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[PMID]: 25276843
[Au] Autor:Lotfi T; Mahdiani K; Noori Z; Khaksar Haghani F; Shateyi S
[Ad] Address:Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran....
[Ti] Title:On a new three-step class of methods and its acceleration for nonlinear equations.
[So] Source:ScientificWorldJournal;2014:134673, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1537-744X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A class of derivative-free methods without memory for approximating a simple zero of a nonlinear equation is presented. The proposed class uses four function evaluations per iteration with convergence order eight. Therefore, it is an optimal three-step scheme without memory based on Kung-Traub conjecture. Moreover, the proposed class has an accelerator parameter with the property that it can increase the convergence rate from eight to twelve without any new functional evaluations. Thus, we construct a with memory method that increases considerably efficiency index from 8(1/4) ≈ 1.681 to 12(1/4) ≈ 1.861. Illustrations are also included to support the underlying theory.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/134673

  2 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25034413
[Au] Autor:Aubrecht TG; Weil ZM; Ariza ME; Williams M; Reader BF; Glaser R; Sheridan JF; Nelson RJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA....
[Ti] Title:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded dUTPase and chronic restraint induce impaired learning and memory and sickness responses.
[So] Source:Physiol Behav;137:18-24, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-507X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Most adult humans have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and carry the latent virus. The EBV genome codes for several proteins that form an early antigen complex important for viral replication; one of these proteins is deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase). The EBV-encoded dUTPase can induce sickness responses in mice. Because stress can increase latent virus reactivation, we hypothesized that chronic restraint would exacerbate sickness behaviors elicited by EBV-encoded dUTPase. Male Swiss-Webster mice were injected daily for 15days with either saline or EBV-encoded dUTPase. Additionally, half of the mice from each condition were either restrained for 3h daily or left undisturbed. Restraint stress impaired learning and memory in the passive avoidance chamber; impaired learning and memory was due to EBV-encoded dUTPase injected into restrained mice. EBV-encoded dUTPase induced sickness responses and restraint stress interacts with EBV-encoded dUTPase to exacerbate the sickness response. These data support a role for EBV-encoded dUTPase and restraint stress in altering the pathophysiology of EBV independent of viral replication.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25276011
[Au] Autor:Lee JW; Lee GE; An JH; Yoon SW; Heo M; Kim HY
[Ad] Address:Department of Physical Therapy, Kwangju Women's University, Republic of Korea....
[Ti] Title:Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual memory recall and EEG.
[So] Source:J Phys Ther Sci;26(9):1333-6, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0915-5287
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on visual memory recall and EEG. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 42 adults were selected and divided equally into two groups of 21 adults, the GVS group and the Sham group. The error rate was calculated as a percentage based on the total number of errors in the answers to 24 questions after stimulation, while the reaction time was measured in intervals between the time the questions were asked and the time it took the subjects to answer the questions. EEG data were obtained by attaching electrodes to the Fz, Cz, and Pz points during the question and answer phase. [Results] The error rate showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. The reaction time showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. When relative band power parameters were analyzed, alpha waves showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group, but only the Fz area of beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. [Conclusion] GVS may improve visual memory recall in relation to a flower, a person, an animal, or a building.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141004
[Lr] Last revision date:141004
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141003
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1589/jpts.26.1333

  4 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25276774
[Au] Autor:Mohammad AH; Al-Sadat N; Siew Yim L; Chinna K
[Ad] Address:Center for Population Health, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia....
[Ti] Title:Reliability and Validity of the Nigerian (Hausa) Version of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) 3.0 Index.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2014:302097, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study aims to test the translated Hausa version of the stroke impact scale SIS (3.0) and further evaluate its psychometric properties. The SIS 3.0 was translated from English into Hausa and was tested for its reliability and validity on a stratified random sample adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Psychometric analysis of the Hausa-SIS 3.0 involved face, content, criterion, and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. In reliability analyses, the Cronbach's alpha values for the items in Strength, Hand function, Mobility, ADL/IADL, Memory and thinking, Communication, Emotion, and Social participation domains were 0.80, 0.92, 0.90, 0.78, 0.84, 0.89, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. There are 8 domains in stroke impact scale 3.0 in confirmatory factory analysis; some of the items in the Hausa-SIS questionnaire have to be dropped due to lack of discriminate validity. In the final analysis, a parsimonious model was obtained with two items per construct for the 8 constructs (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI and CFI > 0.9, and RMSEA < 0.08). Cross validation with 1000 bootstrap samples gave a satisfactory result (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the shorter 16-item Hausa-SIS seems to measure adequately the QOL outcomes in the 8 domains.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/302097

  5 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25245125
[Au] Autor:Chen WY; Huang MC; Lin SK
[Ti] Title:Gender differences in subjective discontinuation symptoms associated with ketamine use.
[So] Source:Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy;9(1):39, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1747-597X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Recent substance abuse research indicates gender differences in the substance-related epidemiology, biological responses, progression to dependence, medical consequences and treatments. Studies exploring human sex-different responses to ketamine are rare and there has been no systemic survey of gender differences in ketamine use. Determining whether females are more susceptible than males to ketamine withdrawal symptoms and adverse effects is important, because it associated with treatment retention and outcome in drug users. METHODS: The Taiwanese juridical system has implemented a new regulation on ketamine in the year 2009. Ketamine users who are caught by the police, are mandated to attend an educational program. We recruited ketamine offenders from February 2010 to May 2012 at the Kunming branch of the Taipei City Hospital, where the educational classes are held. A designed questionnaire was performed to gather information about demographic characteristics, discontinuation symptoms, concomitant use of other substances, and subjective experience of memory impairment or urinary discomforts, and to compare the gender differences. RESULTS: A total of 1,614 ketamine users were surveyed and most of them were males (83.8%), with an average age of 26.3 ± 5.4 years. Female ketamine users presented significantly more discontinuation symptoms such as anxiety, dysphoria, and tremors compared with male users. 72.4% of total ketamine users smoked cigarettes concomitantly. Male ketamine users had a higher rate of concomitant betel nut use, while female ketamine users had a higher rate of concomitant hypnotic and alcohol use. 76% of total ketamine users reported cognitive impairment and 51.6% mentioned urinary symptoms. Furthermore, female ketamine users self-reported significantly greater levels of severity in cognitive impairment and urinary discomforts compared with male users. Less than 10% of total ketamine users in our study reported the desire to transfer for medical intervention or treatment, despite the high rates of discontinuation symptoms and negative physical side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences were noted in the subjective experience of discontinuation symptoms, concomitant substance use, and severity of impairment related to ketamine use. However, the probable cause of the gender differences found in this study requires further investigation. We hoped our study will stimulate further research in this field.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-9-39

  6 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24314347
[Au] Autor:Rubia K; Alegria AA; Cubillo AI; Smith AB; Brammer MJ; Radua J
[Ad] Address:Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (KR, AAA, AIC, AS) and Neuroimaging (MJB), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: katya.rubia@kcl.ac.uk....
[Ti] Title:Effects of stimulants on brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Biol Psychiatry;76(8):616-28, 2014 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2402
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Psychostimulant medication, most commonly the catecholamine agonist methylphenidate, is the most effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, relatively little is known on the mechanisms of action. Acute effects on brain function can elucidate underlying neurocognitive effects. We tested methylphenidate effects relative to placebo in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during three disorder-relevant tasks in medication-naïve ADHD adolescents. In addition, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI findings of acute stimulant effects on ADHD brain function. METHODS: The fMRI study compared 20 adolescents with ADHD under either placebo or methylphenidate in a randomized controlled trial while performing stop, working memory, and time discrimination tasks. The meta-analysis was conducted searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Peak coordinates of clusters of significant effects of stimulant medication relative to placebo or off medication were extracted for each study. RESULTS: The fMRI analysis showed that methylphenidate significantly enhanced activation in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/insula during inhibition and time discrimination but had no effect on working memory networks. The meta-analysis, including 14 fMRI datasets and 212 children with ADHD, showed that stimulants most consistently enhanced right IFC/insula activation, which also remained for a subgroup analysis of methylphenidate effects alone. A more lenient threshold also revealed increased putamen activation. CONCLUSIONS: Psychostimulants most consistently increase right IFC/insula activation, which are key areas of cognitive control and also the most replicated neurocognitive dysfunction in ADHD. These neurocognitive effects may underlie their positive clinical effects.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25225369
[Au] Autor:Downs JS
[Ad] Address:Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 downs@cmu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;111 Suppl 4:13627-33, 2014 Sep 16.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1317502111

  8 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25225363
[Au] Autor:Ratner RK; Riis J
[Ad] Address:Department of Marketing, Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-1815; and rratner@rhsmith.umd.edu.
[Ti] Title:Communicating science-based recommendations with memorable and actionable guidelines.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;111 Suppl 4:13634-41, 2014 Sep 16.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:For many domains of basic and applied science, a key set of scientific facts is well established and there is a need for public action in light of those facts. However, individual citizens do not consistently follow science-based recommendations, even when they accept the veracity of the advice. To address this challenge, science communicators need to develop a guideline that individuals can commit to memory easily and act on straightforwardly at moments of decision. We draw on research from psychology to discuss several characteristics that will enhance a guideline's memorability and actionability and illustrate using a case study from the US Department of Agriculture's communications based on nutrition science. We conclude by discussing the importance of careful research to test whether any given guideline is memorable and actionable by the intended target audience.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1320649111

  9 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25142573
[Au] Autor:Donlea JM; Ramanan N; Silverman N; Shaw PJ
[Ti] Title:Genetic rescue of functional senescence in synaptic and behavioral plasticity.
[So] Source:Sleep;37(9):1427-37, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1550-9109
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVES: Aging has been linked with decreased neural plasticity and memory formation in humans and in laboratory model species such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we examine plastic responses following social experience in Drosophila as a high-throughput method to identify interventions that prevent these impairments. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: Wild-type and transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS: Young (5-day old) or aged (20-day old) adult female Drosophila were housed in socially enriched (n = 35-40) or isolated environments, then assayed for changes in sleep and for structural markers of synaptic terminal growth in the ventral lateral neurons (LNVs) of the circadian clock. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: When young flies are housed in a socially enriched environment, they exhibit synaptic elaboration within a component of the circadian circuitry, the LNVs, which is followed by increased sleep. Aged flies, however, no longer exhibit either of these plastic changes. Because of the tight correlation between neural plasticity and ensuing increases in sleep, we use sleep after enrichment as a high-throughput marker for neural plasticity to identify interventions that prolong youthful plasticity in aged flies. To validate this strategy, we find three independent genetic manipulations that delay age-related losses in plasticity: (1) elevation of dopaminergic signaling, (2) over-expression of the transcription factor blistered (bs) in the LNVs, and (3) reduction of the Imd immune signaling pathway. These findings provide proof-of-principle evidence that measuring changes in sleep in flies after social enrichment may provide a highly scalable assay for the study of age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that Drosophila provides a promising model for the study of age-related loss of neural plasticity and begin to identify genes that might be manipulated to delay the onset of functional senescence.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5665/sleep.3988

  10 / 249928 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25142558
[Au] Autor:Hoedlmoser K; Heib DP; Roell J; Peigneux P; Sadeh A; Gruber G; Schabus M
[Ti] Title:Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children.
[So] Source:Sleep;37(9):1501-12, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1550-9109
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVES: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. DESIGN: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). CONCLUSIONS: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8-11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5665/sleep.4000


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