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[PMID]: 25372637
[Au] Autor:Yi ZX; Zhang W
[Ad] Address:Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dongyang People's Hospital, Dongyang 322100, China.
[Ti] Title:[Effect of cerebral X-ray irradiation on learning and memory function in young SD rats].
[So] Source:Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban;43(5):535-40, 2014 Sep 25.
[Is] ISSN:1008-9292
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cerebral X-ray irradiation on learning and memory function in young rats. METHODS:Fifty-four SD rats aged 35 d were randomly divided into 3 groups with 18 in each group: rats in 3-d group and 7-d group received X-ray irradiation with a dose of 28.5 mGy/d for 3 d and 7 d,respectively; rats in control group received sham X-ray irradiation. Morris water maze (MWM) was tested when animals at age of 60 d; then the animals were sacrificed and brain samples were taken. The neurodegeneration was observed by Fluro-Jade B staining; the expression of N-methyl-aspartate (NMDA) receptors subunit 2B (NR2B) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot methods,respectively,and ultrastructure of CA1 region was observed with electron microscopy. RESULTS: No significant difference in 1-4 d escape latency as shown in MWM test was noted between 3d group and control group (P>0.05); while the escape latency in 7d group was significantly longer than that in control group (P<0.01). No significant differences in lingering in the quadrant and the frequency of passing through the original platform between 3-d group and control group (P>0.05),while those in 7-d group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Compared to control group,the number of FJB positive cells in 7-d group was increased (P<0.01); the expressions of NR2B and PSD-95 in hippocampus CA1 region were also increased (P<0.05). The ultrastructure observation in 7-d group showed that the synapse structure of some neurons was impaired. CONCLUSION: X-ray irradiation may affect learning and memory function of young rats,which is associated with overexpression of NR2B and PSD-95 in hippocampal regions.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24800898
[Au] Autor:Kantak KM; Barlow N; Tassin DH; Brisotti MF; Jordan CJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, 64 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA, 02215, USA, kkantak@bu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Performance on a strategy set shifting task in rats following adult or adolescent cocaine exposure.
[So] Source:Psychopharmacology (Berl);231(23):4489-501, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2072
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Neuropsychological testing is widespread in adult cocaine abusers, but lacking in teens. Animal models may provide insight into age-related neuropsychological consequences of cocaine exposure. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to determine whether developmental plasticity protects or hinders behavioral flexibility after cocaine exposure in adolescent vs. adult rats. METHODS: Using a yoked-triad design, one rat controlled cocaine delivery and the other two passively received cocaine or saline. Rats controlling cocaine delivery (1.0mg/kg) self-administered for 18 sessions (starting P37 or P77), followed by 18 drug-free days. Rats next were tested in a strategy set shifting task, lasting 11-13 sessions. RESULTS: Cocaine self-administration did not differ between age groups. During initial set formation, adolescent-onset groups required more trials to reach criterion and made more errors than adult-onset groups. During the set shift phase, rats with adult-onset cocaine self-administration experience had higher proportions of correct trials and fewer perseverative + regressive errors than age-matched yoked-controls or rats with adolescent-onset cocaine self-administration experience. During reversal learning, rats with adult-onset cocaine experience (self-administered or passive) required fewer trials to reach criterion, and the self-administering rats made fewer perseverative + regressive errors than yoked-saline rats. Rats receiving adolescent-onset yoked-cocaine had more trial omissions and longer lever press reaction times than age-matched rats self-administering cocaine or receiving yoked-saline. CONCLUSIONS: Prior cocaine self-administration may impair memory to reduce proactive interference during set shifting and reversal learning in adult-onset but not adolescent-onset rats (developmental plasticity protective). Passive cocaine may disrupt aspects of executive function in adolescent-onset but not adult-onset rats (developmental plasticity hinders).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3598-y

  3 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24781518
[Au] Autor:Cooke JD; Cavender HM; Lima HK; Grover LM
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Robert C. Byrd Biotechnology Science Center, One John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV, 25755, USA.
[Ti] Title:Antidepressants that inhibit both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake impair long-term potentiation in hippocampus.
[So] Source:Psychopharmacology (Berl);231(23):4429-41, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2072
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Monoamine reuptake inhibitors can stimulate expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and alter long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely used model for the synaptic mechanisms that underlie memory formation. BDNF expression is upregulated during LTP, and BDNF in turn positively modulates LTP. Previously, we found that treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), but not citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), reduced LTP in hippocampal area CA1 without changing hippocampal BDNF protein expression. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that combined serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition is necessary for LTP impairment, and we reexamined the potential role of BDNF by testing for region-specific changes in areas CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus. We also tested whether early events in the LTP signaling pathway were altered to impair LTP. METHODS: Animals were treated for 21days with venlafaxine, imipramine, fluoxetine, or maprotiline. In vitro hippocampal slices were used for electrophysiological measurements. Protein expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. RESULTS: LTP was impaired only following treatment with combined serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, imipramine) but not with selective serotonin (fluoxetine) or norepinephrine (maprotiline) reuptake inhibitors. BDNF protein expression was not altered by venlafaxine or imipramine treatment, nor were postsynaptic depolarization during LTP inducing stimulation or synaptic membrane NMDA receptor subunit expression affected. CONCLUSIONS: LTP is impaired by chronic treatment with antidepressant that inhibit both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake; this impairment results from changes that are downstream of postsynaptic depolarization and calcium influx.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3587-1

  4 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25374781
[Au] Autor:Tomonaga M; Kaneko T
[Ad] Address:Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University , Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi , Japan.
[Ti] Title:What did you choose just now? Chimpanzees' short-term retention of memories of their own behavior.
[So] Source:PeerJ;2:e637, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2167-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Many recent comparative studies have addressed "episodic" memory in nonhuman animals, suggesting that birds, rodents, great apes, and others can remember their own behavior after at least a half-day delay. By contrast, despite numerous studies regarding long-term memory, few comparable studies have been conducted on short-term retention for own behavior. In the current study, we addressed the following question: Do chimpanzees remember what they have just done? Four chimpanzees performed matching-to-sample and visual search tasks on a routine basis and were occasionally (every four sessions) given a "recognition" test immediately after their response during visual search trials. Even though these test trials were given very rarely, all four chimpanzees chose the stimulus they selected in the visual search trials immediately before the test trial significantly more frequently than they chose the stimulus they selected in another distractor trial. Subsequent experiments ruled out the possibility that preferences for the specific stimuli accounted for the recognition test results. Thus, chimpanzees remembered their own behavior even within a short-term interval. This type of memory may involve the transfer of episodic information from working memory to long-term episodic-like memory (i.e., an episodic buffer).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141106
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7717/peerj.637

  5 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25372872
[Au] Autor:Oliveira-Pinto AV; Santos RM; Coutinho RA; Oliveira LM; Santos GB; Alho AT; Leite RE; Farfel JM; Suemoto CK; Grinberg LT; Pasqualucci CA; Jacob-Filho W; Lent R
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil....
[Ti] Title:Sexual dimorphism in the human olfactory bulb: females have more neurons and glial cells than males.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e111733, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sex differences in the human olfactory function reportedly exist for olfactory sensitivity, odorant identification and memory, and tasks in which odors are rated based on psychological features such as familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and others. Which might be the neural bases for these behavioral differences? The number of cells in olfactory regions, and especially the number of neurons, may represent a more accurate indicator of the neural machinery than volume or weight, but besides gross volume measures of the human olfactory bulb, no systematic study of sex differences in the absolute number of cells has yet been undertaken. In this work, we investigate a possible sexual dimorphism in the olfactory bulb, by quantifying postmortem material from 7 men and 11 women (ages 55-94 years) with the isotropic fractionator, an unbiased and accurate method to estimate absolute cell numbers in brain regions. Female bulbs weighed 0.132 g in average, while male bulbs weighed 0.137 g, a non-significant difference; however, the total number of cells was 16.2 million in females, and 9.2 million in males, a significant difference of 43.2%. The number of neurons in females reached 6.9 million, being no more than 3.5 million in males, a difference of 49.3%. The number of non-neuronal cells also proved higher in women than in men: 9.3 million and 5.7 million, respectively, a significant difference of 38.7%. The same differences remained when corrected for mass. Results demonstrate a sex-related difference in the absolute number of total, neuronal and non-neuronal cells, favoring women by 40-50%. It is conceivable that these differences in quantitative cellularity may have functional impact, albeit difficult to infer how exactly this would be, without knowing the specific circuits cells make. However, the reported advantage of women as compared to men may stimulate future work on sex dimorphism of synaptic microcircuitry in the olfactory bulb.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111733

  6 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25372809
[Au] Autor:Evans TA; Perdue B; Beran MJ
[Ad] Address:Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:The Relationship between Event-Based Prospective Memory and Ongoing Task Performance in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e112015, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task) or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112015

  7 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25372144
[Au] Autor:Berdyyeva T; Otte S; Aluisio L; Ziv Y; Burns LD; Dugovic C; Yun S; Ghosh KK; Schnitzer MJ; Lovenberg T; Bonaventure P
[Ad] Address:Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Zolpidem reduces hippocampal neuronal activity in freely behaving mice: a large scale calcium imaging study with miniaturized fluorescence microscope.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e112068, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal's state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼65%) significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3%) showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112068

  8 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25372140
[Au] Autor:Akkerman S; Prickaerts J; Bruder AK; Wolfs KH; De Vry J; Vanmierlo T; Blokland A
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, European School of Neuroscience (EURON), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands....
[Ti] Title:PDE5 Inhibition Improves Object Memory in Standard Housed Rats but Not in Rats Housed in an Enriched Environment: Implications for Memory Models?
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e111692, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Drug effects are usually evaluated in animals housed under maximally standardized conditions. However, it is assumed that an enriched environment (EE) more closely resembles human conditions as compared to maximally standardized laboratory conditions. In the present study, we examined the acute cognition enhancing effects of vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, which stimulates protein kinase G/CREB signaling in cells, in three different groups of male Wistar rats tested in an object recognition task (ORT). Rats were either housed solitarily (SOL) or socially (SOC) under standard conditions, or socially in an EE. Although EE animals remembered object information longer in the vehicle condition, vardenafil only improved object memory in SOL and SOC animals. While EE animals had a heavier dorsal hippocampus, we found no differences between experimental groups in total cell numbers in the dentate gyrus, CA2-3 or CA1. Neither were there any differences in markers for pre- and postsynaptic density. No changes in PDE5 mRNA- and protein expression levels were observed. Basal pCREB levels were increased in EE rats only, whereas -catenin was not affected, suggesting specific activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway and not the AKT pathway. A possible explanation for the inefficacy of vardenafil could be that CREB signaling is already optimally stimulated in the hippocampus of EE rats. Since previous data has shown that acute PDE5 inhibition does not improve memory performance in humans, the use of EE animals could be considered as a more valid model for testing cognition enhancing drugs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111692

  9 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25374349
[Au] Autor:Santoro A; Frankland PW
[Ad] Address:Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Chasing the trace.
[So] Source:Neuron;84(2):243-6, 2014 Oct 22.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Event memories are stored in hippocampal-cortical networks. In this issue of Neuron, two studies, Cowansage etal. (2014) and Tanaka etal. (2014), tag active cells during memory encoding and optogenetically manipulate the activity of these "engram" cells during subsequent recall to reveal how hippocampal and cortical cell ensembles interact during retrieval.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 251491 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25149699
[Au] Autor:Mohan V; Sandini G; Morasso P
[Ad] Address:Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Science Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy vishwanathan.mohan@iit.it.
[Ti] Title:A neural framework for organization and flexible utilization of episodic memory in cumulatively learning baby humanoids.
[So] Source:Neural Comput;26(12):2692-734, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1530-888X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cumulatively developing robots offer a unique opportunity to reenact the constant interplay between neural mechanisms related to learning, memory, prospection, and abstraction from the perspective of an integrated system that acts, learns, remembers, reasons, and makes mistakes. Situated within such interplay lie some of the computationally elusive and fundamental aspects of cognitive behavior: the ability to recall and flexibly exploit diverse experiences of one's past in the context of the present to realize goals, simulate the future, and keep learning further. This article is an adventurous exploration in this direction using a simple engaging scenario of how the humanoid iCub learns to construct the tallest possible stack given an arbitrary set of objects to play with. The learning takes place cumulatively, with the robot interacting with different objects (some previously experienced, some novel) in an open-ended fashion. Since the solution itself depends on what objects are available in the "now," multiple episodes of past experiences have to be remembered and creatively integrated in the context of the present to be successful. Starting from zero, where the robot knows nothing, we explore the computational basis of organization episodic memory in a cumulatively learning humanoid and address (1) how relevant past experiences can be reconstructed based on the present context, (2) how multiple stored episodic memories compete to survive in the neural space and not be forgotten, (3) how remembered past experiences can be combined with explorative actions to learn something new, and (4) how multiple remembered experiences can be recombined to generate novel behaviors (without exploration). Through the resulting behaviors of the robot as it builds, breaks, learns, and remembers, we emphasize that mechanisms of episodic memory are fundamental design features necessary to enable the survival of autonomous robots in a real world where neither everything can be known nor can everything be experienced.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1162/NECO_a_00664


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