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[PMID]: 25024817
[Au] Autor:Le V; Syed S; Vega KJ; Sharma T; Madhoun MF; Srinivasan N; Houchen CW
[Ad] Address:Vu Le, Saqib Syed, Kenneth J Vega, Tushar Sharma, Mohammad F Madhoun, Nandakumar Srinivasan, Courtney W Houchen, Division of Digestive Disease and Nutrition, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States....
[Ti] Title:Patient prompting of their physician resulted in increased colon cancer screening referrals.
[So] Source:World J Gastrointest Oncol;6(7):257-62, 2014 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1948-5204
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: To determine whether a communication instrument provided to patients prior to their primary care physician (PCP) visit initiates a conversation with their PCP about colorectal cancer screening (CRC-S), impacting screening referral rates in fully insured and underinsured patients. METHODS: A prospective randomized control study was performed at a single academic center outpatient internal medicine (IRMC, underinsured) and family medicine (FMRC, insured) resident clinics prior to scheduled visits. In the intervention group, a pamphlet about the benefit of CRC-S and a reminder card were given to patients before the scheduled visit for prompting of CRC-S referral by their PCP. The main outcome measured was frequency of CRC-S referral in each clinic after intervention. RESULTS: In the IRMC, 148 patients participated, a control group of 72 patients (40F and 32M) and 76 patients (48F and 28M) in the intervention group. Referrals for CRC-S occurred in 45/72 (63%) of control vs 70/76 (92%) in the intervention group (P ≤ 0.001). In the FMRC, 126 patients participated, 66 (39F:27M) control and 60 (33F:27M) in the intervention group. CRC-S referrals occurred in 47/66 (71%) of controls vs 56/60 (98%) in the intervention group (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patient initiated physician prompting produced a significant referral increase for CRC-S in underinsured and insured patient populations. Additional investigation aimed at increasing CRC-S acceptance is warranted.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140715
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4251/wjgo.v6.i7.257

  2 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24926827
[Au] Autor:Wong G; Howard K; Webster AC; Morton RL; Chapman JR; Craig JC
[Ad] Address:1 Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead. 2 Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney. 3 Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Hospital, NSW, Australia. 4 Address correspondence to: Germaine Wong, Ph.D., Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, NSW, Australia.
[Ti] Title:How is Health Economics Relevant to Transplant Clinicians?
[So] Source:Transplantation;98(2):124-30, 2014 Jul 27.
[Is] ISSN:1534-6080
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Decision making is complex and difficult in clinical practice. Clinicians are often faced with a large range of possible alternative decision options, each with their own consequences and trade-offs. Health economics methods enable informed decision making on how best to allocate limited resources that could lead to most health gains. Economic evaluation in particular is highly relevant in transplantation medicine. Transplantation is an expensive intervention, but it improves the quality of life and survival of people with chronic diseases. The balance between health care resource use and the optimal health gains is useful not only to decision-makers, but also to consumers, clinicians, and researchers. This article is an overview of the concepts of economic evaluation in the setting of transplantation and highlights the applicability of these concepts in clinical transplantation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000233

  3 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024273
[Au] Autor:Cathey JT; Marr JS
[Ti] Title:Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):519, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru081

  4 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024272
[Au] Autor:Dondorp AM; Haniffa R
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford, UK Arjen@tropmedres.ac.
[Ti] Title:Critical care and severe sepsis in resource poor settings.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):453-4, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru099

  5 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24980556
[Au] Autor:Johansson MA; Vasconcelos PF; Staples JE
[Ad] Address:Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA mjohansson@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Title:The whole iceberg: estimating the incidence of yellow fever virus infection from the number of severe cases.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):482-7, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Like many infectious agents, yellow fever (YF) virus only causes disease in a proportion of individuals it infects and severe illness only represents the tip of the iceberg relative to the total number of infections, the more critical factor for virus transmission. METHODS: We compiled data on asymptomatic infections, mild disease, severe disease (fever with jaundice or hemorrhagic symptoms) and fatalities from 11 studies in Africa and South America between 1969 and 2011. We used a Bayesian model to estimate the probability of each infection outcome. RESULTS: For YF virus infections, the probability of being asymptomatic was 0.55 (95% credible interval [CI] 0.37-0.74), mild disease 0.33 (95% CI 0.13-0.52) and severe disease 0.12 (95% CI 0.05-0.26). The probability of death for people experiencing severe disease was 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: In outbreak situations where only severe cases may initially be detected, we estimated that there may be between one and seventy infections that are either asymptomatic or cause mild disease for every severe case identified. As it is generally only the most severe cases that are recognized and reported, these estimates will help improve the understanding of the burden of disease and the estimation of the potential risk of spread during YF outbreaks.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru092

  6 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24980555
[Au] Autor:Mirzaei A; Schweynoch C; Rouhani S; Parvizi P; Schönian G
[Ad] Address:Parasitology Department, Medical Faculty, University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charitè, Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany amirzaeii@yahoo.com....
[Ti] Title:Diversity of Leishmania species and of strains of Leishmania major isolated from desert rodents in different foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):502-12, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease which may show various symptoms. Genetic diversity of the parasite is suggested to be one of the factors influencing the clinical manifestation of the disease. METHODS: This study used PCR for the detection and identification of leishmanial parasites at the species level and applied a multilocus microsatellite typing approach for investigating the genetic diversity of Leishmania major isolated from captured rodents in two foci of ZCL in Iran: Turkemen Sahara and Fars province. RESULTS: ITS1-rDNA amplification and subsequent RFLP analyses were performed using DNA extracted from the rodents' ears. Approximately one third of the rodents tested positive for Leishmania; in all rodents L. major was the predominating infecting agent. Seven Rhombomys opimus were positive for L. turanica DNA and one for both L. major and L. turanica. DNA of L. infantum was identified in one Rh. opimus. Seventeen strains of L. major, 15 from Turkemen Sahara and two from Fars province, isolated from different rodents were tested for variation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Ten different MLMT genotypes were observed. They were compared to 89 previously published microsatellite profiles obtained for strains of L. major of different geographical origin. Bayesian model-based and genetic distance based approaches confirmed that strains from Turkemen Sahara and from Fars are genetically different and belong to different genetic groups, largely corresponding to their geographical origins. DISCUSSION: The considerable genetic variability of L. major might be related to differences in reservoir host and/or to the existence of different populations of the vector, Phlebotomus papatasi.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru085

  7 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24970276
[Au] Autor:Rao VG; Bhat J; Yadav R; Muniyandi M; Bhondeley MK; Sharada MA; Chadha VK; Wares DF
[Ad] Address:Regional Medical Research Centre for Tribals (Indian Council of Medical Research), Nagpur Road, P.O. Garha, Jabalpur 482 003, Madhya Pradesh, India drvgrao@rediffmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Tobacco smoking: a major risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis - evidence from a cross-sectional study in central India.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):474-81, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: This paper provides information on the association of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption with pulmonary TB (PTB) in central India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional TB prevalence survey was conducted in Jabalpur district of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The information on tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption was collected from individuals aged ≥15 years. Using logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for PTB were identified. RESULTS: A total of 94 559 individuals provided information on tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Persons aged 35-54 years and 55 years and above had, respectively, a 2.19 (95% CI 1.57-3.07) and a 3.26 (95% CI 2.23-4.77) times higher risk of developing PTB compared to persons aged below 35 years. Males had a 2.35 (95% CI 1.66-3.32) times higher risk than females. Tribals (indigenous population) had a 2.32 (95% CI 1.68-3.21) times higher risk than non-tribal population. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio for mild, moderate and heavy tobacco smokers were 2.28, 2.51 and 2.74 respectively as compared to non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was not found to be a risk factor on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking is significantly associated with PTB in this central Indian district. Smoking cessation services need to be integrated into the activities of the TB control programme.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru082

  8 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24942900
[Au] Autor:Elyan D; Wasfy M; El Mohammady H; Hassan K; Monestersky J; Noormal B; Oyofo B
[Ad] Address:U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3), PSC 452, Box 5000, FPO AE 09835-0007, Cairo, Egypt diaa.elyan.eg@med.navy.mil....
[Ti] Title:Non-bacterial etiologies of diarrheal diseases in Afghanistan.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):461-5, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Microbial diarrheal diseases are one of the leading causes of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the main causes of non-bacterial diarrhea in Afghanistan. METHODS: A total of 699 stools were collected from children aged under 5 years who presented with diarrhea at Indira Gandhi and Kandahar hospitals. Frozen aliquots were preserved for screening against rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, when bacterial cultures tested negative. Tests were performed at the hospitals after laboratory staff were trained and provided with enzyme-immunoassays and equipment. Results were confirmed at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt. RESULTS: Of the samples tested, 71.9% (503/699) were infected with one or more pathogens. However, the majority (85.8%; 432/503) showed single infections: rotavirus (72.2%; 329/432), Cryptosporidium (14.1%; 61/432), Giardia (5.1%; 22/432), astrovirus (2.3%; 10/432), adenovirus (1.6%; 7/432) and norovirus (0.7%; 3/432). The remaining 14% (71/503) showed mixed infections of the tested pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Non-bacterial pathogens were identified that could enable health officials to adopt more effective treatment and control measures for diarrhea in Afghanistan.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru096

  9 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24942898
[Au] Autor:Esmaeili S; Esfandiari B; Maurin M; Gouya MM; Shirzadi MR; Amiri FB; Mostafavi E
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (Akanlu), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Kabudar-Ahang, Hamadan, Iran....
[Ti] Title:Serological survey of tularemia among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in Iran.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):516-8, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Human infections often occur through manipulation of infected animals or animal carcasses. METHODS: In this study, we determined the tularemia seroprevalence in butchers and slaughterhouse workers in 10 counties of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran. RESULTS: A mean seroprevalence of 6.5% for IgG antibodies against F. tularensis was seen. The highest seropositivity rates were observed in the counties of Zabol and Nikhshahr. There was no difference in the seroprevalence rates between butchers and slaughterhouse workers (p=0.25). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that tularemia is endemic in Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru094

  10 / 1831821 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24907711
[Au] Autor:Strøm GE; Tellevik MG; Hanevik K; Langeland N; Blomberg B
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway National Centre for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway gro_strom@hotmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Comparison of four methods for extracting DNA from dried blood on filter paper for PCR targeting the mitochondrial Plasmodium genome.
[So] Source:Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg;108(8):488-94, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3503
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Few studies comparing multiple methods for DNA extraction from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper for PCR targeting the Plasmodium genome have been done. METHODS: Frequently-used methods for DNA extraction from DBS using Chelex-100, InstaGene Matrix, QIAamp DNA Mini Kit and TE buffer were compared on a dilution series of a standardized Plasmodium falciparum positive sample. The two DNA extraction methods resulting in the lowest limits of detection were compared by testing both on 31 P. falciparum positive samples collected under field conditions and stored for 4 years. RESULTS: The Chelex-100, InstaGene Matrix and QIAamp DNA Mini Kit methods performed similarly, resulting in the detection of 0.5 to 2 parasites per microliter (p/µl). The same 13 clinical samples (13/31; 42%) were positive using both DNA extraction methods with the lowest limits of detection. CONCLUSIONS: Simple and low-cost methods can be sensitive and useful in extracting DNA from DBS. Poor results on stored clinical DBS indicate that further studies on the impact of storage duration and conditions, and choice of filter paper should be performed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/trstmh/tru084


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