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[PMID]: 29364948
[Au] Autor:Sawai A; Tochigi Y; Kavaliova N; Zaboronok A; Warashina Y; Mathis BJ; Mesaki N; Shiraki H; Watanabe K
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
[Ti] Title:MRI reveals menstrually-related muscle edema that negatively affects athletic agility in young women.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191022, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: About 10% of Japanese female athletes are afflicted by menstrually-related edema, mainly in the lower limbs, and, with few studies on this problem, the effect on performance remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate fluid retention in the calf in female students over their menstrual cycle using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine the relationship of MRI changes and athletic performance. DESIGN: The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 phases: menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, early luteal, and late luteal with sampling done in either morning (AM) or afternoon (PM) sessions. At each phase, MRI of the calf (7:00-8:00, 14:00-16:00), body composition and hormones (7:00-8:00), and athletic performance (14:00-16:00) were evaluated. PARTICIPANTS: 13 adult healthy Japanese female students with eumenorrhea. RESULTS: Estradiol levels decreased significantly in the menstrual phase and the follicular phase compared to the early luteal phase (P = 0.001, P = 0.024 respectively). Menstrual phase estradiol levels were significantly lower compared to the ovulatory phase (P = 0.015), and the late luteal phase (P = 0.003). Progesterone levels decreased significantly in the menstrual phase and the follicular phase compared to the ovulatory phase (P = 0.012, P = 0.009 respectively), the early luteal phase (both P = 0.007), and the late luteal phase (P = 0.028, P = 0.029 respectively), and it along with a significant decrease in the ovulatory phase compared to the early luteal phase (P = 0.010). AM T2 signals were significantly lower in the menstrual phase compared to the ovulatory phase (P = 0.043) but not other phases. PM T2 signals increased significantly in the menstrual phase compared to the follicular phase (P = 0.003), ovulatory phase (P = 0.009), and the late luteal phase (P = 0.032), and the difference between the AM and PM values increased significantly in the menstrual phase compared to the other 4 phases (P<0.01). A negative correlation between fluid retention and agility was observed. CONCLUSION: In female students fluid retention during the menstrual phase could be a factor that influences athletic agility.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Athletes
Edema/physiopathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Menstruation
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Body Composition
Estradiol/blood
Female
Humans
Japan
Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging
Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology
Progesterone/blood
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:4G7DS2Q64Y (Progesterone); 4TI98Z838E (Estradiol)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191022

  2 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518692
[Au] Autor:Munk AJL; Zoeller AC; Hennig J
[Ad] Address:Department of Differential and Biological Psychology, University of Giessen, Germany. Electronic address: aisha.j.munk@psychol.uni-giessen.de.
[Ti] Title:Fluctuations of estradiol during women's menstrual cycle: Influences on reactivity towards erotic stimuli in the late positive potential.
[So] Source:Psychoneuroendocrinology;91:11-19, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3360
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: While several studies examined the reactivity towards negative emotional stimuli across women's menstrual cycle, only few investigated responses to positive emotional cues in association with sexual hormones on a neural level. Therefore, the aim of the current EEG-experiment was to study the differential reactivity towards positive (erotic) words during the menstrual cycle (i.e. with fluctuations in the steroids estradiol and progesterone) in the late positive potential (LPP). Regarding reactivity towards erotic stimuli, the LPP is seen as the most relevant ERP-component, as more positive amplitudes in the LPP reflect larger incentive salience and higher arousal. The LPP towards erotic words was expected to be more pronounced during fertile phases of the menstrual cycle (around ovulation). Furthermore, associations with hormonal concentrations of estradiol and progesterone were investigated. METHOD: 19 young, free cycling women were tested in an Erotic Stroop paradigm during the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase in a balanced cross-over design, while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. RESULTS: LPPs in reaction to erotic compared to neutral words were larger in every phase. During the follicular phase and ovulation, higher estradiol-concentrations were associated with more positive LPP-amplitudes towards erotic- than to neutral words. No effects of progesterone, as well as no effects of cycle phase, were evident. Results are being discussed regarding implications for further research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29457758
[Au] Autor:Han L; Padua E; Edelman A; Jensen JT
[Ad] Address:a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA.
[Ti] Title:Appraising cervical mucus: a new approach to evaluating contraceptives.
[So] Source:Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care;23(1):78-83, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1473-0782
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Timing of sample collection represents a major source of variability in studies evaluating the effects of administered agents on cervical mucus in naturally-cycling women. We sought to create and validate an artificial model of the cervical mucus cycle using exogenous E2 and P4 replacement in ovarian suppressed women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective experiment (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02969590) examining cervical mucus changes in six women during natural and artificial menstrual cycles [leuprolide acetate, estradiol transdermal patch (0.05-0.3 mg/day) and progesterone 200 mg/day]. We collected serum and mucus samples at each visit corresponding to early, mid and late follicular, ovulation and mid-luteal time points in the natural and artificial cycles. We evaluated mucus according to the modified Insler score described in the WHO laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. RESULTS: We enrolled healthy women between 27 and 40 years of age. All of the subjects achieved a mucus score of ≥10 both in the natural cycle and during peak estradiol replacement levels (0.3 mg/day) in the artificial cycle. During the simulated luteal phase, all mucus scores were ≤5 (median 3.5; range 1-5), similar to scores seen in the luteal phase of natural cycles (median 1; range 1-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our artificial cycle model (leuprolide acetate suppression) and dose escalation with estradiol patches produced favourable cervical mucus with mucus scores similar to those in the periovulatory phase of natural menstrual cycles. Additional studies are needed to validate the model for evaluation of mucus effects of contraceptive agents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/13625187.2018.1437134

  4 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29291683
[Au] Autor:Zywicki ME; Blohowiak SE; Magness RR; Segar JL; Kling PJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (Zywicki, Blohowiak, Kling).
[Ti] Title:Impact of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on plasma chemistry values in ewes.
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;30(2):238-244, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1943-4936
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Normative data for plasma chemistry values in pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive age ewes are scant. Availability of data would aid monitoring of ewe health for both research and veterinary medicine. We determined specific plasma chemistry 95% confidence reference intervals (RIs) in non-pregnant and pregnant ewes. Mixed Western-breed ewes were grouped based on phase of ovarian cycle: luteal ( n = 15), follicular ( n = 17), or late-gestation pregnant ( n = 102). Plasma samples were collected for analysis on a commercial biochemical analyzer. For RIs, chemistry panels for the 3 groups of ewes included nutrients and metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and bilirubin), enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and micronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and chloride). Sample chemistry values for glucose and total protein in pregnant ewes were lower than in follicular ewes; cholesterol was lower in pregnant and luteal ewes than in follicular ewes. In addition, total bilirubin in pregnant ewes differed from that in luteal ewes, and that in follicular ewes also differed from luteal ewes. ALP in pregnant ewes was higher than other groups; phosphorus in pregnant ewes was lower than in luteal ewes. Iron was higher in pregnant ewes than in luteal ewes, with iron in luteal ewes lower than in follicular ewes. These data provide clinical RIs comparing pregnant and non-pregnant ewes for use in monitoring ewe health in both human research and veterinary medicine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1177/1040638717752217

  5 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29260590
[Au] Autor:Rosetta L; Thalabard JC; Tanniou J; Ducot B; Maitrot-Mantelet L; Rousset-Jablonski C; Bohet A; Bouyer J; Chimènes A; Slama R
[Ad] Address:a UPR 2147 , CNRS , Paris , France.
[Ti] Title:Ovulatory status and menstrual cycle duration assessed by self-collection of urine on pH strips in a population-based sample of French women not using hormonal contraception.
[So] Source:Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care;22(6):450-458, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1473-0782
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Assessing menstrual cycle function in the general population using a non-invasive method is challenging, both in non-industrialized and industrialized countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Observatory of Fecundity in France (Obseff) recruited on a nationwide basis a random sample of 943 women aged 18-44 years with unprotected intercourse. A sub-study was set up to assess the characteristics of a menstrual cycle by using a non-invasive method adapted to the general population. Voluntary women were sent a collection kit by the post and requested to collect urine samples on pH strips, together with daily recording of reproductive-related information during a full menstrual cycle. A total of 48 women collected urine every day, whereas 160 women collected urine every other day. Immunoassays were used to measure pregnanediol-3-α-glucuronide, estrone-3-glucuronide and creatinine. Ovulation occurrence and follicular phase duration were estimated using ovulation detection algorithms, compared to a gold standard consisting of three external experts in reproductive medicine. RESULTS: Every other day urine collection gave consistent results in terms of ovulation detection with every day collection (intraclass coefficient of correlation, 0.84, 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.98). The proportion of anovulatory menstrual cycles was 8%. The characteristics of the ovulatory cycles were length 28 (26-34), follicular phase 16 (12-23), luteal phase 13 (10-16) days median (10th-90th percentiles). DISCUSSION-CONCLUSION: Assessing menstrual cycle characteristics based on urine sample spot only collected every other day in population-based studies through a non-invasive, well accepted and cost-limited procedure not requiring any direct contact with the survey team appears feasible and accurate.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/13625187.2017.1410881

  6 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517803
[Au] Autor:Jacobson MH; Howards PP; Darrow LA; Meadows JW; Kesner JS; Spencer JB; Terrell ML; Marcus M
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Thyroid hormones and menstrual cycle function in a longitudinal cohort of premenopausal women.
[So] Source:Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3016
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. METHODS: Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function. Serum thyroid hormones were measured before the menstrual function study began. Women then collected first morning urine voids and completed daily bleeding diaries every day for three cycles. Urinary oestrogen and progesterone metabolites (estrone 3-glucuronide (E 3G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G)) and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured and adjusted for creatinine (Cr). RESULTS: Total thyroxine (T ) concentrations were positively associated with Pd3G and E 3G. Women with higher (vs lower) T had greater luteal phase maximum Pd3G (Pd3G = 11.7 µg/mg Cr for women with high T vs Pd3G = 9.5 and 8.1 µg/mg Cr for women with medium and low T , respectively) and greater follicular phase maximum E 3G (E 3G = 41.7 ng/mg Cr for women with high T vs E 3G = 34.3 and 33.7 ng/mg Cr for women with medium and low T , respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations were associated with subtle differences in menstrual cycle function outcomes, particularly sex steroid hormone levels in healthy women. Results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between thyroid function and the menstrual cycle, and may have implications for fertility and chronic disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/ppe.12462

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[PMID]: 29401269
[Au] Autor:Bishop CV; Stouffer RL; Takahashi DL; Mishler EC; Wilcox MC; Slayden OD; True CA
[Ad] Address:Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
[Ti] Title:Chronic hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet beginning at puberty reduces fertility and increases metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy in young adult, female macaques.
[So] Source:Hum Reprod;, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2350
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:STUDY QUESTION: What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide. Female macaques receiving T and WSD beginning at puberty show increased metabolic, ovarian and uterine dysfunction in the non-pregnant state by 3 years of treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The same cohort of female rhesus macaques continued treatments from the time of puberty (2.5 years) to 4 years, including this fertility trial. There were four groups (n = 9-10/group): controls (C), T-treated (T; average total serum level 1.35 ng/ml), WSD-treated, and combined T and WSD-treated (T + WSD) females. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Females, which were typically having menstrual cycles, were paired for 4 days with a proven male breeder following the late follicular rise in circulating estradiol (≥100 pg/ml). The presence of sperm in the reproductive tract was used to confirm mating. Animals went through up to three successive rounds of mating until they became pregnant, as confirmed by a rise in circulating mCG during the late luteal phase and ultrasound evidence of a gestational sac at Day 30 post-mating (GD30). Placental vascular parameters were also measured at GD30. Metabolic measurements consisted of fasting levels of blood glucose and insulin at approximately GD30, 60, 90 and 115, as well as an intravenous (iv) glucose tolerance test (GTT) at GD115. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: While all animals in the C and T groups eventually became pregnant, T-treated females on average had a greater interval to achieve pregnancy (P < 0.05). However, only ~70% of animals in the WSD and T + WSD groups became pregnant (P < 0.004). One pregnancy in T + WSD group resulted in an anembryonic pregnancy which miscarried around GD60, while another T + WSD female conceived with a rare identical twin pregnancy which required cessation due to impending fetal loss at GD106. Thus, the number of viable fetuses was less in the T + WSD group, compared to C, T or WSD. Placental blood volume at GD30 was reduced in all treatments compared to the C group (P < 0.05). Maternal P4 levels were elevated in the WSD (P < 0.03) group and E2 levels were elevated in T + WSD animals (P < 0.05). An increase in serum A4 levels throughout gestation was observed in all groups (P < 0.03) except WSD (P = 0.3). All groups displayed increased insulin resistance with pregnancy, as measured from the ivGTT during pregnancy. However, only the T + WSD group had a significant increase in fasting glucose levels and glucose clearance during the GTT indicating a worsened glucose tolerance. WSD treatment decreased female fetuses third trimester weights, but there was an interaction between WSD and T to increase female fetal weight when normalized to maternal weight. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The small number of pregnancies in the WSD and T + WSD groups hampers the ability to make definitive conclusions on effects during gestation. Also, the high fertility rate in the controls indicates the cohort was at their breeding prime age, which may impair the ability to observe subtle fertility defects. The low number of fetuses used for male and female analysis requires additional studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The current findings strongly suggest that both hyperandrogenemia and obesity have detrimental effects on fertility and gestation in primates, which may be directly relevant to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): All ONPRC Cores and Units were supported by NIH Grant P51 OD011092 awarded to ONPRC. Research reported in this publication was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P50HD071836 (to R.L.S.). The authors have no competing conflict of interests to disclose.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/humrep/dey013

  8 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29338136
[Au] Autor:Florêncio RS; Meira MSB; Cunha MVD; Camarço MNCR; Castro EC; Finotti MCCF; Oliveira VA
[Ad] Address:Humana Medicina Reprodutiva - Goiania, GO.
[Ti] Title:Plasmatic estradiol concentration in the mid-luteal phase is a good prognostic factor for clinical and ongoing pregnancies, during stimulated cycles of in vitro fertilization.
[So] Source:JBRA Assist Reprod;22(1):8-14, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1518-0557
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive efficiency of serum estradiol (E ) concentration in the mid-luteal phase regarding chemical, clinical, and ongoing pregnancies, in patients subjected to IVF/ICSI with fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: One hundred and forty-three patients undergoing IVF/ICSI met all the inclusion criteria for the present study. Most of the patients used antagonists, final maturation was achieved with recombinant chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), and embryo transfer took place on days 3 to 5, but mostly on day 4. The luteal phase was supplemented with estradiol valerate 6 mg/day and vaginal micronized progesterone 600 mg/day. There was no exclusion of patients in the embryo transfer group due to age or ovarian reserve. All patients with estradiol and chorionic gonadotrophin (ßHCG) dosage on the day of transfer, day 7, were included. We assessed the following variables, initially regarding age: number of eggs collected, formed embryos, embryos transferred, day of transfer, transfer type, estradiol and chorionic gonadotropin. Next, we evaluated these elements at three different ranges of estradiol concentrations (<200 pg/ml, 200-500 pg/ml, and >500 pg/ml), comparing these parameters in pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) patients. RESULTS: Data analysis by age group in P and NP patients showed significant differences in the mean values of the variables E and ßHCG, TD7. Mean serum estradiol levels in P and NP in the three age groups were: <35 years, 835/417 p=0.0006, 35-39 years 833/434 p=0.0118, >39 years, 841/394 p=0.0012. There was also a significant difference in pregnancy rates in the group >500 pg/ml of estradiol concentration (63.4%, p=0.0096). The likelihood of chemical and clinical abortions for the estradiol ranges were: 38.46%, involving the two first ranges versus 15.15% for a concentration >500 pg/ml, p=0.0412 and 5.26% for a concentration >900 pg/ml, p=0.0105. The Pearson correlation coefficient for HCG and estradiol was r=0.5108. CONCLUSION: This study showed the prognostic value of E in the mid-luteal phase (TD7) for chemical, clinical, and ongoing pregnancies, and its concentration suggested that there is a moderately positive correlation with ßHCG levels.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5935/1518-0557.20180005

  9 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29190387
[Au] Autor:Bishop CV; Mishler EC; Takahashi DL; Reiter TE; Bond KR; True CA; Slayden OD; Stouffer RL
[Ad] Address:Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
[Ti] Title:Chronic hyperandrogenemia in the presence and absence of a western-style diet impairs ovarian and uterine structure/function in young adult rhesus monkeys.
[So] Source:Hum Reprod;33(1):128-139, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2350
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:STUDY QUESTION: Does chronic hyperandrogenemia beginning at menarche, in the absence and presence of a western-style diet (WSD), alter ovarian and uterine structure-function in young adult rhesus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER: Phenotypic alterations in ovarian and uterine structure/function were induced by exogenous testosterone (T), and compounded in the presence of a WSD (T+WSD). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of PCOS and is observed in adolescent girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of disease symptoms. Obesity is often associated with hyperandrogenemia and it is hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction exacerbates PCOS symptoms. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Macaque females (n = 40) near the onset of menarche (~2.5 years of age) were assigned to a 2 by 2 factorial cohort design. Effects on reproductive characteristics were evaluated after 3 years of treatment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were fed either a normal balanced diet (n = 20) or a WSD (n = 20). Additionally, implants containing cholesterol (n = 20) or T (n = 20) were implanted subcutaneously to elevate serum T approximately 5-fold. This resulted in treatment groups of controls (C), T, WSD and T+WSD (n = 10/group). Vaginal swabbing was performed daily to detect menses. After 3 years of treatment, daily serum samples from one menstrual cycle were assayed for hormone levels. Ovarian structure was evaluated in the early follicular phase by 3D/4D ultrasound. Uterine endometrial size and ovarian/luteal vascular function was also evaluated in subgroups (n = 6/group) in the late follicular and mid-luteal phases by 3D/4D ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, respectively. Expression of steroid hormone receptors and markers of decidualization and endometrial receptivity were assessed in endometrial biopsies at mid-luteal phase. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Approximately 90% of menstrual cycles appeared ovulatory with no differences in frequency or duration between groups. Serum estradiol (E2) levels during the early follicular phase were greatest in the T alone group, but reduced in T+WSD (P < 0.02). Serum LH was elevated in the T group (P < 0.04); however, there were no differences among groups in FSH levels (P > 0.13). Ovarian size at menses tended to be greater in the WSD groups (P < 0.07) and antral follicles ≥1 mm were more numerous in the T+WSD group (P < 0.05). Also, females in T and T+WSD groups displayed polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at greater frequency than C or WSD groups (P < 0.01). Progesterone (P4) levels during the luteal phase were reduced in the T+WSD group compared to C and T groups (P < 0.05). Blood volume (BV) and vascular flow (VF) within the corpus luteum was reduced in all treatment groups compared to C (P < 0.01, P = 0.03), with the WSD alone group displaying the slowest BV and VF (P < 0.05). C and WSD groups displayed endometrial glands at mid-luteal phase with low estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) mRNA and immunohistochemical staining in the functionalis zone, but appreciable PGR in the stroma. In contrast, T and T+WSD treatment resulted in glands with less secretory morphology, high ESR1 expression in the glandular epithelium and low PGR in the stroma. Endometrial levels of TIMP3 and MMP26 mRNA and immunostaining were also decreased in the T and T+WSD groups, whereas AR expression was unchanged. LARGE SCALE DATA: None. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Females are young adults, so effects could change as they reach prime reproductive age. The T level generated for hyperandrogenemia may be somewhat greater than the 3-4-fold increase observed in adolescent girls, but markedly less than those observed in male monkeys or adolescent boys. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Alterations to ovarian and uterine structure-function observed in T and, in particular, T+WSD-treated female macaques are consistent with some of the features observed in women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and suggest impaired fertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Research reported in this publication was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P50HD071836 (to RLS). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. Additional funding was provided by Office of the Director, NIH under Award Number P51OD011092 (Support for National Primate Research Center). Authors declare no competing interests.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/humrep/dex338

  10 / 11926 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29180346
[Au] Autor:Sohda S; Suzuki K; Igari I
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Relationship Between the Menstrual Cycle and Timing of Ovulation Revealed by New Protocols: Analysis of Data from a Self-Tracking Health App.
[So] Source:J Med Internet Res;19(11):e391, 2017 Nov 27.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8871
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: There are many mobile phone apps aimed at helping women map their ovulation and menstrual cycles and facilitating successful conception (or avoiding pregnancy). These apps usually ask users to input various biological features and have accumulated the menstrual cycle data of a vast number of women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to clarify how the data obtained from a self-tracking health app for female mobile phone users can be used to improve the accuracy of prediction of the date of next ovulation. METHODS: Using the data of 7043 women who had reliable menstrual and ovulation records out of 8,000,000 users of a mobile phone app of a health care service, we analyzed the relationship between the menstrual cycle length, follicular phase length, and luteal phase length. Then we fitted a linear function to the relationship between the length of the menstrual cycle and timing of ovulation and compared it with the existing calendar-based methods. RESULTS: The correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the follicular phase was stronger than the correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the luteal phase, and there was a positive correlation between the lengths of past and future menstrual cycles. A strong positive correlation was also found between the mean length of past cycles and the length of the follicular phase. The correlation between the mean cycle length and the luteal phase length was also statistically significant. In most of the subjects, our method (ie, the calendar-based method based on the optimized function) outperformed the Ogino method of predicting the next ovulation date. Our method also outperformed the ovulation date prediction method that assumes the middle day of a mean menstrual cycle as the date of the next ovulation. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of subjects allowed us to capture the relationships between the lengths of the menstrual cycle, follicular phase, and luteal phase in more detail than previous studies. We then demonstrated how the present calendar methods could be improved by the better grouping of women. This study suggested that even without integrating various biological metrics, the dataset collected by a self-tracking app can be used to develop formulas that predict the ovulation day when the data are aggregated. Because the method that we developed requires data only on the first day of menstruation, it would be the best option for couples during the early stages of their attempt to have a baby or for those who want to avoid the cost associated with other methods. Moreover, the result will be the baseline for more advanced methods that integrate other biological metrics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.2196/jmir.7468


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