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[PMID]: 25240262
[Au] Autor:Drew DA; Weiner DE; Tighiouart H; Scott T; Lou K; Kantor A; Fan L; Strom JA; Singh AK; Sarnak MJ
[Ad] Address:Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA....
[Ti] Title:Cognitive function and all-cause mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
[So] Source:Am J Kidney Dis;65(2):303-11, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1523-6838
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in hemodialysis patients and is associated with significant morbidity. Limited information exists about whether cognitive impairment is associated with survival and whether the type of cognitive impairment is important. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and yearly using a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests in 292 prevalent hemodialysis patients. PREDICTOR: Using principal component analysis, individual test results were reduced into 2 domain scores, representing memory and executive function. By definition, each score carried a mean of 0 and SD of 1. OUTCOMES: Association of each score with all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics and dialysis and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 63 years, 53% were men, 23% were African American, and 90% had at least a high school education. During a median follow-up of 2.1 (IQR, 1.1-3.7) years, 145 deaths occurred. Each 1-SD better executive function score was associated with a 35% lower hazard of mortality (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.76). In models adjusting for demographics and dialysis-related factors, this relationship was partially attenuated but remained significant (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98), whereas adjustment for CV disease and heart failure resulted in further attenuation (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.06). Use of time-dependent models showed a similar unadjusted association (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.54-0.72), with the relationship remaining significant after adjustment for demographics and dialysis and CV risk factors (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.94). Better memory was associated with lower mortality in univariate analysis (HR per 1 SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69-0.96), but not when adjusting for demographics (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.19). LIMITATIONS: Patients with dementia were excluded from the full battery, perhaps underestimating the strength of the association. CONCLUSIONS: Worse executive function and memory are associated with increased risk of mortality. For memory, this association is explained by patient demographics, whereas for executive function, this relationship may be explained in part by CV disease burden.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25496308
[Au] Autor:Gorbacheva V; Ayasoufi K; Fan R; Baldwin WM; Valujskikh A
[Ad] Address:Glickman Urological Institute and Department of Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
[Ti] Title:B Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) and a Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) Mediate CD40-Independent Help by Memory CD4 T Cells.
[So] Source:Am J Transplant;15(2):346-57, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1600-6143
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Donor-reactive memory T cells undermine organ transplant survival and are poorly controlled by immunosuppression or costimulatory blockade. Memory CD4 T cells provide CD40-independent help for the generation of donor-reactive effector CD8 T cells and alloantibodies (alloAbs) that rapidly mediate allograft rejection. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of B cell activating factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) in alloresponses driven by memory CD4 T cells. The short-term neutralization of BAFF alone or BAFF plus APRIL synergized with anti-CD154 mAb to prolong heart allograft survival in recipients containing donor-reactive memory CD4 T cells. The prolongation was associated with reduction in antidonor alloAb responses and with inhibited reactivation and helper functions of memory CD4 T cells. Additional depletion of CD8 T cells did not enhance the prolonged allograft survival suggesting that donor-reactive alloAbs mediate late graft rejection in these recipients. This is the first report that targeting the BAFF cytokine network inhibits both humoral and cellular immune responses induced by memory CD4 T cells. Our results suggest that reagents neutralizing BAFF and APRIL may be used to enhance the efficacy of CD40/CD154 costimulatory blockade and improve allograft survival in T cell-sensitized recipients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/ajt.12984

  3 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610771
[Au] Autor:Caeyenberghs K; Powell HW; Thomas RH; Brindley L; Church C; Evans J; Muthukumaraswamy SD; Jones DK; Hamandi K
[Ad] Address:Department of Physical Therapy and Motor Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium ; Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium....
[Ti] Title:Hyperconnectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A network analysis.
[So] Source:Neuroimage Clin;7:98-104, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2213-1582
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndrome characterized by impairments in executive and cognitive control, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. There is a growing consensus that JME is associated with abnormal function of diffuse brain networks, typically affecting frontal and fronto-thalamic areas. METHODS: Using diffusion MRI and a graph theoretical analysis, we examined bivariate (network-based statistic) and multivariate (global and local) properties of structural brain networks in patients with JME (N = 34) and matched controls. Neuropsychological assessment was performed in a subgroup of 14 patients. RESULTS: Neuropsychometry revealed impaired visual memory and naming in JME patients despite a normal full scale IQ (mean = 98.6). Both JME patients and controls exhibited a small world topology in their white matter networks, with no significant differences in the global multivariate network properties between the groups. The network-based statistic approach identified one subnetwork of hyperconnectivity in the JME group, involving primary motor, parietal and subcortical regions. Finally, there was a significant positive correlation in structural connectivity with cognitive task performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that structural changes in JME patients are distributed at a network level, beyond the frontal lobes. The identified subnetwork includes key structures in spike wave generation, along with primary motor areas, which may contribute to myoclonic jerks. We conclude that analyzing the affected subnetworks may provide new insights into understanding seizure generation, as well as the cognitive deficits observed in JME patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.018

  4 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610768
[Au] Autor:Barber AD; Jacobson LA; Wexler JL; Nebel MB; Caffo BS; Pekar JJ; Mostofsky SH
[Ad] Address:Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA ; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA....
[Ti] Title:Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
[So] Source:Neuroimage Clin;7:68-81, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2213-1582
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN-occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.011

  5 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610794
[Au] Autor:Hawco C; Buchy L; Bodnar M; Izadi S; Dell'Elce J; Messina K; Joober R; Malla A; Lepage M
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada ; Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada....
[Ti] Title:Source retrieval is not properly differentiated from object retrieval in early schizophrenia: An fMRI study using virtual reality.
[So] Source:Neuroimage Clin;7:336-46, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2213-1582
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Source memory, the ability to identify the context in which a memory occurred, is impaired in schizophrenia and has been related to clinical symptoms such as hallucinations. The neurobiological underpinnings of this deficit are not well understood. Twenty-five patients with recent onset schizophrenia (within the first 4.5 years of treatment) and twenty-four healthy controls completed a source memory task. Participants navigated through a 3D virtual city, and had 20 encounters of an object with a person at a place. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a subsequent forced-choice recognition test. Two objects were presented and participants were asked to either identify which object was seen (new vs. old object recognition), or identify which of the two old objects was associated with either the person or the place being presented (source memory recognition). Source memory was examined by contrasting person or place with object. Both patients and controls demonstrated significant neural activity to source memory relative to object memory, though activity in controls was much more widespread. Group differences were observed in several regions, including the medial parietal and cingulate cortex, lateral frontal lobes and right superior temporal gyrus. Patients with schizophrenia did not differentiate between source and object memory in these regions. Positive correlations with hallucination proneness were observed in the left frontal and right middle temporal cortices and cerebellum. Patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in the neural circuits which facilitate source memory, which may underlie both the deficits in this domain and be related to auditory hallucinations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.08.006

  6 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610821
[Au] Autor:Jeoung BJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Exercise Rehabilitation & Welfare, College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.
[Ti] Title:The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.
[So] Source:J Exerc Rehabil;10(6):367-71, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2288-176X
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150122
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.12965/jer.140175

  7 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610417
[Au] Autor:Mammarella IC; Meneghetti C; Pazzaglia F; Cornoldi C
[Ad] Address:Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padova Padova, Italy....
[Ti] Title:Memory and comprehension deficits in spatial descriptions of children with non-verbal and reading disabilities.
[So] Source:Front Psychol;5:1534, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1664-1078
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9-12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children's difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children's difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150122
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01534

  8 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610366
[Au] Autor:Dardou D; Chassain C; Durif F
[Ad] Address:EA7280 NPSY-Sydo, Université d'Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand, France.
[Ti] Title:Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats.
[So] Source:Front Neurosci;8:437, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1662-4548
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150122
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00437

  9 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610367
[Au] Autor:Massaly N; Francès B; Moulédous L
[Ad] Address:Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 5169 Toulouse, France ; Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 5089 Toulouse, France ; Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III Toulouse, France.
[Ti] Title:Roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the effects of drugs of abuse.
[So] Source:Front Mol Neurosci;7:99, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1662-5099
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Because of its ability to regulate the abundance of selected proteins the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. As a result various stages of learning and memory depend on UPS activity. Drug addiction, another phenomenon that relies on neuroplasticity, shares molecular substrates with memory processes. However, the necessity of proteasome-dependent protein degradation for the development of addiction has been poorly studied. Here we first review evidences from the literature that drugs of abuse regulate the expression and activity of the UPS system in the brain. We then provide a list of proteins which have been shown to be targeted to the proteasome following drug treatment and could thus be involved in neuronal adaptations underlying behaviors associated with drug use and abuse. Finally we describe the few studies that addressed the need for UPS-dependent protein degradation in animal models of addiction-related behaviors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150122
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00099

  10 / 255331 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25610440
[Au] Autor:Morris MC; Gilliam EA; Li L
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University , Blacksburg, VA , USA.
[Ti] Title:Innate immune programing by endotoxin and its pathological consequences.
[So] Source:Front Immunol;5:680, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1664-3224
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Monocytes and macrophages play pivotal roles in inflammation and homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that dynamic programing of macrophages and monocytes may give rise to distinct "memory" states. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classical pattern recognition molecule, dynamically programs innate immune responses. Emerging studies have revealed complex dynamics of cellular responses to LPS, with high doses causing acute, resolving inflammation, while lower doses are associated with low-grade and chronic non-resolving inflammation. These phenomena hint at dynamic complexities of intra-cellular signaling circuits downstream of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this review, we examine pathological effects of varying LPS doses with respect to the dynamics of innate immune responses and key molecular regulatory circuits responsible for these effects.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150122
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00680


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