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[PMID]: 25740945
[Au] Autor:Simchoni N; Cunningham-Rundles C
[Ad] Address:Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029.
[Ti] Title:TLR7- and TLR9-Responsive Human B Cells Share Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(7):3035-44, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:B cells activated by nucleic acid-sensing TLR7 and TLR9 proliferate and secrete immune globulins. Memory B cells are presumably more responsive due to higher TLR expression levels, but selectivity and differential outcomes remain largely unknown. In this study, peripheral blood human B cells were stimulated by TLR7 or TLR9 ligands, with or without IFN-α, and compared with activators CD40L plus IL-21, to identify differentially responsive cell populations, defined phenotypically and by BCR characteristics. Whereas all activators induced differentiation and Ab secretion, TLR stimulation expanded IgM(+) memory and plasma cell lineage committed populations, and favored secretion of IgM, unlike CD40L/IL-21, which drove IgM and IgG more evenly. Patterns of proliferation similarly differed, with CD40L/IL-21 inducing proliferation of most memory and naive B cells, in contrast with TLRs that induced robust proliferation in a subset of these cells. On deep sequencing of the IgH locus, TLR-responsive B cells shared patterns of IgHV and IgHJ usage, clustering apart from CD40L/IL-21 and control conditions. TLR activators, but not CD40L/IL-21, similarly promoted increased sharing of CDR3 sequences. TLR-responsive B cells were characterized by more somatic hypermutation, shorter CDR3 segments, and less negative charges. TLR activation also induced long positively charged CDR3 segments, suggestive of autoreactive Abs. Testing this, we found culture supernatants from TLR-stimulated B cells to bind HEp-2 cells, whereas those from CD40L/IL-21-stimulated cells did not. Human B cells possess selective sensitivity to TLR stimulation, with distinctive phenotypic and genetic signatures.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402690

  2 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25725108
[Au] Autor:Mueller J; Matloubian M; Zikherman J
[Ad] Address:Russel/Engleman Medical Research Center, Division of Rheumatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143.
[Ti] Title:Cutting edge: an in vivo reporter reveals active B cell receptor signaling in the germinal center.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(7):2993-7, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Long-lasting Ab responses rely on the germinal center (GC), where B cells bearing high-affinity Ag receptors are selected from a randomly mutated pool to populate the memory and plasma cell compartments. Signaling downstream of the BCR is dampened in GC B cells, raising the possibility that Ag presentation and competition for T cell help, rather than Ag-dependent signaling per se, drive these critical selection events. In this study we use an in vivo reporter of BCR signaling, Nur77-eGFP, to demonstrate that although BCR signaling is reduced among GC B cells, a small population of cells exhibiting GC light zone phenotype (site of Ag and follicular helper T cell encounter) express much higher levels of GFP. We show that these cells exhibit somatic hypermutation, gene expression characteristic of signaling and selection, and undergo BCR signaling in vivo.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1403086

  3 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25710909
[Au] Autor:Kaczmarek Michaels K; Natarajan M; Euler Z; Alter G; Viglianti G; Henderson AJ
[Ad] Address:Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118; Graduate Program in Molecular and Translational Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118;...
[Ti] Title:Blimp-1, an Intrinsic Factor that Represses HIV-1 Proviral Transcription in Memory CD4+ T Cells.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(7):3267-74, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CD4(+) T cell subsets differentially support HIV-1 replication. For example, quiescent CD4(+) memory T cells are susceptible to HIV-1 infection but do not support robust HIV-1 transcription and have been implicated as the primary reservoir of latent HIV-1. T cell transcription factors that regulate maturation potentially limit HIV-1 transcription and mediate the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency. We report that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), a critical regulator of B and T cell differentiation, is highly expressed in memory CD4(+) T cells compared with naive CD4(+) T cells and represses basal and Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription. Blimp-1 binds an IFN-stimulated response element within HIV-1 provirus, and it is displaced following T cell activation. Reduction of Blimp-1 in infected primary T cells including CD4(+) memory T cells increases RNA polymerase II processivity, histone acetylation, and baseline HIV-1 transcription. Therefore, the transcriptional repressor, Blimp-1, is an intrinsic factor that predisposes CD4(+) memory T cells to latent HIV-1 infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402581

  4 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25789436
[Au] Autor:Bushnell MC; Case LK; Ceko M; Cotton VA; Gracely JL; Low LA; Pitcher MH; Villemure C
[Ad] Address:Pain and Integrative Neuroscience Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
[Ti] Title:Effect of environment on the long-term consequences of chronic pain.
[So] Source:Pain;156 Suppl 1:S42-9, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6623
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Much evidence from pain patients and animal models shows that chronic pain does not exist in a vacuum but has varied comorbidities and far-reaching consequences. Patients with long-term pain often develop anxiety and depression and can manifest changes in cognitive functioning, particularly with working memory. Longitudinal studies in rodent models also show the development of anxiety-like behavior and cognitive changes weeks to months after an injury causing long-term pain. Brain imaging studies in pain patients and rodent models find that chronic pain is associated with anatomical and functional alterations in the brain. Nevertheless, studies in humans reveal that lifestyle choices, such as the practice of meditation or yoga, can reduce pain perception and have the opposite effect on the brain as does chronic pain. In rodent models, studies show that physical activity and a socially enriched environment reduce pain behavior and normalize brain function. Together, these studies suggest that the burden of chronic pain can be reduced by nonpharmacological interventions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460347.77341.bd

  5 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25706747
[Au] Autor:Bergsbaken T; Bevan MJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Immunology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
[Ti] Title:Proinflammatory microenvironments within the intestine regulate the differentiation of tissue-resident CD8(+) T cells responding to infection.
[So] Source:Nat Immunol;16(4):406-14, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2916
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report that oral infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis results in the development of two distinct populations of pathogen-specific CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) in the lamina propria. CD103(-) T cells did not require transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling but were true resident memory cells. Unlike CD103(+)CD8(+) T cells, which were TGF-ß dependent and were scattered in the tissue, CD103(-)CD8(+) T cells clustered with CD4(+) T cells and CX3CR1(+) macrophages and/or dendritic cells around areas of bacterial infection. CXCR3-dependent recruitment of cells to inflamed areas was critical for development of the CD103(-) population and pathogen clearance. Our studies have identified the 'preferential' development of CD103(-) TRM cells in inflammatory microenvironments within the lamina propria and suggest that this subset has a critical role in controlling infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/ni.3108

  6 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24853535
[Au] Autor:Huff MJ; Bodner GE; Fawcett JM
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA, mhuff@wustl.edu.
[Ti] Title:Effects of distinctive encoding on correct and false memory:A meta-analytic review of costs and benefits and their origins in the DRM paradigm.
[So] Source:Psychon Bull Rev;22(2):349-65, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5320
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We review and meta-analyze how distinctive encoding alters encoding and retrieval processes and, thus, affects correct and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Reductions in false recognition following distinctive encoding (e.g., generation), relative to a nondistinctive read-only control condition, reflected both impoverished relational encoding and use of a retrieval-based distinctiveness heuristic. Additional analyses evaluated the costs and benefits of distinctive encoding in within-subjects designs relative to between-group designs. Correct recognition was design independent, but in a within design, distinctive encoding was less effective at reducing false recognition for distinctively encoded lists but more effective for nondistinctively encoded lists. Thus, distinctive encoding is not entirely "cost free" in a within design. In addition to delineating the conditions that modulate the effects of distinctive encoding on recognition accuracy, we discuss the utility of using signal detection indices of memory information and memory monitoring at test to separate encoding and retrieval processes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3758/s13423-014-0648-8

  7 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25788771
[Au] Autor:Patel T; Kurdi MS
[Ad] Address:Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India.
[Ti] Title:A comparative study between oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, cognitive, and psychomotor functions.
[So] Source:J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol;31(1):37-43, 2015 Jan-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0970-9185
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone in the human body, has been reported to cause preoperative anxiolysis and sedation without impairing orientation. The aim of the following study was to evaluate and to compare the effects of oral melatonin and oral midazolam on preoperative anxiety, sedation, psychomotor, and cognitive function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study conducted on 120 patients aged 16-55 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 and 2 posted for elective surgery, with each group of melatonin, midazolam, and placebo comprising 40 patients. Patients were given either 0.4 mg/kg oral melatonin or 0.2 mg/kg oral midazolam or a placebo 60-90 min before induction. Preoperative anxiety was studied before and 60-90 min after giving medications using visual analog scale (VAS) anxiety score, orientation score, and sedation score. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were studied using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and trail making test (TMT) tests. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test or Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the value of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Changes in VAS anxiety scores were significant when melatonin was compared with placebo (P = 0.0124) and when midazolam was compared with placebo (P = 0.0003). When melatonin was compared with midazolam, no significant difference (P = 0.49) in VAS anxiety scores was observed. Intergroup comparison of sedation scores showed melatonin (P = 0.0258) and midazolam (P = 0.0000) to be statistically significant when compared with placebo. No changes in orientation scores occurred in melatonin and placebo group. Change in DSST scores and TMT scores were seen to be significant only in midazolam group. CONCLUSION: Oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg provides adequate anxiolysis comparable to that of oral midazolam. Unlike midazolam, oral melatonin 0.4 mg/kg does not impair the general cognitive and psychomotor function especially cognitive aspects such as working memory, memory retrieval, sustained attention, and flexibility of thinking.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150319
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.150534

  8 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25788809
[Au] Autor:Ghosh T; Jahan M; Singh AR
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
[Ti] Title:The efficacy of electroencephalogram neurofeedback training in cognition, anxiety, and depression in alcohol dependence syndrome: A case study.
[So] Source:Ind Psychiatry J;23(2):166-70, 2014 Jul-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0972-6748
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback's efficacy in reducing the symptoms of patients with alcohol dependence syndrome is well-documented in previous literature. Here, a case is being described who presented with alcohol dependence syndrome was given EEG neurofeedback training. After 10 sessions of EEG neurofeedback training program, a significant reduction was found in the cognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression of the patient. Furthermore, noticeable improvement was found in his memory and neurological functioning. He also showed a significant reduction in his alcohol intake on follow-up.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150319
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.151705

  9 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25788890
[Au] Autor:Bebko JM; Rhee T; McMorris CA; Ncube BL
[Ad] Address:Children's Learning Projects, Department of Psychology, York University Toronto, ON, Canada....
[Ti] Title:Spontaneous strategy use in children with autism spectrum disorder: the roles of metamemory and language skills.
[So] Source:Front Psychol;6:182, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1664-1078
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Metamemory, or beliefs about one's own memory capabilities, knowing what you know, and knowing what you don't know, has frequently been linked to the spontaneous use of rehearsal strategies in typically developing children. However, limited research has investigated mnemonic strategy use, metamemory, or the relationship between these two cognitive processes in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study examined the relative strength of metamemory knowledge and language skills as predictors of rehearsal use and memory performance in individuals with ASD. Twenty-one children with ASD and 21 children in a combined comparison group were matched on chronological and verbal mental age. Over two sessions, participants completed a serial recall task, a language measure, and a metamemory questionnaire. Children were classified as rehearsers/non-rehearsers based on behavioral observations and/or verbal reports of strategy use. As expected from previous research, the comparison group had a significantly higher proportion of rehearsers than the ASD group. However, spontaneous rehearsers performed significantly better on the serial recall task than non-rehearsers, regardless of group membership. Children in the comparison group had a higher mean total score on the metamemory questionnaire than the ASD group. However, when examined by rehearsal use, participants classified as rehearsers, regardless of diagnostic group, scored significantly higher on the metamemory questionnaire than non-rehearsers. Finally, across groups, hierarchical regression analyses identified both metamemory and language proficiency as significant predictors of rehearsal strategy use. The fact that the predictors showed the same relationship across the comparison group and the ASD group implies that metamemory and language proficiency, while separate entities, are both fundamental underlying skills contributing to the emergence of rehearsal strategies, and that the results are likely generalizable to other populations with developmental challenges.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150319
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00182

  10 / 258048 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25788881
[Au] Autor:Pardo M; King MK; Perez-Costas E; Melendez-Ferro M; Martinez A; Beurel E; Jope RS
[Ad] Address:Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami Miami, FL, USA....
[Ti] Title:Impairments in cognition and neural precursor cell proliferation in mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3.
[So] Source:Front Behav Neurosci;9:55, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1662-5153
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Brain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in several neurological conditions that involve impairments in both cognition and neurogenesis. This raises the hypotheses that hyperactive GSK3 may directly contribute to impaired cognition, and that this may be related to deficiencies in neural precursor cells (NPC). To study the effects of hyperactive GSK3 in the absence of disease influences, we compared adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and performance in three cognitive tasks in male and female wild-type (WT) mice and GSK3 knockin mice, which express constitutively active GSK3. NPC proliferation was ~40% deficient in both male and female GSK3 knockin mice compared with WT mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) increased NPC proliferation in male, but not female, GSK3 knockin mice and WT mice. Male and female GSK3 knockin mice exhibited impairments in novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and coordinate spatial processing compared with gender-matched WT mice. EE restored impaired novel object recognition and temporal ordering in both sexes of GSK3 knockin mice, indicating that this repair was not dependent on NPC proliferation, which was not increased by EE in female GSK3 knockin mice. Acute 1 h pretreatment with the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 also improved novel object recognition and temporal ordering in male and female GSK3 knockin mice. These findings demonstrate that hyperactive GSK3 is sufficient to impair adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and to impair performance in three cognitive tasks in both male and female mice, but these changes in NPC proliferation do not directly regulate novel object recognition and temporal ordering tasks.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 150321
[Lr] Last revision date:150321
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150319
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00055


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