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[PMID]: 24952215
[Au] Autor:Scolaro A; West R; Cohen AL
[Ad] Address:Central College, United States.
[Ti] Title:The ERP correlates of target checking are dependent upon the defining features of the prospective memory cues.
[So] Source:Int J Psychophysiol;93(3):298-304, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7697
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In some contexts, prospective memory (PM) is thought to be dependent upon strategic monitoring of the environment for relevant cues. Behavioral data reveal that strategic monitoring is associated with slowing of response time for ongoing activity trials when a prospective component is added to the task, and functional imaging data reveal that monitoring is associated with recruitment of the anterior prefrontal cortex and other cortical structures. In the current study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the neural correlates of target checking, one process underlying strategic monitoring. Consistent with previous research the behavioral data revealed a Stimulus Specific Interference Effect, wherein slowing of response time varied depending upon whether PM cues were words or nonwords. The ERP data also revealed that the neural correlates of target checking were sensitive to the defining features of the PM cues (i.e., were a word or nonword). When PM cues were words, the effect of target checking was associated with variation in ERP amplitude beginning around 100ms after stimulus onset. In contrast, when PM cues were nonwords, the effect of target checking on the ERPs did not emerge until around 200ms after stimulus onset. These data provide support for the multi-process view of PM by demonstrating that the pattern of neural recruitment related to target checking is sensitive to the defining characteristics of the PM cues.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24950133
[Au] Autor:Brenner CA; Rumak SP; Burns AM; Kieffaber PD
[Ad] Address:University of British Columbia, Department of Psychology 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: cbrenner@psych.ubc.ca....
[Ti] Title:The role of encoding and attention in facial emotion memory: an EEG investigation.
[So] Source:Int J Psychophysiol;93(3):398-410, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7697
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Facial expressions are encoded via sensory mechanisms, but meaning extraction and salience of these expressions involve cognitive functions. We investigated the time course of sensory encoding and subsequent maintenance in memory via EEG. Twenty-nine healthy participants completed a facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task. P100, N170 and N250 ERPs were measured in response to the first stimulus, and evoked theta power (4-7Hz) was measured during the delay interval. Negative facial expressions produced larger N170 amplitudes and greater theta power early in the delay. N170 amplitude correlated with theta power, however larger N170 amplitude coupled with greater theta power only predicted behavioural performance for one emotion condition (very happy) out of six tested (see Supplemental Data). These findings indicate that the N170 ERP may be sensitive to emotional facial expressions when task demands require encoding and retention of this information. Furthermore, sustained theta activity may represent continued attentional processing that supports short-term memory, especially of negative facial stimuli. Further study is needed to investigate the potential influence of these measures, and their interaction, on behavioural performance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24937349
[Au] Autor:Yao Z; Wang Z
[Ad] Address:School of Humanities, Xidian University, Shaanxi, China; School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi, China; Key Lab for Behavior & Cognitive Neuroscience of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi, China.
[Ti] Title:Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.
[So] Source:Int J Psychophysiol;93(3):275-82, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7697
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24933410
[Au] Autor:Garn H; Waser M; Deistler M; Schmidt R; Dal-Bianco P; Ransmayr G; Zeitlhofer J; Schmidt H; Seiler S; Sanin G; Caravias G; Santer P; Grossegger D; Fruehwirt W; Benke T
[Ad] Address:AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, A-1220 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: heinrich.garn@ait.ac.at....
[Ti] Title:Quantitative EEG in Alzheimer's disease: cognitive state, resting state and association with disease severity.
[So] Source:Int J Psychophysiol;93(3):390-7, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7697
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) recorded during cognitive tasks has been shown to differentiate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy individuals. However, the association between various qEEG markers recorded during mnestic paradigms and clinical measures of AD has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if 'cognitive' qEEG is a useful diagnostic option, particularly if memory paradigms are used as cognitive stimulators. METHODS: This study is part of the Prospective Registry on Dementia in Austria (PRODEM), a multicenter dementia research project. A cohort of 79 probable AD patients was included in a cross-sectional analysis. qEEG recordings performed in resting states were compared with recordings during cognitively active states. Cognition was evoked with a face-name paradigm and a paired-associate word list task, respectively. Relative band powers, coherence and auto-mutual information were computed as functions of MMSE scores for the memory paradigms and during rest. Analyses were adjusted for the co-variables age, sex, duration of dementia and educational level. RESULTS: MMSE scores explained 36-51% of the variances of qEEG-markers. Face-name encoding with eyes open was superior to resting state with eyes closed in relative theta and beta1 power as well as coherence, whereas relative alpha power and auto-mutual information yielded more significant results during resting state with eyes closed. The face-name task yielded stronger correlations with MMSE scores than the verbal memory task. CONCLUSION: qEEG alterations recorded during mnestic activity, particularly face-name encoding showed the highest association with the MMSE and may serve as a clinically valuable marker for disease severity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25036869
[Au] Autor:Chen X; Li J; Chen J; Li D; Ye R; Zhang J; Zhu C; Tian Y; Wang K
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China....
[Ti] Title:Decision-making impairments in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen.
[So] Source:Horm Behav;66(2):449-56, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) is most commonly prescribed for patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Although TAM can bind to estrogen receptors in the nervous system, it is unknown whether it acts as an estrogen agonist or antagonist in the human brain. Several studies have reported the negative effects of TAM on cognitive function; however, its effects on decision-making function have not been previously explored. The present study aimed to investigate the decision-making function under ambiguity and risk in breast cancer patients treated with TAM. Participants included breast cancer patients taking TAM (TAM, n=47) and breast cancer patients not taking TAM (non-TAM, n=45) as well as their matched healthy controls (HC, n=50). All participants were given the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess their decision-making under conditions involving ambiguity, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess their decision-making under conditions involving risk, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Our results indicated that patients in the TAM group were significantly impaired as assessed by both the IGT and GDT and performed significantly worse on some aspects of various tasks involving memory and information processing. Furthermore, we found that decreased performance on verbal memory testing significantly correlated with IGT performance, and executive dysfunction was associated with poor GDT performance in breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. This study demonstrates that breast cancer patients taking TAM have several decision-making impairments. These findings may support the idea that TAM resulting in cognitive changes plays an antagonistic role in the areas of the brain where estrogen receptors are present, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25007980
[Au] Autor:Lynch JF; Dejanovic D; Winiecki P; Mulvany J; Ortiz S; Riccio DC; Jasnow AM
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA. Electronic address: jlynch22@kent.edu....
[Ti] Title:Activation of ERß modulates fear generalization through an effect on memory retrieval.
[So] Source:Horm Behav;66(2):421-9, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Women are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than men. One hypothesis for this difference may be that females exhibit increased rates of fear generalization. Females generalize fear to a neutral context faster than males, a process driven, in part, by estrogens. In the current study, ovariectomized adult female Long-Evans rats were given acute injections of estradiol benzoate (15µg/0.1mL sesame oil) or sesame oil during a passive avoidance procedure to determine if estrogens increase fear generalization through an effect on fear memory acquisition/consolidation or through fear memory retrieval. Animals injected 1h prior to training generalized to the neutral context 24h later but not 7days after training. Generalization was also seen when injections occurred 24h before testing, but not when tested at immediate (1h) or intermediate (6h) time points. In Experiment 3, animals were injected with estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, PPT or DPN, to determine which ER subtype(s) increased fear generalization. Only the ERß agonist, DPN, increased fear generalization when testing occurred 24h after injection. Our results indicate that estradiol increases fear generalization through an effect on fear memory retrieval mechanisms by activation of ERß.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  7 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24937438
[Au] Autor:Locklear MN; Kritzer MF
[Ad] Address:Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA; Dept. of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. Electronic address: mallory.locklear@stonybrook.edu.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of the effects of sex and sex hormones on spatial cognition in adult rats using the Barnes maze.
[So] Source:Horm Behav;66(2):298-308, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although sex differences and hormone effects on spatial cognition are observed in humans and animals, consensus has not been reached regarding exact impact on spatial working or reference memory. Recent studies in rats suggest that stress and/or reward, which are often different in tasks used to assess spatial cognition, can contribute to the inconsistencies in the literature. To minimize the impact of these sex- and sex hormone-sensitive factors, we used the Barnes maze to compare spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial learning strategy in adult male, female, gonadectomized (GDX) male, and GDX male rats supplemented with 17ß-estradiol (E) or testosterone propionate (TP). Rats received four acquisition trials, four trials 24h later, and a single retention trial one week after. Males and females acquired the task during the first four trials and retained the task thereafter. In contrast, GDX rats took longer to acquire the task and showed retention deficits at 1week. All deficits were attenuated similarly by TP and E. Assessment of search patterns also showed that strategies in the males transitioned from random to spatially focused and eventually direct approaches to the goal. However, this transition was faster in control and GDX-TP than in GDX and GDX-E rats. In contrast, the females almost invariantly followed the maze edge in thigmotactic, serial searches. Thus, while Barnes maze reveals activational, in part estrogenic effects on spatial cognition in males, its amenability to animals' use of multiple strategies may limit its ability to resolve mnemonic differences across sex.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24874172
[Au] Autor:Rabinowitz A; Cohen SJ; Finn DA; Stackman RW
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA....
[Ti] Title:The neurosteroid allopregnanolone impairs object memory and contextual fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice.
[So] Source:Horm Behav;66(2):238-46, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-6867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Allopregnanolone (ALLO, or 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) is a steroid metabolite of progesterone and a potent endogenous positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors. Systemic ALLO has been reported to impair spatial, but not nonspatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual memory in rodents. These cognitive effects suggest an influence of ALLO on hippocampal-dependent memory, although the specific nature of the neurosteroid's effects on learning, memory or performance is unclear. The present studies aimed to determine: (i) the memory process(es) affected by systemic ALLO using a nonspatial object memory task; and (ii) whether ALLO affects object memory via an influence within the dorsal hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice received systemic ALLO either before or immediately after the sample session of a novel object recognition (NOR) task. Results demonstrated that systemic ALLO impaired the encoding and consolidation of object memory. A subsequent study revealed that bilateral microinfusion of ALLO into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus immediately following the NOR sample session also impaired object memory consolidation. In light of debate over the hippocampal-dependence of object recognition memory, we also tested systemic ALLO-treated mice on a contextual and cued fear-conditioning task. Systemic ALLO impaired the encoding of contextual memory when administered prior to the context pre-exposure session. Together, these results indicate that ALLO exhibits primary effects on memory encoding and consolidation, and extend previous findings by demonstrating a sensitivity of nonspatial memory to ALLO, likely by disrupting dorsal hippocampal function.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24590393
[Au] Autor:Pontifex MB; Parks AC; O'Neil PC; Egner AR; Warning JT; Pfeiffer KA; Fenn KM
[Ad] Address:Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA, pontifex@msu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Poorer aerobic fitness relates to reduced integrity of multiple memory systems.
[So] Source:Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci;14(3):1132-41, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1531-135X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Epidemiological investigations have revealed increases in the prevalence of sedentary behaviors in industrialized societies. However, the implications of those lifestyle choices and related cardiorespiratory fitness levels for memory function are not well-understood. To determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness relates to the integrity of multiple memory systems, a cross-sectional sample of young adults were tested over the course of 3 days in areas related to implicit memory, working memory, long-term memory, and aerobic fitness. Findings revealed an association between aerobic fitness and memory function such that individuals with lower cardiorespiratory fitness exhibited poorer implicit memory performance and poorer long-term memory retention. These data indicate that cardiorespiratory fitness may be important for the optimal function of neural networks underlying these memory systems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13415-014-0265-z

  10 / 249168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24492994
[Au] Autor:Schwabe L; Wolf OT
[Ad] Address:Department of Cognitive Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetstrasse 150, 44780, Bochum, Germany, Lars.Schwabe@ruhr-uni-bochum.de.
[Ti] Title:Timing matters: temporal dynamics of stress effects on memory retrieval.
[So] Source:Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci;14(3):1041-8, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1531-135X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Stress may impair memory retrieval. This retrieval impairment has been attributed to the action of the stress hormone cortisol, which is released with a delay of several minutes after a stressful encounter. Hence, most studies tested memory retrieval 20-30 min after stress, when the stress-induced cortisol increase peaks. In the present experiment, we investigated whether retrieval impairments can also be found at later intervals after stress. To this end, participants learned a list of words on day 1. Twenty-four hours later, they were first exposed to a stressor or a nonstressful control manipulation and completed a recognition test for the words either immediately thereafter, 25 min later, or 90 min later. Our findings showed that stress did not impair memory retrieval when memory was tested immediately after the stressor, before cortisol levels were elevated. However, retrieval performance was impaired 25 min after stress, when cortisol levels peaked, as well as 90 min after the stressor, when cortisol levels had already returned to baseline. The retrieval impairment 90 min after stress appeared to be even stronger than the one after 25 min. These findings suggest that the detrimental effects of stress on retrieval performance may last longer than is usually assumed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13415-014-0256-0


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