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[PMID]: 29193258
[Au] Autor:Xiang M; Zhang X; Deng Y; Li Y; Yu J; Zhu J; Huang X; Zhou J; Liao H
[Ad] Address:School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
[Ti] Title:Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights of anti-insect molecular mechanism of Cassia obtusifolia trypsin inhibitor against Pieris rapae.
[So] Source:Arch Insect Biochem Physiol;97(1), 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6327
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pieris rapae, a serious Lepidoptera pest of cultivated crucifers, utilizes midgut enzymes to digest food and detoxify secondary metabolites from host plants. A recombinant trypsin inhibitor (COTI) from nonhost plant, Cassia obtusifolia, significantly decreased activities of trypsin-like proteases in the larval midgut on Pieris rapae and could suppress the growth of larvae. In order to know how COTI took effect, transcriptional profiles of P. rapae midgut in response to COTI was studied. A total of 51,544 unigenes were generated and 45.86% of which had homologs in public databases. Most of the regulated genes associated with digestion, detoxification, homeostasis, and resistance were downregulated after ingestion of COTI. Meanwhile, several unigenes in the integrin signaling pathway might be involved in response to COTI. Furthermore, using comparative transcriptome analysis, we detected differently expressing genes and identified a new reference gene, UPF3, by qRT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, it was suggested that not only proteolysis inhibition, but also suppression of expression of genes involved in metabolism, development, signaling, and defense might account for the anti-insect resistance of COTI.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Butterflies/enzymology
Cassia/metabolism
Plant Proteins/metabolism
Transcriptome
Trypsin Inhibitors/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Butterflies/growth & development
Gastrointestinal Tract/enzymology
Gene Expression Profiling
Larva/enzymology
Larva/growth & development
Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Trypsin Inhibitors)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180117
[Lr] Last revision date:180117
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/arch.21427

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[PMID]: 28425214
[Au] Autor:Amuri B; Maseho M; Simbi L; Okusa P; Duez P; Byanga K
[Ad] Address:Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Université de Lubumbashi, 27 avenue Kato, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.
[Ti] Title:Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activities of Nine Medicinal Herbs Used as Antidiabetic in the Region of Lubumbashi (DR Congo).
[So] Source:Phytother Res;31(7):1029-1033, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of nine plants used as antidiabetic treatments in Lubumbashi and its surroundings. Those are Albizia adianthifolia, Azanza garckeana, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia sieberiana, Erythrina abyssinica, Gladiolus klattianus, Rauvolfia caffra, Strychnos spinosa, and Vitex madiensis. Aqueous extracts, obtained by decoction and maceration, were administered (500 mg/kg) per os to guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), both in glucose baseline conditions and in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) conditions (glucose, 2 g/kg; follow-up over 210 min). For OGTT experiments, area under the curve of blood glucose levels, maximum glucose concentration (Cmax), and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were used to compare test groups with the control conditions (glucose group). In hypoglycemic tests, only three species induced significant (p < 0.001) lowering of normal glycemia: A. adianthifolia (33% reduction), C. occidentalis (32%), and V. madiensis (43%); in the same conditions, the positive control glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) induced a blood glucose lowering of 55%. In OGTT conditions, all tested herbs were active, with the highest inhibition of glycemia increases for V. madiensis (62%) and A. adianthifolia (57%), compared with the hyperglycemic inhibition rate of glibenclamide (50%). Oral glucose tolerance test conditions appear as essential to detect the extracts most interesting for clinical use. These data support the use of studied plants for diabetes treatment in traditional Congolese medicine and indicate a good knowledge of tradipraticians in the field. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Asteraceae/chemistry
Blood Glucose/analysis
Cassia/chemistry
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glyburide/pharmacology
Guinea Pigs
Male
Malvaceae/chemistry
Medicine, Traditional
Vitex/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); SX6K58TVWC (Glyburide)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171004
[Lr] Last revision date:171004
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170421
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.5814

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[PMID]: 28274170
[Au] Autor:Sreelakshmi V; Abraham A
[Ad] Address:a Department of Biochemistry , University of Kerala , Thiruvananthapuram , Kerala , India.
[Ti] Title:Protective effects of Cassia tora leaves in experimental cataract by modulating intracellular communication, membrane co-transporters, energy metabolism and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;55(1):1274-1282, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Cataract is the clouding of eye lens which causes impairment in vision and accounts for the leading factor of global blindness. Functional food-based prevention of cataract finds application in vision research because of its availability and easy access to all classes of the society. Cassia tora Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) is an edible plant mentioned in the traditional systems of medicine for whole body health, especially to the eyes. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora leaves (ECT) on experimental cataract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (4 µg/g body weight) on 10th day. ECT was supplemented orally from 8th day up to 12th day at a concentration of 5 µg/g body weight and marker parameters were evaluated after 30 days. RESULTS: The production of MPO and the activation of calpain were reduced 52.17% and 36.67% by ECT in lens tissue, respectively. It modulated the energy status by significantly increasing the activity of CCO 1 (55.56%) and ATP production (41.88%). ECT maintained the ionic balance in the lens by reducing the level of sodium (50%) and increasing the level of potassium (42.5%). It also reduced cell junction modifications and preserved a functional ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the growing attention on wild plant food resources for preventive protection against cataract. The data suggest the value of Cassia tora leaves as a functional food for ameliorating cataract pathology.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cassia
Cataract/drug therapy
Cell Communication/drug effects
Energy Metabolism/drug effects
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Symporters
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cataract/metabolism
Cell Communication/physiology
Cell Membrane/drug effects
Cell Membrane/metabolism
Dietary Supplements
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Energy Metabolism/physiology
Intracellular Fluid/drug effects
Intracellular Fluid/metabolism
Oxidative Stress/drug effects
Oxidative Stress/physiology
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Leaves
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
Protective Agents/isolation & purification
Protective Agents/pharmacology
Protective Agents/therapeutic use
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Signal Transduction/physiology
Symporters/metabolism
Treatment Outcome
Ubiquitin/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Protective Agents); 0 (Symporters); 0 (Ubiquitin); EC 3.4.25.1 (Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170316
[Lr] Last revision date:170316
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170310
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13880209.2017.1299769

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[PMID]: 28237574
[Au] Autor:Sivaranjana P; Nagarajan ER; Rajini N; Jawaid M; Rajulu AV
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil 626126, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Title:Cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated silver nanoparticles using Cassia alata leaf extract as a reducing agent.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;99:223-232, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cotton linters were dissolved in aq. (8% LiOH+15% urea) that was pre-cooled to -12.5°C. Using this solution cellulose gel films were prepared by regeneration method with ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. These wet films were diffused with 10wt% Cassia alata leaf extract that acted as a reducing agent. The leaf extract diffused cellulose wet films were used as the matrix. The wet matrix films were dipped individually in lower concentrated 1-5mM aq.AgNO source solutions in the presence of sunlight and allowed the solutions to react with the diffused leaf extract reducing agent which in situ generated the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the films as well as in the source solution. The AgNPs formed in the source solution were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while those formed in situ the films were observed by SEM and the particle size distribution was determined. The cellulose/AgNP composite films showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. These nanocomposite films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. At temperatures below 300°C, the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films was lower than that of the matrix due to the catalytic effect of AgNPs. The nanocomposite films also possessed good tensile properties. The ecofriendly cellulose/AgNP composite films with good antibacterial activity and tensile properties can be considered for medical applications like dressing materials.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cassia/chemistry
Cellulose/chemistry
Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
Nanocomposites/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Silver/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Cellulose/pharmacology
Nanotechnology
Reducing Agents/chemistry
Temperature
Tensile Strength
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Reducing Agents); 3M4G523W1G (Silver); 9004-34-6 (Cellulose)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170424
[Lr] Last revision date:170424
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170227
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28109916
[Au] Autor:Veerapur VP; Pratap V; Thippeswamy BS; Marietta P; Bansal P; Kulkarni PV; Kulkarni VH
[Ad] Address:SET's College of Pharmacy, S.R Nagar, Dharwad 580002, Karnataka, India; Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, B.H Road, Tumkur 572102, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: veeresh36@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Polyphenolic enriched extract of Cassia glauca Lamk, improves streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes linked with partial insulin resistance in rats.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;198:489-498, 2017 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally Cassia glauca (CG) has been used to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken to evaluate anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic enriched extract of CG in standardized streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of ethanol (CGE) and water (CGW) extracts of CG (200 and 400mg/kg) treatment were evaluated in STZ (50mg/kg, iv) induced diabetic rats. On 10 day, oral glucose tolerance test and degree of insulin resistance was calculated. On 13 day, insulin tolerance test was performed to know the peripheral utilization of glucose. On 15 day, blood glucose, lipid profiles and endogenous antioxidant levels were estimated. In addition, the effects on oral glucose/sucrose tolerance test in normal rats. Further, HPLC fingerprinting profile of CGE and simultaneous quantification of biomarkers were carried out. RESULTS: Supplementation with CGE and CGW significantly reduced STZ-induced deleterious effects and improved glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance. In addition, supplementation also decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidant levels. Furthermore, administration significantly improves sucrose tolerance suggesting that extract possess inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme. Further, HPLC studies revealed that CGE contains three bioactive polyphenolic compounds viz., rutin (0.10±0.01mg/g), luteolin-7-glucoside (0.06±0.01mg/g) and isorhoifolin (0.7±0.05mg/g). CONCLUSION: Observed beneficial outcome of CG might be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds and mediated by interacting with multiple targets of diabetes and oxidative stress. Taken together, this study provided the scientific evidence for the traditional use of CG.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cassia/chemistry
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Polyphenols/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antioxidants/metabolism
Blood Glucose/drug effects
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Glucose Tolerance Test
Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage
Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Insulin Resistance
Male
Oxidative Stress/drug effects
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
Polyphenols/administration & dosage
Polyphenols/isolation & purification
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Streptozocin
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Polyphenols); 5W494URQ81 (Streptozocin)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170703
[Lr] Last revision date:170703
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170123
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28108362
[Au] Autor:Pannerselvam B; Dharmalingam Jothinathan MK; Rajenderan M; Perumal P; Pudupalayam Thangavelu K; Kim HJ; Singh V; Rangarajulu SK
[Ad] Address:Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025, India.
[Ti] Title:An in vitro study on the burn wound healing activity of cotton fabrics incorporated with phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles in male Wistar albino rats.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;100:187-196, 2017 Mar 30.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In modern therapeutics, chemically synthesized drugs have been reported as causing adverse effects including allergies, rashes, itches, and swelling. For the past few decades, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have widely been applied in medical domains due to their antimicrobial and wound healing properties. In the present study, different concentrations of phytosynthesized AgNPs-saturated cotton dress fabrics - in comparison to cotton fabrics treated with commercial ointment - were tested for 18days to assess their ability to speed the healing of rats' burn wounds. No significant difference in body weight was observed during the course of treatment as compared to the normal rat group. The cotton fabrics observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirmed the distribution of AgNPs in the cotton fibers. Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectrum also authenticated the AgNPs' distribution. At the end of the experimental period, the wound healing efficacy of dressing containing commercial ointment (Burn Heal) was slightly lower than that of treatment containing 100µg/kg of body weight (kg b.w.) of AgNPs. Additionally, it was also observed that the wound contraction area was higher than that of the positive drug 100µg/kg b.w. treated group, which indicates comparatively better-quality activity of ointments with AgNPs with regards to their burn healing properties. The histological and SEM observations showed better fibril alignments in repaired skin when compared with the negative and positive control groups. Perhaps due to the tensile strength of the comparatively higher concentration of nanoparticles, Groups IV and V (which contained the most nanoparticles out of all the groups) showed much better healing properties than did the positive drug treated group VI. Altogether, increased-concentration AgNPs show increased recovery action in comparison to the positive drug treated group. This study provides additional insight into the incorporation of AgNPs in wound dressings for speedy recovery of burn wounds, for improved human welfare.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bandages
Burns/drug therapy
Cotton Fiber
Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
Silver/administration & dosage
Wound Healing/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cassia/metabolism
Male
Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry
Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Rats, Wistar
Silver/chemistry
Silver/metabolism
Silver/therapeutic use
Skin/drug effects
Skin/pathology
Skin/ultrastructure
Tensile Strength
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:3M4G523W1G (Silver)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170703
[Lr] Last revision date:170703
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170122
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28049015
[Au] Autor:Albuquerque PB; Cerqueira MA; Vicente AA; Teixeira JA; Carneiro-da-Cunha MG
[Ad] Address:Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Campus Universitário, s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901, Recife, PE, Brazil; Center of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad
[Ti] Title:Immobilization of bioactive compounds in Cassia grandis galactomannan-based films: Influence on physicochemical properties.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;96:727-735, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Galactomannan extracted from Cassia grandis seeds was used for the production of films containing different concentrations of the bioactive compounds lactoferrin (LF), bioactive peptides (BAPs), and phytosterols. SEM, FTIR, mechanical and thermal properties, colour, moisture content (MC), solubility, water vapour permeability (WVP), and contact angle (CA) were performed evaluating the effect of increasing concentrations of bioactive compounds on the films' physicochemical properties. The immobilization of bioactive compounds leads to films with roughness on their surface, as observed by SEM. The thermal events demonstrated that bioactive compounds avoided the establishment of more hydrogen bonds when compared to galactomannan control film; this behaviour was also confirmed by FTIR. All the studied films had a strong whiteness tendency as well as a yellowish appearance. The addition of Lf reduced MC and solubility values and leads to an increase of WVP and CA values, while the addition of BAPs and phytosterols did not changed the films solubility. The mechanical properties were affected by the addition of bioactive compounds, which improved the stiffness of the films. Galactomannan-based films from C. grandis showed to be a promising structure for the immobilization of biomolecules, pointing at a significant number of possible applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cassia/chemistry
Mannans/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Color
Lactoferrin/chemistry
Mechanical Phenomena
Peptides/chemistry
Permeability
Phytosterols/chemistry
Solubility
Steam
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Mannans); 0 (Peptides); 0 (Phytosterols); 0 (Steam); 11078-30-1 (galactomannan); EC 3.4.21.- (Lactoferrin)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170417
[Lr] Last revision date:170417
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170104
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28035685
[Au] Autor:Rekha PD; Vasavi HS; Vipin C; Saptami K; Arun AB
[Ad] Address:Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India.
[Ti] Title:A medicinal herb Cassia alata attenuates quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
[So] Source:Lett Appl Microbiol;64(3):231-238, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1472-765X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Quorum sensing (QS) has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis in many bacteria, and attenuation of QS is one of the targets of antimicrobial therapy with particular interest in combating drug resistance. This study reports the QS inhibitory activity of metabolites from Cassia alata L. (Ca. alata), an important medicinal herb widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. For investigating the QS inhibition (QSI), the potential of Ca. alata L., initially, metabolites of the leaves extracted using ethanol was tested against biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum wild-type strains. Furthermore, a purified fraction rich in flavonoids (F-AF) was used for establishing QSI activity by studying the inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum, and QS controlled virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The study results showed 50% inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum at 0·05 mg ml concentration of F-AF. In P. aeruginosa PAO1, it inhibited the tested virulence factors and biofilm formation significantly. The F-AF contained major flavonoids namely, quercetin, quercetrin and kaempferol displaying QSI activity individually against the test organisms. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Present study demonstrates the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of metabolites from Cassia alata, an important medicinal herb which is commonly used worldwide in the treatment of infections caused by microorganisms. An extract prepared from the leaves of the plant showed activity against quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and was also effective against attenuating the quorum sensing controlled virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Activity is attributed to the rich flavonoid composition of the plant. Results of the present investigation throw an insight into the possibility of developing drug formulations using the isolated compounds against infections caused by quorum sensing-mediated pathogenicity of bacteria.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Cassia/chemistry
Chromobacterium/drug effects
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects
Quorum Sensing/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
Bacterial Proteins/genetics
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
Chromobacterium/genetics
Chromobacterium/physiology
Flavonoids/isolation & purification
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology
Virulence Factors/genetics
Virulence Factors/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Virulence Factors)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170613
[Lr] Last revision date:170613
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161231
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/lam.12710

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[PMID]: 28006742
[Au] Autor:Tran HN; You SJ; Chao HP
[Ad] Address:Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan; Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan. Electronic address: trannguyenhai2512@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Fast and efficient adsorption of methylene green 5 on activated carbon prepared from new chemical activation method.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;188:322-336, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from golden shower (GS) through a new chemical activation process. The three-stage process comprised (1) hydrothermal carbonization of GS to produce hydrochar, (2) pyrolysis of hydrochar to produce biochar, and (3) subsequent chemical activation of biochar with K CO to obtain GSHBAC. The traditional synthesis processes (i.e., one-stage and two-stage) were also examined for comparison. In the one-stage process, GS that was impregnated with K CO was directly pyrolyzed (GSAC), and the two-stage process consisted of (1) pyrolytic or hydrothermal carbonization to produce biochar or hydrochar and (2) subsequent chemical activation was defined as GSBAC and GSHAC, respectively. The synthesized ACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, point zero charge, and Boehm titration. The adsorption results demonstrated that the MG5 adsorption process was not remarkably affected by neither the solution pH (2.0-10) nor ionic strength (0-0.5 M NaCl). Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium was quickly established, with a low activation energy required for adsorption (Ea; 3.30-27.8 kJ/mol), and the ACs removed 50-73% of the MG5 concentration from solution within 01 min. Desorption studies confirmed the adsorption was irreversible. Thermodynamic experiments suggested that the MG5 adsorption was spontaneous (-ΔG°) and endothermic (+ΔH°), and increased the randomness (+ΔS°) in the system. Although the specific surface areas of the ACs followed the order GSAC (1,413) > GSHAC (1,238) > GSHBAC (903) > GSBAC (812 m /g), the maximum adsorption capacities determined from the Langmuir model (Q ) at 30 °C exhibited the following order: GSHBAC (531) > GSAC (344) > GSHAC (332) > GSBAC (253 mg/g). Oxygenation of the ACs' surface through a hydrothermal process with acrylic acid resulted in a decrease in MG5 adsorption and identified the importance of π-π interactions to the adsorption process. The primary interactions in MG5 adsorption were π-π interactions and pore filling, while hydrogen bonding and n-π interactions were minor contributors. The three-stage process can be regarded as the effective preparation method of AC with a high adsorption capacity toward the cationic dye.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Carbon/chemistry
Cassia
Charcoal/chemistry
Coloring Agents/chemistry
Methylene Blue/analogs & derivatives
Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adsorption
Kinetics
Methylene Blue/chemistry
Solutions
Thermodynamics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Coloring Agents); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 7440-44-0 (Carbon); F1IO2ZP7BU (methylene green); T42P99266K (Methylene Blue)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161223
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27452659
[Au] Autor:Mohd Fauzi F; John CM; Karunanidhi A; Mussa HY; Ramasamy R; Adam A; Bender A
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Center for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, CB2 1EW Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electroni
[Ti] Title:Understanding the mode-of-action of Cassia auriculata via in silico and in vivo studies towards validating it as a long term therapy for type II diabetes.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;197:61-72, 2017 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cassia auriculata (CA) is used as an antidiabetic therapy in Ayurvedic and Siddha practice. This study aimed to understand the mode-of-action of CA via combined cheminformatics and in vivo biological analysis. In particular, the effect of 10 polyphenolic constituents of CA in modulating insulin and immunoprotective pathways were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In silico target prediction was first employed to predict the probability of the polyphenols interacting with key protein targets related to insulin signalling, based on a model trained on known bioactivity data and chemical similarity considerations. Next, CA was investigated in in vivo studies where induced type 2 diabetic rats were treated with CA for 28 days and the expression levels of genes regulating insulin signalling pathway, glucose transporters of hepatic (GLUT2) and muscular (GLUT4) tissue, insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphorylated insulin receptor (AKT), gluconeogenesis (G6PC and PCK-1), along with inflammatory mediators genes (NF-κB, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) were determined by qPCR. RESULTS: In silico analysis shows that several of the top 20 enriched targets predicted for the constituents of CA are involved in insulin signalling pathways e.g. PTPN1, PCK-α, AKT2, PI3K-γ. Some of the predictions were supported by scientific literature such as the prediction of PI3K for epigallocatechin gallate. Based on the in silico and in vivo findings, we hypothesized that CA may enhance glucose uptake and glucose transporter expressions via the IRS signalling pathway. This is based on AKT2 and PI3K-γ being listed in the top 20 enriched targets. In vivo analysis shows significant increase in the expression of IRS, AKT, GLUT2 and GLUT4. CA may also affect the PPAR-γ signalling pathway. This is based on the CA-treated groups showing significant activation of PPAR-γ in the liver compared to control. PPAR-γ was predicted by the in silico target prediction with high normalisation rate although it was not in the top 20 most enriched targets. CA may also be involved in the gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver based on the downregulation of G6PC and PCK-1 genes seen in CA-treated groups. In addition, CA-treated groups also showed decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, CRP and Hb1Ac levels, and increased insulin and C-peptide levels. These findings demonstrate the insulin secretagogue and sensitizer effect of CA. CONCLUSION: Based on both an in silico and in vivo analysis, we propose here that CA mediates glucose/lipid metabolism via the PI3K signalling pathway, and influence AKT thereby causing insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. CA enhances glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporters in particular via the upregulation of GLUT2 and GLUT4. Thus, based on its ability to modulate immunometabolic pathways, CA appears as an attractive long term therapy for T2DM even at relatively low doses.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cassia/chemistry
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
Glucose Transporter Type 2/metabolism
Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism
Insulin/metabolism
Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/metabolism
Liver/drug effects
Liver/metabolism
PPAR gamma/metabolism
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Signal Transduction/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Glucose Transporter Type 2); 0 (Glucose Transporter Type 4); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins); 0 (PPAR gamma); 0 (Plant Extracts); EC 2.7.1.- (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases); EC 2.7.11.1 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170608
[Lr] Last revision date:170608
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160726
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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