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[PMID]: 29524489
[Au] Autor:Wang J; Zhu Z; Wang X; Yang L; Liu L; Wang J; Igbinigie E; Liu X; Li J; Qiu L; Li YQ; Jiang P
[Ad] Address:School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:A novel monitoring approach of antibody-peptide binding using "bending" capillary electrophoresis.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recently, the in-capillary electrophoresis assay has been applied to variety kinds of analyses owing to its multiple functional integrating features, including mixing of samples, reaction process of the mixtures, and the separation and detection in one capillary system. However, the micro-reactor still has its limitations to the currently available applications, especially the mixing step of the samples inside the capillary could not be well controlled automatically or manually. Herein, we have developed a novel capillary electrophoresis assay for the detection of antibody-peptide binding inside a bending capillary. Its efficacy was monitored using an anti-FLAG M2 antibody and its ligand conjugated with FAM dye (FAM-DYKD). The antibody and the peptide were mixed inside the bending capillary with sequential injections. It was found that the numbers of semi-circle on the capillary interfered by the antibody and peptide binding dynamic. Additionally, an online competition assay was performed, which further validated the efficacy of the bending capillary device on monitoring the dynamic binding between the antigen and antibody. In summary, our data suggests that the novel assay is a practical approach in monitoring the antibody-antigen complex formation at a nano-scale. It could be applied to detect any biomolecule-biomolecule interaction as a general strategy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520188
[Au] Autor:Lee GY; Lee JW; Yeom JS; Kim KJ; Shin HI; Kang HS
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.
[Ti] Title:The Incidence of Various Types of Systemic Reactions Related to Epidural Steroid Injections: A Prospective Observational Study.
[So] Source:Korean J Radiol;19(2):301-310, 2018 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2005-8330
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objective: To evaluate the incidence, types and association of systemic reactions after an epidural steroid injection (ESI) with patient demographics, ESI factors and repeated occurrence of an ESI. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from all the participants. From October to December 2011, systemic reactions at 2 weeks after 960 ESIs among 885 patients were measured. Patients were evaluated by phone interviews to obtain the patients' demographics, history of previous ESI, ESI factors, and ESI reoccurrence. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests and a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Overall, 557 types of systemic reactions occurred after 292 injections (30.4%) of a total of 960 ESIs in which facial flushing was most common (131/557, 23.5%) and 144 ESIs were followed by a mixed form of systemic reactions (49.3%). Age of 62 years or younger (odds ratio [OR], 2.361), female sex (OR, 1.674), and history of diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.681) were significant risk factors in the occurrence of systemic reactions after an ESI. In 73 patients with repeated ESI, 14 patients re-experienced systemic reactions (19.2%), of which twelve re-experienced the same systemic reaction as the previous one. Conclusion: Systemic reactions followed about 30% of ESIs, and more commonly occurred in patients 62 years of age or younger, women, and diabetic patients. Half of the patients experienced a mixed form of systemic reactions. Patients with recurring systemic reactions tend to re-experience the same systemic reaction as the prior one after an ESI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3348/kjr.2018.19.2.301

  3 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29509642
[Au] Autor:Melanson EL; Lyden K; Gibbons E; Gavin KM; Wolfe P; Wierman ME; Schwartz RS; Kohrt WM
[Ti] Title:Influence of Estradiol Status on Physical Activity in Premenopausal Women.
[So] Source:Med Sci Sports Exerc;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0315
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 5 months of ovarian hormone suppression in pre-menopausal women on objectively measured physical activity (PA). METHODS: Participants (age = 35±8 yr; body mass index = 27±6 kgm) received monthly intramuscular injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy (GnRHAG) which suppresses pituitary gonadotropins and results in suppression of ovarian sex hormones. Women were randomized to receive concurrent transdermal E2 (GnRHAG+E2; n=30) or placebo (GnRHAG+PL, n=31). PA was assessed for 1 week before and during each month of the 5-month intervention using a hip-worn accelerometer (Actical, Mini Mitter Co., Inc., Bend, OR). Estimates of time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were derived using a previously published equation. Subsets of participants in each group were also randomized to a supervised progressive resistance exercise training program. RESULTS: Total MVPA tended towards being higher (p=0.08) in the GnRHAG+E2 group at month 4. There were no significant effects of intervention or time in sedentary or light PA. In the subset of women who did not participate in structured exercise training for which Actical data were obtained (N=16 in each group), total MVPA was higher at month 4 (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Physical activity levels appear to be maintained at a higher level in women undergoing pharmacological suppression of ovarian function with E2 add back when compared with women treated with placebo. These data provide proof of concept data that E2 contributes to the regulation of PA in humans. However, given the exploratory nature of this study, future confirmatory investigations will be necessary.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001598

  4 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501723
[Au] Autor:Gai M; Kurochkin MA; Li D; Khlebtsov BN; Dong L; Tarakina N; Poston R; Gould DJ; Frueh J; Sukhorukov GB
[Ad] Address:School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:In-situ NIR-laser mediated bioactive substance delivery to single cell for EGFP expression based on biocompatible microchamber-arrays.
[So] Source:J Control Release;276:84-92, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4995
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Controlled drug delivery and gene expression is required for a large variety of applications including cancer therapy, wound healing, cell migration, cell modification, cell-analysis, reproductive and regenerative medicine. Controlled delivery of precise amounts of drugs to a single cell is especially interesting for cell and tissue engineering as well as therapeutics and has until now required the application of micro-pipettes, precisely placed dispersed drug delivery vehicles, or injections close to or into the cell. Here we present surface bound micro-chamber arrays able to store small hydrophilic molecules for prolonged times in subaqueous conditions supporting spatiotemporal near infrared laser mediated release. The micro-chambers (MCs) are composed of biocompatible and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA). Biocompatible gold nanoparticles are employed as light harvesting agents to facilitate photothermal MC opening. The degree of photothermal heating is determined by numerical simulations utilizing optical properties of the MC, and confirmed by Brownian motion measurements of laser-irradiated micro-particles exhibiting similar optical properties like the MCs. The amount of bioactive small molecular cargo (doxycycline) from local release is determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and gene expression in isolated C2C12 cells via enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) biosynthesis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29482936
[Au] Autor:Amundsen CL; Komesu YM; Chermansky C; Gregory WT; Myers DL; Honeycutt EF; Vasavada SP; Nguyen JN; Wilson TS; Harvie HS; Wallace D; Pelvic Floor Disorders Network
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address: cindy.amundsen@duke.edu.
[Ti] Title:Two-Year Outcomes of Sacral Neuromodulation Versus OnabotulinumtoxinA for Refractory Urgency Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Trial.
[So] Source:Eur Urol;, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7560
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a chronic condition for which sacral neuromodulation (SNM) (InterStim/Medtronic) and onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX) (BotoxA/Allergan) are utilized. These therapies have not been compared over extended time. OBJECTIVE: To compare UUI episodes (UUIE) over 24 mo following SNM or BTX. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, open-label, randomized, extension trial (February 2012-July 2016) at nine US medical centers involving 386 women with ≥6 UUIE over 3 d inadequately managed by medications. Participants were clinical responders to treatment: ≥50% reduction in UUIEs after SNM placement or 1 mo post BTX. INTERVENTION: SNM (n=194) versus 200 U BTX (n=192). SNM reprogrammings occurred throughout the 24 mo. After 6 mo, two additional BTX injections were allowed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary outcome: change in mean daily UUIE over 24 mo. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: no UUIE, ≥75% and ≥50% UUIE reduction; Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form; Urinary Distress Inventory short form; Incontinence Impact Questionnaire; Patient Global Impression of Improvement; Overactive Bladder Satisfaction of Treatment Questionnaire; and adverse events (AEs). Primary analysis used a linear mixed model. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Outcome data were available for 260/298 (87%) clinical responders. No difference in decreased mean UUIE was found over 24 mo (-3.88 vs -3.50 episodes/d,95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.14-0.89; p=0.15), with no differences in UUI resolution, ≥75% or ≥50% UUIE reduction. BTX group maintained higher satisfaction (mean difference=-9.14, 95% CI=-14.38--3.90; p<0.001), treatment endorsement (mean difference=-12.16, 95% CI=-17.7--6.63; p<0.001) through 24 mo. Other secondary measures did not differ. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) were higher after BTX (24% vs 10%; p<0.01), 6% required intermittent catheterization post second injection. SNM revision and removals occurred in 3% and 9% patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments offered sustainable UUI improvement, and higher BTX dosing had low clean intermittent catheterization rates, but with UTI risk. SNM revision/removal rates were low due to standardized lead placement with strict treatment response definitions. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared a large group of US women with severe urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) who received sacral neuromodulation (InterStim) or onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox A) therapy during a 2-yr period. We found that both therapies had similar success in reducing UUI symptoms, and adverse events were low. However, women in the BotoxA group had higher satisfaction and endorsement with their treatment, but with a higher chance of a urinary tract infection. We conclude that both therapies offer sustained reduction in daily incontinence over 2 yr.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29481853
[Au] Autor:Namvarpour Z; Nasehi M; Amini A; Zarrindast MR
[Ad] Address:Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Protective role of alpha-lipoic acid in impairments of social and stereotyped behaviors induced by early postnatal administration of thimerosal in male rat.
[So] Source:Neurotoxicol Teratol;67:1-9, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9738
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 µg Hg/kg) in four i.m. injections on 7, 9, 11, 15postnatal days. 2) ALA (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), following the same order; 3) single dose of Thimerosal (3000 µg Hg/kg) plus ALA at different doses (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), by the previously described method. A saline treated control group and a ALA vehicle control (0.1% NaOH) were also included. At 5 and 8 weeks after birth, rats were evaluated with behavioral tests, to assess locomotor activity, social interactions and stereotyped behaviors, respectively. RESULTS: The data showed that Thimerosal at all doses (30, 300 and 3000 µg Hg/kg) significantly impacted locomotor activity. Thimerosal at doses of 300 and 3000 but not 30 µg Hg/kg impaired social and stereotyped behaviors. In contrast, ALA (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) did not alter behaviors by itself, at doses of 20 mg/kg, it reduced social interaction deficits induced by the highest dose of Thimerosal (3000 µg Hg/kg). Moreover, ALA, at all doses prevented the adverse effects of Thimerosal on stereotyped behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this preclinical study, consistent with previous studies on mice and rats, reveals that neonatal dose-dependent exposure to Thimerosal mimicking the childhood vaccine schedule can induce abnormal social interactions and stereotyped behaviors similar to those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, and, for the first time, revealed that these abnormalities may be ameliorated by ALA. This indicates that ALA may protect against mercurial-induced abnormal behaviors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471072
[Au] Autor:Cunha AF; Felippe ISA; Ferreira-Junior NC; Resstel LBM; Guimarães DAM; Beijamini V; Paton JFR; Sampaio KN
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Neuroreflex control of cardiovascular function is impaired after acute poisoning with chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide: Possible short and long term clinical implications.
[So] Source:Toxicology;398-399:13-22, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3185
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Adult male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CPF (30 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). 24 h after injections, cardiovascular reflexes were tested in awake rats. Potassium cyanide (KCN) and phenylbiguanide (PBG) were injected intravenously to activate the chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, respectively. The baroreflex was activated by phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Blood samples were taken for measurements of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity while acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in brainstem samples. Animals treated with CPF presented signs of intoxication such as ataxia, tremor, lacrimation, salivation, tetany, urination and defecation. The hypertensive and the bradycardic responses of the chemoreflex as well as the hypotensive and bradycardic responses of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex were attenuated in CPF treated animals (P < 0.05). Concerning the baroreflex responses, CPF treatment reduced the bradycardia plateau, the range and the gain of the reflex (P < 0.05). Plasma BChE and brainstem AChE were both reduced significantly after CPF treatment (P < 0.05). Our results showed that acute sub-lethal exposure to CPF impairs the cardiovascular responses of homeostatic and defensive cardiovascular reflexes. These effects are associated with a marked inhibition of plasma BChE and brainstem AChE.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29458059
[Au] Autor:Gallaher ZR; Steward O
[Ad] Address:Reeve-Irvine Research Center, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address: zgalla@uw.edu.
[Ti] Title:Modest enhancement of sensory axon regeneration in the sciatic nerve with conditional co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 in the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice.
[So] Source:Exp Neurol;303:120-133, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2430
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Axons within the peripheral nervous system are capable of regeneration, but full functional recovery is rare. Recent work has shown that conditional deletion of two key signaling inhibitors of the PI3K and Jak/Stat pathways-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), respectively-promotes regeneration of normally non-regenerative central nervous system axons. Moreover, in studies of optic nerve regeneration, co-deletion of both PTEN and SOCS3 has an even greater effect. Here, we test the hypotheses (1) that PTEN deletion enhances axon regeneration following sciatic nerve crush and (2) that PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion further promotes regeneration. PTEN and PTEN/SOCS3 mice received direct injections of AAV-Cre into the fourth and fifth lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) two weeks prior to sciatic nerve crush. Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates from DRG using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that PTEN deletion did not enhance or prolong PI3K signaling following sciatic nerve crush. However, PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion activated PI3K for at least 7 days post-injury in contrast to controls, where activation peaked at 3 days. Quantification of SCG10-expressing regenerating sensory axons in the sciatic nerve after crush injury revealed longer distance regeneration at 3 days post-injury with both PTEN and PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion. Additionally, analysis of noxious thermosensation and mechanosensation with PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion revealed enhanced sensation at 14 and 21 days after crush, respectively, after which all treatment groups reached the same functional plateau. These findings indicate that co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 results in modest but measureable enhancement of early regeneration of DRG axons following crush injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29260289
[Au] Autor:Doyle N; Varela A; Haile S; Guldberg R; Kostenuik PJ; Ominsky MS; Smith SY; Hattersley G
[Ad] Address:Charles River Laboratories, Montreal, QC, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Abaloparatide, a novel PTH receptor agonist, increased bone mass and strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys by increasing bone formation without increasing bone resorption.
[So] Source:Osteoporos Int;29(3):685-697, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1433-2965
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abaloparatide, a novel PTH1 receptor agonist, increased bone formation in osteopenic ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys while increasing cortical and trabecular bone mass. Abaloparatide increased bone strength and maintained or enhanced bone mass-strength relationships, indicating preserved or improved bone quality. INTRODUCTION: Abaloparatide is a selective PTH1R activator that is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of 16 months of abaloparatide administration on bone formation, resorption, density, and strength were assessed in adult ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). METHODS: Sixty-five 9-18-year-old female cynos underwent OVX surgery, and 15 similar cynos underwent sham surgery. After a 9-month period without treatments, OVX cynos were allocated to four groups that received 16 months of daily s.c. injections with either vehicle (n = 17) or abaloparatide (0.2, 1, or 5 µg/kg/day; n = 16/dose level), while Sham controls received s.c. vehicle (n = 15). Bone densitometry (DXA, pQCT, micro-CT), qualitative bone histology, serum calcium, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometry, and bone strength were among the key measures assessed. RESULTS: At the end of the 9-month post-surgical bone depletion period, just prior to the treatment phase, the OVX groups exhibited increased bone turnover markers and decreased bone mass compared with sham controls. Abaloparatide administration to OVX cynos led to increased bone formation parameters, including serum P1NP and endocortical bone formation rate. Abaloparatide administration did not influence serum calcium levels, bone resorption markers, cortical porosity, or eroded surfaces. Abaloparatide increased bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine, tibial diaphysis, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. Abaloparatide administration was associated with greater lumbar vertebral strength, and had no adverse effects on bone mass-strength relationships for the vertebrae, femoral neck, femoral diaphysis, or humeral cortical beams. CONCLUSIONS: Abaloparatide administration was associated with increases in bone formation, bone mass and bone strength, and with maintenance of bone quality in OVX cynos, without increases in serum calcium or bone resorption parameters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00198-017-4323-6

  10 / 351232 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29248442
[Au] Autor:Radyk MD; Burclaff J; Willet SG; Mills JC
[Ad] Address:Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.
[Ti] Title:Metaplastic Cells in the Stomach Arise, Independently of Stem Cells, via Dedifferentiation or Transdifferentiation of Chief Cells.
[So] Source:Gastroenterology;, 2017 Dec 14.
[Is] ISSN:1528-0012
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) develops in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis due to infection with Helicobacter pylori; it might be a precursor to intestinal metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma. Lineage tracing experiments of the gastric corpus in mice have not established whether SPEM derives from proliferating stem cells or differentiated, post-mitotic zymogenic chief cells in the gland base. We investigated whether differentiated cells can give rise to SPEM using a nongenetic approach in mice. Mice were given intraperitoneal injections of 5-fluorouracil, which blocked gastric cell proliferation, plus tamoxifen to induce SPEM. Based on analyses of molecular and histologic markers, we found SPEM developed even in the absence of cell proliferation. SPEM therefore did not arise from stem cells. In histologic analyses of gastric resection specimens from 10 patients with adenocarcinoma, we found normal zymogenic chief cells that were transitioning into SPEM cells only in gland bases, rather than the proliferative stem cell zone. Our findings indicate that SPEM can arise by direct reprogramming of existing cells-mainly of chief cells.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher


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