HSV-1 and 2, promiscuous, have high affinity towards HLA alleles, should be located on the surface of glycoproteins and not be present in the glycosylation sites. This study led to the identification of 17 HLA Class II and 26 HLA Class I T cell epitopes, 9 linear and some conformational B cell epitopes. The identified T cell epitopes were further subjected to molecular docking analysis to analyze their binding patterns. Altogether we have identified 4 most promising regions in glycoproteins (2-gB, 1-gD, 1-gH) of HSV-1 and 2 which are promiscuous to HLA Class II alleles and have overlapping HLA Class I and B cell epitopes, which could be very useful in generating both arms of immune response in the host i.e. adaptive as well as humoral immunity. Further the authors propose the cross-validation of the identified epitopes in experimental settings for confirming their immunogenicity to support the present findings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524605
[Au] Autor:Weyand CM; Shen Y; Goronzy J
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System Palo Alto, CA 94306. Electronic address: cweyand@stanford.edu.
[Ti] Title:Redox-Sensitive Signaling in Inflammatory T cells and in Autoimmune Disease.
[So] Source:Free Radic Biol Med;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4596
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of oxygen metabolism best known for their damaging potential, but recent evidence has exposed their role as secondary messengers, which regulate cell function through redox-activatable signaling systems. In immune cells, specifically in T cells, redox-sensitive signaling pathways have been implicated in controlling several functional domains; including cell cycle progression, T effector cell differentiation, tissue invasion and inflammatory behavior. T cells from patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have emerged as a valuable model system to examine the functional impact of ROS on T cell function. Notably, RA T cells are distinguished from healthy T cells based on reduced ROS production and undergo "reductive stress". Upstream defects leading to the ROS status of RA T cells are connected to metabolic reorganization. RA T cells shunt glucose away from pyruvate and ATP production towards the pentose phosphate pathway, where they generate NADPH and consume cellular ROS. Downstream consequences of the ROS conditions in RA T cells include insufficient activation of the DNA repair kinase ATM, bypassing of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and biased differentiation of T cells into IFN-γ and IL-17-producing inflammatory cells. Also, ROS T cells rapidly invade into peripheral tissue due to dysregulated lipogenesis, excessive membrane ruffling, and overexpression of a motility module dominated by the scaffolding protein Tks5. These data place ROS into a pinnacle position in connecting cellular metabolism and protective versus auto-aggressive T cell immunity. Therapeutic interventions for targeted ROS enhancement instead of ROS depletion should be developed as a novel strategy to treat autoimmune tissue inflammation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524548
[Au] Autor:Islam W; Qasim M; Noman A; Adnan M; Tayyab M; Farooq TH; Wei H; Wang L
[Ad] Address:College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China; Govt. of Punjab, Agriculture Department, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address: ddoapsial@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Plant microRNAs: Front line players against invading pathogens.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plants are attacked by a large number of pathogens. To defend against these pathogens, plants activate or repress a vast array of genes. For genetic expression and reprogramming, host endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are the key factors. Among these sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level and play an essential role in the defense responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In the recent years, high-throughput sequencing has enabled the researchers to uncover the role of plant miRNAs during pathogen invasion. So here we have reviewed the recent research findings illustrating the plant miRNAs active involvement in various defense processes during fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode infections. However, rapid validation of direct targets of miRNAs is the dire need of time, which can be very helpful in improving the plant resistance against various pathogenic diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524545
[Au] Autor:Song B; Cui H; Ju L; Song L; Tang L; Li Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China; College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China.
[Ti] Title:Expression of the alpha toxin of Clostridium perfringens in Lactobacillus casei genome and evaluation of its immune effects in mice.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We previously developed a stable and marker-free Lactobacillus casei strain (PPαT Δupp) that contained a chromosomally integrated expression cassette (PPαT) that enabled the surface expression of the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin. To measure immune responses against the alpha toxin, specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice were inoculated with L. casei PPαT Δupp by oral gavage. Then, specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that alpha toxin-specific IgA and IgG antibodies and cytokines were markedly increased following immunization. Natural alpha toxin challenge and neutralization tests were performed. The results showed that immunized mice can fully resist 1.5 minimum lethal doses of toxin. These results indicated that the immunized mice can produce not only humoral immunity, but also cellular immunity. These results provide a new pathway for the development of a safe, effective, and food-grade vaccine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524530
[Au] Autor:Zhang Z; Filzmayer C; Ni Y; Sültmann H; Mutz P; Hiet MS; Vondran FWR; Bartenschlager R; Urban S
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Hepatitis D Virus replication is sensed by MDA5 and induces IFN-ß/λ responses in hepatocytes.
[So] Source:J Hepatol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0641
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and D virus (HDV) co-infections cause the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV induces an innate immune response, but it is unknown how the host cell senses HDV and if this defense affects HDV replication. We aim to characterize interferon (IFN) activation by HDV, identify the responsible sensor and evaluate the effect of IFN on HDV replication. METHODS: HDV and HBV susceptible hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were used for infection studies. Viral markers and cellular gene expression were analyzed at different time points after infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) required for HDV-mediated IFN activation and the impact on HDV replication were studied using stable knock-down or overexpression of the PRRs. RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that HDV but not HBV infection activated a broad range of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in HepG2 cells. HDV strongly activated IFN-ß and IFN-λ in cell lines and PHH. HDV induced IFN levels remained unaltered upon RIG-I or TLR3 knock-down, but were almost completely abolished upon MDA5 depletion. Conversely, overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I and TLR3 in Huh7.5 cells partially restored ISG induction. During long-term infection, IFN levels gradually diminished in both HepG2 and HepaRG cell lines. MDA5 depletion had little effect on HDV replication despite dampening HDV-induced IFN response. Moreover, treatment with type I or type III IFNs did not abolish HDV replication. CONCLUSIONS: Active replication of HDV induces an IFN-ß/λ response, which is predominantly mediated by MDA5. This IFN response and exogenous IFN treatment have only a moderate effect on HDV replication in vitro indicating the adaption of HDV replication to an IFN activated state. LAY SUMMARY: In contrast to HBV, infection with HDV induces a strong IFN-ß/λ response in innate immune competent cell lines. MDA5 is the key sensor for the recognition of HDV replicative intermediates. An IFN-activated state did not abrogate HDV replication in vitro indicating resistance to self-induced innate immune responses and therapeutic IFN treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524522
[Au] Autor:van Beek N; Klionsky DJ; Reggiori F
[Ad] Address:Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Genetic aberrations in macroautophagy genes leading to diseases.
[So] Source:Biochim Biophys Acta;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:0006-3002
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The catabolic process of macroautophagy, through the rapid degradation of unwanted cellular components, is involved in a multitude of cellular and organismal functions that are essential to maintain homeostasis. Those functions include adaptation to starvation, cell development and differentiation, innate and adaptive immunity, tumor suppression, autophagic cell death, and maintenance of stem cell stemness. Not surprisingly, an impairment or block of macroautophagy can lead to severe pathologies. A still increasing number of reports, in particular, have revealed that mutations in the autophagy-related (ATG) genes, encoding the key players of macroautophagy, are either the cause or represent a risk factor for the development of several illnesses. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the diseases and disorders currently known that are or could be caused by mutations in core ATG proteins but also in the so-called autophagy receptors, which provide specificity to the process of macroautophagy. Our compendium underlines the medical relevance of this pathway and underscores the importance of the eventual development of therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating macroautophagy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524458
[Au] Autor:Fonken LK; Frank MG; Gaudet AD; D'Angelo HM; Daut RA; Hampson EC; Ayala MT; Watkins LR; Maier SF
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA80309. Electronic address: laura.fonken@austin.utexas.edu.
[Ti] Title:Neuroinflammatory priming to stress is differentially regulated in male and female rats.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Immun;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2139
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to stressors can enhance neuroinflammatory responses, and both stress and neuroinflammation are predisposing factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. Females suffer disproportionately more from several psychiatric disorders, yet stress-induced changes in neuroinflammation have primarily been studied in males. Here we tested whether exposure to inescapable tail shock sensitizes or 'primes' neuroinflammatory responses in male and female rats. At 24 h post-stress, male and female rats exposed to a peripheral immune challenge enhanced neuroinflammatory responses and exacerbated anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. These changes are likely glucocorticoid dependent, as administering exogenous CORT, caused a similar primed inflammatory response in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Further, stress disinhibited anti-inflammatory signaling mechanisms (such as CD200R) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. In males, microglia are considered the likely cellular source mediating neuroinflammatory priming; stress increased cytokine expression in ex vivo male microglia. Conversely, microglia isolated from stressed or CORT treated females did not exhibit elevated cytokine responses. Microglia isolated from both stressed male and female rats reduced phagocytic activity; however, suggesting that microglia from both sexes experience stress-induced functional impairments. Finally, an immune challenge following either stress or CORT in females, but not males, increased peripheral inflammation (serum IL-1ß). These novel data suggest that although males and females both enhance stress-induced neuroinflammatory and behavioral responses to an immune challenge, this priming may occur through distinct, sex-specific mechanisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511602
[Au] Autor:de Lima Pereira A; Southgate R; Ahmed H; O'Connor P; Cramond V; Lenglet A
[Ad] Address:Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Operational Centre Amsterdam (OCA), Kobanê, Syria.
[Ti] Title:Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience.
[So] Source:PLoS Curr;10, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:2157-3999
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. Methods: We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children <5 years. We conducted a VPD Risk Analysis using MSF 'Preventive Vaccination in Humanitarian Emergencies' guidance to prioritize antigens with the highest public health threat for mass vaccination activities. A Measles SIA was then implemented and followed by vaccine coverage survey in 282 randomly-selected households targeting children <5 years. Results: The pre-SIA survey showed that 168/212 children (79.3%; 95%CI=72.7-84.6%) had received one vaccine or more in their lifetime. Forty-three children (20.3%; 95%CI: 15.1-26.6%) had received all vaccines due by their age; only one was <12 months old and this child had received all vaccinations outside of Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. Discussion: As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. Conclusion: We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511377
[Au] Autor:Yeo SG; Won YS; Kim SH; Park DC
[Ad] Address:Medical Science Research Institute, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-872, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Differences in C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis and gynecologic cancers.
[So] Source:Int J Med Sci;15(4):411-416, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1449-1907
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Endometriosis, although not malignant, has clinically demonstrated properties of invasiveness and metastasis. The pathogenesis of endometriosis, however, has not yet been elucidated. The immunological differences between endometriosis and malignant gynecologic tumors were analyzed by assessing C-type lectin receptors, which are associated with innate immunity, and immunoglobulin secretion, which is associated with B cell adaptive immunity, in the peritoneal fluid of these patients. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from 42 patients with benign masses (control group), 38 with endometriosis, and 43 with gynecologic (ovarian, uterine, and cervical) cancers. The levels of expression in these samples of mRNAs encoding the C-type lectin receptors Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN, Syk, Card 9, Bcl 10, Malt 1, src, Dec 205, Galectin, Tim 3, Trem 1, and DAP 12, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Findings in the three groups were compared. The level of galectin mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR2 and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis than in the control group (p<0.05 each). Compared with the gynecologic cancer group, the level of Bcl 10 mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR1, MR2, Syk, Card 9, Malt 1, Dec 205, Tim 3, and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis group (p<0.05 each). The levels of MR2 and DAP 12 mRNAs were significantly higher in the endometriosis than in the control group (p<0.05 each), whereas the level of galectin mRNA was similar in the endometriosis and gynecologic cancer groups. IgA and IgG concentrations in peritoneal fluid were significantly lower in the gynecologic cancer than in the control group (p<0.05 each). However, concentrations of all three immunoglobulins in the endometriosis group did not differ from those in the other two groups (p>0.05). C-type lectin receptors and immunoglobulins act cooperatively and are closely associated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The decreased expression of galectin mRNA in the peritoneal fluid of the endometriosis group suggests that endometriosis and gynecologic cancers have similar immunologic characteristics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.7150/ijms.23360

  10 / 291520 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511174
[Au] Autor:Alberto FJ; Boyer F; Orozco-terWengel P; Streeter I; Servin B; de Villemereuil P; Benjelloun B; Librado P; Biscarini F; Colli L; Barbato M; Zamani W; Alberti A; Engelen S; Stella A; Joost S; Ajmone-Marsan P; Negrini R; Orlando L; Rezaei HR; Naderi S; Clarke L; Flicek P; Wincker P; Coissac E; Kijas J; Tosser-Klopp G; Chikhi A; Bruford MW; Taberlet P; Pompanon F
[Ad] Address:Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, LECA, F-38000, Grenoble, France.
[Ti] Title:Convergent genomic signatures of domestication in sheep and goats.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):813, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The evolutionary basis of domestication has been a longstanding question and its genetic architecture is becoming more tractable as more domestic species become genome-enabled. Before becoming established worldwide, sheep and goats were domesticated in the fertile crescent 10,500 years before present (YBP) where their wild relatives remain. Here we sequence the genomes of wild Asiatic mouflon and Bezoar ibex in the sheep and goat domestication center and compare their genomes with that of domestics from local, traditional, and improved breeds. Among the genomic regions carrying selective sweeps differentiating domestic breeds from wild populations, which are associated among others to genes involved in nervous system, immunity and productivity traits, 20 are common to Capra and Ovis. The patterns of selection vary between species, suggesting that while common targets of selection related to domestication and improvement exist, different solutions have arisen to achieve similar phenotypic end-points within these closely related livestock species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03206-y


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