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[PMID]: 26232429
[Au] Autor:Zhang Z; Amorosa LF; Coyle SM; Macor MA; Lubitz SE; Carson JL; Birnbaum MJ; Lee LY; Haimovich B
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903;...
[Ti] Title:Proteolytic Cleavage of AMPKα and Intracellular MMP9 Expression Are Both Required for TLR4-Mediated mTORC1 Activation and HIF-1α Expression in Leukocytes.
[So] Source:J Immunol;195(5):2452-60, 2015 Sep 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:LPS-induced TLR4 activation alters cellular bioenergetics and triggers proteolytic cleavage of AMPKα and HIF-1α expression in leukocytes. In human leukocytes, and more specifically neutrophils, AMPKα cleavage yields 55- and 35-kDa protein fragments. In this study, we address the mechanism by which AMPKα is cleaved and its relevance to human health. Our data indicate that AMPKα cleavage is linked to MMP9 expression and that both are required for mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 and S6K1 activation and HIF-1α expression in LPS-stimulated human and mice leukocytes. Three key observations support this conclusion. First, no changes in AMPKα and TLR4 signaling intermediates (mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1/S6 kinase 1/HIF-1α) were detected in LPS-stimulated MMP9-deficient mice leukocytes. Second, rMMP9 cleaved human AMPKα ex vivo, producing degradation products similar in size to those detected following LPS stimulation. Third, MMP9 inhibitors prevented AMPKα degradation and HIF-1α expression in LPS-activated human leukocytes, whereas AMPK activators blocked MMP9 and HIF-1α expression. Significantly, AMPKα degradation, MMP9, and TLR4 signaling intermediates were all detected in leukocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and patients following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Plasma from these two patient cohorts induced AMPKα cleavage and TLR4 signaling intermediates in healthy donor leukocytes and either a TLR4 inhibitor or polymyxin prevented these outcomes. Detection of AMPKα degradation, MMP9 expression, and TLR4 signaling intermediates described in this study in leukocytes, the most readily available human cells for clinical investigation, may provide a powerful tool for further exploring the role of TLR4 signaling in human diseases and lead to identification of new, context-specific therapeutic modalities for precision medicine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500944

  2 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26188684
[Au] Autor:Colabianchi N; Griffin JL; Slater SJ; O'Malley PM; Johnston LD
[Ad] Address:Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address: colabian@umich.edu....
[Ti] Title:The Whole-of-School Approach to Physical Activity: Findings From a National Sample of U.S. Secondary Students.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):387-94, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The IOM recommends schools adopt a Whole-of-School (WOS) approach-one that is comprehensive, coordinated, and provides opportunities for students to be active before, during, and after school. This study examined, in a nationally representative sample of secondary students in the conterminous U.S., (1) the degree of implementation of a WOS approach and (2) the association between WOS implementation and student physical activity. METHODS: A WOS index-based on six school practices-was calculated using self-reported school administrator data gathered in 2010 and 2011 (N=1,031). Student-level data were obtained from nationally representative samples of eighth-, tenth-, and 12th-grade students during the same years (eighth grade, nschools=96, nstudents=3,689; tenth/12th grades, nschools=178, nstudents=4,670). Multilevel Poisson models were estimated in 2013-2014 to examine the relationship between the WOS index and self-reported physical activity. RESULTS: Few students attended schools with high WOS index scores. Middle school students attending schools with higher WOS index scores were physically active for at least 60 minutes on more days than students attending schools with lower WOS index scores (exp[]=1.031, 95% CI=1.008, 1.054). The WOS index score was not associated with physical activity among high school students. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that many schools are not offering the full array of practices comprising a WOS approach to physical activity, especially at the high school level. Yet, middle school students could have increased physical activity levels if schools were to implement a WOS approach to physical activity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26091927
[Au] Autor:Mooney SJ; Joshi S; Cerd M; Quinn JW; Beard JR; Kennedy GJ; Benjamin EO; Ompad DC; Rundle AG
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York....
[Ti] Title:Patterns of Physical Activity Among Older Adults in New York City: A Latent Class Approach.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):e13-22, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Little research to date has explored typologies of physical activity among older adults. An understanding of physical activity patterns may help to both determine the health benefits of different types of activity and target interventions to increase activity levels in older adults. This analysis, conducted in 2014, used a latent class analysis approach to characterize patterns of physical activity in a cohort of older adults. METHODS: A total of 3,497 men and women aged 65-75 years living in New York City completed the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in 2011. PASE scale items were used to classify subjects into latent classes. Multinomial regression was then used to relate individual and neighborhood characteristics to class membership. RESULTS: Five latent classes were identified: "least active," "walkers," "domestic/gardening," "athletic," and "domestic/gardening athletic." Individual-level predictors, including more education, higher income, and better self-reported health, were associated with membership in the more-active classes, particularly the athletic classes. Residential characteristics, including living in single-family housing and living in the lower-density boroughs of New York City, were predictive of membership in one of the domestic/gardening classes. Class membership was associated with BMI even after controlling for total PASE score. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that individual and neighborhood characteristics are associated with distinct physical activity patterns in a group of older urban adults. These patterns are associated with body habitus independent of overall activity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26091926
[Au] Autor:Pomeranz JL; Chriqui JF
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health, and Center for Obesity Research and Education, College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: jennifer.pomeranz@temple.edu.
[Ti] Title:The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Analysis of Program Administration and Food Law Definitions.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):428-36, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26091924
[Au] Autor:Cropsey KL; Clark CB; Zhang X; Hendricks PS; Jardin BF; Lahti AC
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry. Electronic address: kcropsey@uab.edu....
[Ti] Title:Race and Medication Adherence Moderate Cessation Outcomes in Criminal Justice Smokers.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):335-44, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Smokers in the criminal justice system represent some of the most disadvantaged smokers in the U.S., as they have high rates of smoking (70%-80%) and are primarily uninsured, with low access to medical interventions. Few studies have examined smoking-cessation interventions in racially diverse smokers, and none have examined these characteristics among individuals supervised in the community. The purpose of this study is to determine if four sessions of standard behavioral counseling for smoking cessation would differentially aid smoking cessation for African American versus non-Hispanic white smokers under community corrections supervision. DESIGN: An RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred smokers under community corrections supervision were recruited between 2009 and 2013 via flyers posted at the community corrections offices. INTERVENTION: All participants received 12 weeks of bupropion plus brief physician advice to quit smoking. Half of the participants received four sessions of 20-30 minutes of smoking-cessation counseling following tobacco treatment guidelines, whereas half received no additional counseling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Generalized estimating equations were used to determine factors associated with smoking abstinence across time. Analyses were conducted in 2014. RESULTS: The end-of-treatment abstinence rate across groups was 9.4%, with no significant main effects indicating group differences. However, behavioral counseling had a differential effect on cessation: whites who received counseling had higher quit rates than whites who did not receive counseling. Conversely, African Americans who did not receive counseling had higher average cessation rates than African Americans who received counseling. Overall, medication-adherent African American smokers had higher abstinence rates relative to other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in smoking cessation are not evident among those who are adherent to medication. More research is needed to better understand the differential effect that behavioral counseling might have on treatment outcomes between white and African American smokers under community corrections supervision.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26071864
[Au] Autor:Steinberg ML; Williams JM; Li Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick. Electronic address: marc.steinberg@rutgers.edu.
[Ti] Title:Poor Mental Health and Reduced Decline in Smoking Prevalence.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):362-9, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Although smoking prevalence has been declining for smokers without mental illness, it has been static for those with mental illness. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in smoking rates and trajectories of smoking prevalence in the often-overlooked population of smokers with poor mental health, compared with those with better mental health. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2010 to examine the relationship between poor mental health and current, daily, and intermittent tobacco use in New Jersey. Data were analyzed in 2014. RESULTS: During 2001-2010, current, daily, and intermittent smoking prevalence was higher in participants with poor mental health than those with better mental health. In addition, with the exception of 2 years, prevalence rates remained unchanged in this 10-year period for those with poor mental health while they significantly decreased for those with better mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The disparity in which smokers with poor mental health are more likely to be current smokers and less likely to be never smokers as compared with those with better mental health has increased over time. These data suggest the need to more closely examine tobacco control and treatment policies in smokers with behavioral health issues. It is possible that tobacco control strategies are not reaching those with poor mental health, or, if they are, their messages are not translating into successful cessation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25896193
[Au] Autor:Little MA; Derefinko KJ; Colvin L; Ebbert JO; Bursac Z; Talcott GW; Richey PA; Klesges RC
[Ad] Address:Department of Preventive Medicine and Center for Population Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic address: mlittl18@uthsc.edu....
[Ti] Title:The Prevalence of E-cigarette Use in a Sample of U.S. Air Force Recruits.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):402-8, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing markedly in the general population. Yet, remarkably little research exists to examine these ongoing trends in at-risk populations, and nothing is known about the prevalence of e-cigarette use among military personnel. The purpose of the current study is to provide recent (2013-2014) data on the prevalence of regular e-cigarette use in a population of recruits prior to their entry into the U.S. military. METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional assessment of e-cigarette and other tobacco and nicotine-containing product (TNCP) use in 2013-2014 among 10,043 U.S. Air Force (USAF) recruits in Technical Training. Chi-square tests, the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, and logistic regression models tested differences and trends across time for e-cigarette use. RESULTS: The rate of e-cigarette use among recruits was 5.2%, which doubled (3% to 6.5%, p<0.0001) across a 1-year period. E-cigarette use was associated with increased odds of all measured TNCPs, as well as dual and poly use (all p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of e-cigarette use are slightly higher in young USAF recruits than in the general population, and e-cigarette users are likely to be using other TNCPs in tandem. Although additional work is needed to understand the reasons for this concomitant use, this is a necessary first step to understanding e-cigarette use prevalence in military populations. Historic trends suggest that, like general populations, e-cigarette use is on the rise for those entering the USAF and should be monitored to inform future prevention programming.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25841980
[Au] Autor:Dehkordy SF; Hall KS; Roach AL; Rothman ED; Dalton VK; Carlos RC
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine. Electronic address: soudabeh@med.umich.edu....
[Ti] Title:Trends in Breast Cancer Screening: Impact of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;49(3):419-22, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Although there is general agreement among various guidelines on benefits of routine screening mammography, the age of screening initiation and the optimal frequency of the test remain controversial. In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against routine breast cancer screening in women aged younger than 50 years. In this study, screening mammography guideline adherence among U.S. women is explored by examining patterns in rates of mammography age of initiation and utilization in years prior to and following the 2009 USPSTF guideline implementation. METHODS: U.S. population-based data from the 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were used to measure the overall proportion and rate of change in the proportion of women who underwent screening mammography within the last year, by age and survey year. Data were accessed and analyzed in July 2014. RESULTS: Rates of mammography screening were lower in 2010 and 2012 compared with 2007 and 2008 (p<0.0001). The rate of screening initiation at age 40 years increased over time and was the highest in the years following USPSTF guideline changes (p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: These data support no perceptible change in U.S. women's patterns of screening mammography age at initiation within 3 years of the USPSTF guideline revision. Whether this finding reflects a delayed effect of guideline revision in population trends or rather health provider practice and patient preference for more frequent screening is unclear and requires further investigation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26172829
[Au] Autor:Addy NO; Ingle RR; Wu HH; Hu BS; Nishimura DG
[Ad] Address:Department of Electrical Engineering, Magnetic Resonance Systems Research Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA....
[Ti] Title:High-resolution variable-density 3D cones coronary MRA.
[So] Source:Magn Reson Med;74(3):614-21, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1522-2594
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. METHODS: A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD 3D cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1 -ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. RESULTS: With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1 -ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared with 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1 -ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. CONCLUSION: Coronary MR angiography with isotropic submillimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. Magn Reson Med 74:614-621, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/mrm.25803

  10 / 1917057 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26151840
[Au] Autor:Boer VO; Klomp DW; Laterra J; Barker PB
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands....
[Ti] Title:Parallel reconstruction in accelerated multivoxel MR spectroscopy.
[So] Source:Magn Reson Med;74(3):599-606, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1522-2594
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To develop the simultaneous acquisition of multiple voxels in localized MR spectroscopy (MRS) using sensitivity encoding, allowing reduced total scan time compared to conventional sequential single voxel (SV) acquisition methods. METHODS: Dual volume localization was used to simultaneously excite voxels in both hemispheres. Receiver coil sensitivity profiles were used to unfold the data. To demonstrate the method, MRS voxels in the left and right hippocampus were measured at 3 tesla (T) and the left and right motor cortices at 7T. Spectra were compared to conventional SV acquisitions. Spectra were also recorded from the lesion and contralateral hemisphere of a patient with a low-grade oligodendroglioma at 7T. RESULTS: It was possible to generate signal in two voxels simultaneously and separate the signal originating from the different locations, with spectral results almost identical to those observed using conventional single voxel methods. The method results in an increased chemical shift displacement artifact, which might be improved by advanced pulse designs, and a noise increase due to the unfolding g-factor, which was larger at 3T than 7T. CONCLUSION: The simultaneous acquisition of voxels for MRS is possible by using modulated slice-selective pulses and receive coil sensitivity profiles to unfold the resulting signals. Magn Reson Med 74:599-606, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/mrm.25718


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