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[PMID]: 29509934
[Au] Autor:Vable AM; Kiang MV; Basu S; Rudolph KE; Kawachi I; Subramanian SV; Glymour MM
[Ad] Address:Center for Population Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304.
[Ti] Title:Military Service, Childhood Socio-Economic Status, and Late-Life Lung Function: Korean War Era Military Service Associated with Smaller Disparities.
[So] Source:Mil Med;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Military service is associated with smoking initiation, but U.S. veterans are also eligible for special social, financial, and healthcare benefits, which are associated with smoking cessation. A key public health question is how these offsetting pathways affect health disparities; we assessed the net effects of military service on later life pulmonary function among Korean War era veterans by childhood socio-economic status (cSES). Methods: Data came from U.S.-born male Korean War era veteran (service: 1950-1954) and non-veteran participants in the observational U.S. Health and Retirement Study who were alive in 2010 (average age = 78). Veterans (N = 203) and non-veterans (N = 195) were exactly matched using coarsened exact matching on birth year, race, coarsened height, birthplace, childhood health, and parental and childhood smoking. Results were evaluated by cSES (defined as maternal education <8 yr/unknown or ≥8 yr), in predicting lung function, as assessed by peak expiratory flow (PEF), measured in 2008 or 2010. Findings: While there was little overall association between veterans and PEF [ß = 12.8 L/min; 95% confidence interval (CI): (-12.1, 37.7); p = 0.314; average non-veteran PEF = 379 L/min], low-cSES veterans had higher PEF than similar non-veterans [ß = 81.9 L/min; 95% CI: (25.2, 138.5); p = 0.005], resulting in smaller socio-economic disparities among veterans compared to non-veterans [difference in disparities: ß = -85.0 L/min; 95% CI: (-147.9, -22.2); p = 0.008]. Discussion: Korean War era military service appears to disproportionately benefit low-cSES veteran lung functioning, resulting in smaller socio-economic disparities among veterans compared with non-veterans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/milmed/usx196

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[PMID]: 29433020
[Au] Autor:Peleg M; Nativ O; Richter ED
[Ad] Address:Dept. Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 3200003, Israel and Rafael Ltd. POB 2250, Haifa 3102102, Israel. Electronic address: peleg.michael@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting.
[So] Source:Environ Res;163:123-133, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM: We reexamine whether radio frequency radiation (RFR) in the occupational and military settings is a human carcinogen. METHODS: We extended an analysis of an already-reported case series of patients with cancer previously exposed to whole-body prolonged RFR, mainly from communication equipment and radar. We focused on hematolymphatic (HL) cancers. We used analysis by percentage frequency (PF) of a cancer type, which is the proportion of a specific cancer type relative to the total number of cancer cases. We also examined and analyzed the published data on three other cohort studies from similar military settings from different countries. RESULTS: The PF of HL cancers in the case series was very high, at 40% with only 23% expected for the series age and gender profile, confidence interval CI95%: 26-56%, p<0.01, 19 out of 47 patients had HL cancers. We also found high PF for multiple primaries. As for the three other cohort studies: In the Polish military sector, the PF of HL cancers was 36% in the exposed population as compared to 12% in the unexposed population, p<0.001. In a small group of employees exposed to RFR in Israeli defense industry, the PF of HL cancers was 60% versus 17% expected for the group age and gender profile, p<0.05. In Belgian radar battalions the HL PF was 8.3% versus 1.4% in the control battalions as shown in a causes of deaths study and HL cancer mortality rate ratio was 7.2 and statistically significant. Similar findings were reported on radio amateurs and Korean war technicians. Elevated risk ratios were previously reported in most of the above studies. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent association of RFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and experimental studies on RFR and carcinogenicity make a coherent case for a cause-effect relationship and classifying RFR exposure as a human carcinogen (IARC group 1).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29311533
[Au] Autor:Seo G
[Ti] Title:A Modern History of 'Imperial Medicine' Surrounding Hansen's Disease: Strategies to Manage Public Opinion in Modern Japanese Media.
[So] Source:Uisahak;26(3):417-454, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1225-505X
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients. Among existing research, the topics of the study on Hansen's disease under the Japanese colonial rule include the history of the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium, investigation on the forced labor of the patients in the island, human rights violations against the patients, oral memoirs of the patients and doctors who practiced at that time. All of these studies are important achievements regarding the research on the patients. An important study of Hansen's disease in modern Japan is the work of Hujino Utaka, which introduces the isolation of and discrimination against the patients of Hansen's disease. Hujino Utaka's study examines the annihilation of people with infectious diseases in Japan and its colonies by the imperial government, which was the consequence of the imperial medical policies, and reports on the isolation of Hansen's disease patients during the war. Although these researches are important achievements in the study of Hansen's disease in modernity, their focus has mainly been on the history of isolation and exploitation in the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium and discrimination against the patients within the sanatorium, which was controlled by the director of the sanatorium. Consequently, the research tends to perceive the problem within the frame of antagonism between the agent of imperialism and the victims of exploitation by the hands of imperialism. Hence, it has limitations in that it has not fully addressed the problem of the people who were not Hansen's disease patients and as such, existed somewhere in between the two extremes in the process of administering medicine under the imperial rule. The purpose of this study is to identify the direction of imperial medicine in the history of Hansen's disease in Japan and to comprehend the characteristics of policy on Hansen's disease developed by Mitsuda Kensuke, who was behind the policy of imperial medicine, and examine the process of imperial medicine reaching out to the people (of Japan and its colonies). To achieve the goal, this study explores how the agent of imperial medicine gain the favor the public, who are not Hansen's disease patients, by means of the mass media. Specifically, this paper examines data in the Japanese language related to Korean patients of Hansen's disease including the mass media data on Hansen's disease in the source book titled The Collection of Data on Hansen's Disease in Joseon under the Colonial Rule(8 volumes) compiled by Takio Eiji, which has not been studied until now. It also reviews the cultural and popular magazines published in Japan and Joseon at that time.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180109
[Lr] Last revision date:180109
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.13081/kjmh.2017.26.417

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[PMID]: 28919591
[Au] Autor:Moon M; Shin YJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Korean History, University of Seoul.
[Ti] Title:The Establishment and operation of Longjing Medical College - The History of Longjing Medical College as Frontier History: Focusing on its 'Disconnection' and 'Continuity'.
[So] Source:Uisahak;26(2):215-264, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1225-505X
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Longjing Medial College, established in Longjing, Yanbian, China on September 12, 1945, existed for about 1 year and 6 months until it was renamed as the Medical Department of Dongbei Junzheng Daxue Jilin Fenxiao in April 1947. However, there are only few records and studies on Longjing Medical College in Yanbian as well as in Korea. In order to fill the gap, this study attempted to restore the history of Longjing Medical College built in Yanbian, China immediately after the liberation. In particular, it analyzed how and why the Longjing Medical College was founded and operated, and which relations the college had with the post-war medical educational institutions, focusing on the 'disconnection' and 'continuity' in the historical sense. Since the establishment of Manchukuo, the Japanese colonial government had made it a major "frontier" and actively promoted the mass migration of Japanese and Koreans. For them, the government also set up three Exploitation Medical Schools in 1940. As a part of these three institutions, Longjing Exploitation Medical School educated more than 150 students by 1945, of which about one third was Korean. After the liberation, the Longjing Educational Alliance decided to pursue the return-movement of the Longjing Exploitation Medical School and took over the institution. On September 12, 1945, Longjing Medical College opened at the school site of Longjing Exploitation Medical School. Longjing Medical College was founded by people who had 'the perspective of Korean nationality' in an atmosphere where the 'ethnicity' of the Koreans exercised considerable power. Nevertheless, in 1946, when the Chinese Civil War began and the Yanbian region became an important base of the Chinese Communist Party, the Party began to expand and strengthen their influences in the region. Accordingly, the operation rights of Longjing Medical College were transferred to the Yanbian Administrative offices of Supervision and Government of Jirinsheng which were the administrative institution by the Chinese Communist Party in turns. In the end, Longjing Medical College was reorganized into the Medical Department of Dongbei Junzheng Daxue Jilin Fenxiao (1947. 3) and the first branch of the Chinese Medical College (1948. 1), a medical education institution focused on nurturing the medical personnel required for the Chinese Civil War. In January 1949, the first branch moved to Harbin, merged with the second branch there, and was transformed into Harbin Medical College. Afterwards, the Yanbian Koreans played a major role to establish Yanbian Medical College in a basis of the teachers and buildings left by the moving-out of the first branch(1948. 10. 1). Now, Yanbian Medical College is the official body of Yanbian University Medical Center. Longjing Medical College, which has such a complicated history, is partially 'disconnected' from the Yanbian medical educational institutions in the post-war era in terms of its possession, operation objective, and academic system. However, many of the early members of the Longjing Medical College were not only teachers and students of the Longjing Exploitation Medical School, but also a few of them continued to teach at the Medical Department of Dongbei Junzheng Daxue Jilin Fenxiao, the first branch of the Chinese Medical College, and Yanbian Medical College. Particularly, several members actively participated in the establishment of each school or in the position of the top leader of the school. Also, all the medical education institutions referred to above used the building and facilities of Longjing Exploitation Medical School until the period of Yanbian Medical College. As such, the history of Longjing Medical College as frontier history, gives us a difficult, but significant question on the meanings of 'disconnection' and 'continuity' in history and their implications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170918
[Lr] Last revision date:170918
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.13081/kjmh.2017.26.215

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[PMID]: 28857399
[Au] Autor:Namgoong S; Han SK
[Ad] Address:Department of Plastic Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Status of wound management in Korea.
[So] Source:Wound Repair Regen;, 2017 Aug 30.
[Is] ISSN:1524-475X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In spite of a period of intense economic, social, and political hardship following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea has made great strides in economic growth over the past half century, and also remarkable progress in the medical field. However, wound research has been slow to take off in South Korea. Meanwhile, as is the case in many countries in Western Europe and North America, South Korea is seeing a steady increase in its aged population. The growth in the geriatric population has in turn brought on more cases of chronic wounds. Though South Korea only began to recognize the importance of wound management in the early 2000s, it was fortunate enough to have sophisticated related industries, such as biotechnology and information technology, and brilliant, industrious, and eager wound researchers, contributing to rapid development of the field. The country has particular strengths in research for innovative cell-based treatments and products for managing wounds. Notwithstanding government policy ill-equipped to sufficiently support such advancement, better communication between experts and public officials will no doubt bring forth even more achievements in this very promising field. It is in this context that this article aims to summarize current wound management practices, research, training, product development, and government policies regarding wound management in South Korea as of the year 2017.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171012
[Lr] Last revision date:171012
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/wrr.12576

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[PMID]: 28835498
[Au] Autor:Rissanen I; Stass R; Zeltina A; Li S; Hepojoki J; Harlos K; Gilbert RJC; Huiskonen JT; Bowden TA
[Ad] Address:Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Structural Transitions of the Conserved and Metastable Hantaviral Glycoprotein Envelope.
[So] Source:J Virol;91(21), 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever and pulmonary syndrome. The outer membrane of the hantavirus envelope displays a lattice of two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which orchestrate host cell recognition and entry. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the Gn glycoprotein ectodomain from the Asiatic Hantaan virus (HTNV), the most prevalent pathogenic hantavirus. Structural overlay analysis reveals that the HTNV Gn fold is highly similar to the Gn of Puumala virus (PUUV), a genetically and geographically distinct and less pathogenic hantavirus found predominantly in northeastern Europe, confirming that the hantaviral Gn fold is architecturally conserved across hantavirus clades. Interestingly, HTNV Gn crystallized at acidic pH, in a compact tetrameric configuration distinct from the organization at neutral pH. Analysis of the Gn, both in solution and in the context of the virion, confirms the pH-sensitive oligomeric nature of the glycoprotein, indicating that the hantaviral Gn undergoes structural transitions during host cell entry. These data allow us to present a structural model for how acidification during endocytic uptake of the virus triggers the dissociation of the metastable Gn-Gc lattice to enable insertion of the Gc-resident hydrophobic fusion loops into the host cell membrane. Together, these data reveal the dynamic plasticity of the structurally conserved hantaviral surface. Although outbreaks of Korean hemorrhagic fever were first recognized during the Korean War (1950 to 1953), it was not until 1978 that they were found to be caused by Hantaan virus (HTNV), the most prevalent pathogenic hantavirus. Here, we describe the crystal structure of HTNV envelope glycoprotein Gn, an integral component of the Gn-Gc glycoprotein spike complex responsible for host cell entry. HTNV Gn is structurally conserved with the Gn of a genetically and geographically distal hantavirus, Puumala virus, indicating that the observed α/ß fold is well preserved across the family. The combination of our crystal structure with solution state analysis of recombinant protein and electron cryo-microscopy of acidified hantavirus allows us to propose a model for endosome-induced reorganization of the hantaviral glycoprotein lattice. This provides a molecular-level rationale for the exposure of the hydrophobic fusion loops on the Gc, a process required for fusion of viral and cellular membranes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Glycoproteins/chemistry
Hantavirus Infections/metabolism
Hantavirus/physiology
Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry
Virion/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cercopithecus aethiops
Cryoelectron Microscopy
Hantavirus/ultrastructure
Hantavirus Infections/virology
Humans
Models, Molecular
Phylogeny
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Puumala virus/chemistry
Vero Cells
Virion/ultrastructure
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Glycoproteins); 0 (Viral Envelope Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171109
[Lr] Last revision date:171109
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170825
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28826703
[Au] Autor:Mossanen M; Kibel AS; Goldman RH
[Ad] Address:Division of Urological Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Electronic address: Mmossanen@mgh.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:Exploring exposure to Agent Orange and increased mortality due to bladder cancer.
[So] Source:Urol Oncol;35(11):627-632, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2496
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: During the Vietnam War, many veterans were exposed to Agent Orange (AO), a chemical defoliant containing varying levels of the carcinogen dioxin. The health effects of AO exposure have been widely studied in the VA population. Here we review and interpret data regarding the association between AO exposure and bladder cancer (BC) mortality. MAIN FINDINGS: Data evaluating the association between AO and BC is limited. Methods characterizing exposure have become more sophisticated over time. Several studies support the link between AO exposure and increased mortality due to BC, including the Korean Veterans Health Study. CONCLUSIONS: Available data suggest an association with exposure to AO and increased mortality due to BC. In patients exposed to AO, increased frequency of cystoscopic surveillance and potentially more aggressive therapy for those with BC may be warranted but utility of these strategies remains to be proven. Additional research is required to better understand the relationship between AO and BC.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171022
[Lr] Last revision date:171022
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28810960
[Au] Autor:Santee WR; Potter AW; Friedl KE
[Ad] Address:Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Avenue, Building 42, Natick, MA 01760-5007.
[Ti] Title:Talk to the Hand: U.S. Army Biophysical Testing.
[So] Source:Mil Med;182(7):e1702-e1705, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum. This report briefly summarizes the evolution and use of one specialized form of the manikin technologies, the thermal hand model, and its use in research on Soldier hand-wear items that sustain dexterity and protect the hand in extreme environments. METHODS: Thermal manikin testing methodologies were developed to provide an efficient and consistent analytical tool for the rapid evaluation of new clothing concepts. These methods have been upgraded since the original World War II and Korean War eras to include articulation and sweating capabilities, as characterized and illustrated in this article. The earlier "retired" versions of thermal hand models have now been transferred to the National Museum of Health and Science. FINDINGS: The biophysical values from manikin testing are critical inputs to the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine mathematical models that provide predictions of soldier comfort, duration of exposure before loss of manual dexterity, and time to significant risk of freezing (skin temperature <-1°C) and nonfreezing cold injuries (skin temperature <5°C). The greater thickness of better insulated handwear reduces dexterity and also increases surface area which makes added insulation increasingly less effective in retaining heat. Measurements of both thermal resistance (insulation) and evaporative resistance (permeability) collectively characterize the biophysical properties and enable mathematical modeling of the human thermophysiological responses. This information can help guide the hand-wear development and selection process which often requires trade-offs between factors such as material, cost, and sizing. IMPACT: Soldier hands provide fine motor dexterity in tactical functions, ranging from pulling a trigger to pulling a parachute ripcord; thus, protecting hand function is critical to soldier readiness. Also, the importance of protection against nonbattle cold injuries was highlighted during World War II in northern Europe, in the Aleutian Islands, and later in Korea. The U.S. Army has been on the forefront of the biophysical analysis of clothing including gloves since environmental research was established at the Armored Medical Research Laboratory and Climatic Research Laboratory during World War II. U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine does not make the equipment but works with their Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center partners to make the equipment better.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00156

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[PMID]: 28780738
[Au] Autor:Haseeb MA; Imperato PJ
[Ad] Address:State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, MSC 43, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.
[Ti] Title:John P. Craig, MD, MPH. Physician-Scientist, Educator, and Mentor. 1923-2016.
[So] Source:J Community Health;, 2017 Aug 05.
[Is] ISSN:1573-3610
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:John P. Craig (1923-2016) was an eminent physician-scientist, gifted educator, and greatly valued mentor. Born in West Liberty, Ohio on 29 November 1923, he attended Oberlin College, and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. This was followed by an internship at Yale University Medical Center, and then service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He was a battalion surgeon, preventive medicine officer, and epidemiologist. While in Korea, he conducted important investigations of hemorrhagic fever among American troops. His observations led to the recognition of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, now called Korean hemorrhagic fever. He also identified a new Hanta virus. Craig received his Master of Public Health degree magna cum laude from the Harvard School of Public Health. He then worked with Nobel Laureate, Max Theiler, at the Rockefeller Foundation. Soon afterwards, he joined the faculty of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, where he established a new research laboratory. Over the years, his research focused on diphtheria infections and cholera. He became internationally respected for his work on cholera, and specifically on cholera toxin and its relationship to vascular permeability. He served for over 6 years as the Chair of the Cholera Panel of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Program, and in this position set the direction for future research. The author of over 100 articles published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, he also gave numerous presentations at national and international scientific meetings on a wide range of microbial diseases. Craig was highly regarded by colleagues and students as a superb teacher. He was a leader in initiating patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) exercises for medical students. He also led curricular reform in the medical school in the 1990s whose purpose was to reduce lecture hours and expand time for small-group interactive sessions. Craig was designated Distinguished Teaching Professor by the State University of New York, and inducted as an Honorary Alumnus of the College of Medicine. The John P. Craig Award for Excellence in Microbiology and Immunology was established in 1993, and is annually presented to a graduating medical student. Following retirement to Tucson, Arizona, Craig devoted time to planning and teaching a tropical medicine course in Costa Rica that was co-sponsored by the University of Costa Rica Medical School and Louisiana State University. He was a member of the Board of Managers of the Wright Nature Center in Trinidad, and an active volunteer in the Herpetology Department of the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, Arizona. He also had a great interest in ornithology. John P. Craig passed away in Tucson, Arizona on 27 September 2016 in his ninety-third year. He was an eminent success as a research scientist as well as an outstanding educator and mentor. As a result, he had a lasting influence on the lives and careers of both students and colleagues.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170916
[Lr] Last revision date:170916
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10900-017-0411-y

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[PMID]: 28706766
[Au] Autor:Milton J; Rugino A; Narayan K; Karas C; Awuor V
[Ad] Address:Neurosurgery, Ohio Health.
[Ti] Title:A Case-Based Review of the Management of Penetrating Brain Trauma.
[So] Source:Cureus;9(6):e1342, 2017 Jun 12.
[Is] ISSN:2168-8184
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Principles of penetrating head trauma management were established by Harvey Cushing in relation to the management of penetrating brain injuries of World War One. Cushing radically debrided the scalp and skull and aggressively irrigated wound tracks to remove foreign bodies. He would then obtain water-tight closure. Cushing significantly decreased infection rates which reportedly limited the major cause of mortality due to penetrating head injuries. Many advances have been made by contributions from World War Two, Korean War, Vietnam War, and Iran/Iraq conflicts. Early radical decompression, with conservative debridement and duraplasty applied to blast-induced penetrating injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom, has resulted in increased survivability and neurological improvement. Each advance in the management of these injuries is based upon more effectively addressing one or more components of Matson's tenets. This case series reviews the successful management of three patients that presented to a level I trauma center with a penetrating head injury from high-velocity projectiles. Management principles of each patient begin with a proper patient assessment, application of Matson's tenets from the time of injury, and airway control. Surgical management is based upon adherence to Grahm's Guidelines which emphasize criteria centered upon post-resuscitative Glasgow Coma Scale score and appropriate imaging. This case series suggests that proper patient evaluation, adherence to Matson's tenets and to Grahm's Guidelines, and appropriate patient selection for operative management leads to improved survival of patients with penetrating head trauma from high-velocity projectiles.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170717
[Lr] Last revision date:170717
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7759/cureus.1342


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