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[PMID]: 25747320
[Au] Autor:Camp RM; Johnson JD
[Ad] Address:Kent State University, Biological Sciences Department, Kent, OH 44242, United States.
[Ti] Title:Repeated stressor exposure enhances contextual fear memory in a beta-adrenergic receptor-dependent process and increases impulsivity in a non-beta receptor-dependent fashion.
[So] Source:Physiol Behav;150:64-8, 2015 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-507X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Memory formation is promoted by stress via the release of norepinephrine and stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (ß-ARs). Previous data demonstrate that repeated stressor exposure increases norepinephrine turnover and ß-AR signaling within the amygdala, which led to the hypothesis that some stress-induced behavioral changes are likely due to facilitated associative learning. To test this, Fischer rats were exposed to chronic mild stress for four days. On day 5, subjects (including non-stressed controls) were injected with the beta-blocker propranolol or vehicle prior to conditioning in an operant box (animals receive two mild foot shocks) or passive avoidance apparatus (animals received a foot shock upon entry into the dark chamber). Twenty-four hours later, subjects were returned to the operant box for measurement of freezing or returned to the passive avoidance apparatus for measurement of latency to enter the dark chamber. Subjects were also tested in an open field to assess context-independent anxiety-like behavior. Animals exposed to chronic stress showed significantly more freezing behavior in the operant box than did controls, and this exaggerated freezing was blocked by propranolol during the conditioning trial. There was no effect of stress on behavior in the open field. Unexpectedly, retention latency was significantly reduced in subjects exposed to chronic stress. These results indicate that chronic exposure to stress results in complex behavioral changes. While repeated stress appears to enhance the formation of fearful memories, it also results in behavioral responses that resemble impulsive behaviors that result in poor decision-making.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25386796
[Au] Autor:Rathbone CJ; Ellis JA; Baker I; Butler CR
[Ad] Address:a Department of Psychology , Oxford Brookes University , Oxford , UK.
[Ti] Title:Self, memory, and imagining the future in a case of psychogenic amnesia.
[So] Source:Neurocase;21(6):727-37, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1465-3656
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/13554794.2014.977923

  3 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26223652
[Au] Autor:Frasca D; Diaz A; Romero M; Ferracci F; Blomberg BB
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101 dfrasca@med.miami.edu....
[Ti] Title:MicroRNAs miR-155 and miR-16 Decrease AID and E47 in B Cells from Elderly Individuals.
[So] Source:J Immunol;195(5):2134-40, 2015 Sep 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Our research in the past few years has identified B cell-specific biomarkers able to predict optimal Ab responses in both young and elderly individuals. These biomarkers are activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation; the transcription factor E47, crucial for AID expression; and the ability to generate optimal memory B cells. Moreover, we have found that the increased proinflammatory status of the elderly, both in sera and intrinsic to B cells, negatively impacts B cell function. We have now investigated whether particular inflammatory microRNAs (miRs) contribute to decreased E47 and AID in aged B cells. Our data indicate that E47 and AID mRNA stability is lower in stimulated B cells from elderly individuals. We measured the expression of two miRs crucial for class switch recombination, miR-155 and miR-16, in human unstimulated B cells from young and elderly individuals with the rationale that increases in these before stimulation would decrease E47/AID upon cell activation. We found these miRs and B cell-intrinsic inflammation upregulated in aged unstimulated B cells and negatively associated with AID in the same B cells after stimulation with CpG. We propose that the downregulation of AID in aged human B cells may occur through binding of miR-155 to the 3'-untranslated regions of AID mRNA and/or binding of miR-16 to the 3'-untranslated regions of E47 mRNA, as well as at the transcriptional level of less E47 for AID. Our results indicate novel molecular pathways leading to reduced B cell function with aging.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500520

  4 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26195814
[Au] Autor:Riou C; Tanko RF; Soares AP; Masson L; Werner L; Garrett NJ; Samsunder N; Abdool Karim Q; Abdool Karim SS; Burgers WA
[Ad] Address:Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape 7925, South Africa; Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape 7925, South Africa; and....
[Ti] Title:Restoration of CD4+ Responses to Copathogens in HIV-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy Is Dependent on T Cell Memory Phenotype.
[So] Source:J Immunol;195(5):2273-81, 2015 Sep 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) induces rapid suppression of viral replication and a progressive replenishment of CD4(+) T cells in HIV-infected individuals. However, the effect of ART on restoring pre-existing memory CD4(+) T cells specific for common copathogens is still unclear. To better understand the dynamics of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells during ART, we assessed the frequency, functional capacity, and memory profile of CD4(+) T cells specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and CMV in 15 HIV-infected individuals before and 1 y after ART initiation. After ART initiation, the frequency of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells showed little change, whereas CMV-specific CD4(+) T cells were significantly lower (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the polyfunctional or memory profile of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells before and after ART. The replenishment of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells correlated with the memory differentiation profile of these cells prior to ART. Pathogen-specific CD4(+) T cells exhibiting a late differentiated profile (CD45RO(+)CD27(-)) had a lower capacity to replenish (p = 0.019; r = -0.5) compared with cells with an early differentiated profile (CD45RO(+)CD27(+); p = 0.04; r = 0.45). In conclusion, restoration of copathogen-specific memory CD4(+) T cells during treated HIV infection is related to their memory phenotype, in which early differentiated cells (such as most M. tuberculosis-specific cells) have a higher replenishment capacity compared with late differentiated cells (such as most CMV-specific cells). These data identify an important, hitherto unrecognized, factor that may limit restoration of copathogen immunity in HIV-infected individuals on ART.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500803

  5 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25863357
[Au] Autor:Foote M; Qiao H; Graham K; Wu Y; Zhou Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida....
[Ti] Title:Inhibition of 14-3-3 Proteins Leads to Schizophrenia-Related Behavioral Phenotypes and Synaptic Defects in Mice.
[So] Source:Biol Psychiatry;78(6):386-95, 2015 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2402
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The 14-3-3 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of several key neuronal processes. Previous human and animal studies suggested an association between 14-3-3 dysregulation and schizophrenia. METHODS: We characterized behavioral and functional changes in transgenic mice that express an isoform-independent 14-3-3 inhibitor peptide in the brain. RESULTS: We recently showed that 14-3-3 functional knockout mice (FKO) exhibit impairments in associative learning and memory. We report here that these 14-3-3 FKO mice display other behavioral deficits that correspond to the core symptoms of schizophrenia. These behavioral deficits may be attributed to alterations in multiple neurotransmission systems in the 14-3-3 FKO mice. In particular, inhibition of 14-3-3 proteins results in a reduction of dendritic complexity and spine density in forebrain excitatory neurons, which may underlie the altered synaptic connectivity in the prefrontal cortical synapse of the 14-3-3 FKO mice. At the molecular level, this dendritic spine defect may stem from dysregulated actin dynamics secondary to a disruption of the 14-3-3-dependent regulation of phosphorylated cofilin. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data provide a link between 14-3-3 dysfunction, synaptic alterations, and schizophrenia-associated behavioral deficits.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26002280
[Au] Autor:Sample CH; Martin AA; Jones S; Hargrave SL; Davidson TL
[Ad] Address:Center for Behavioral Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC, USA....
[Ti] Title:Western-style diet impairs stimulus control by food deprivation state cues: Implications for obesogenic environments.
[So] Source:Appetite;93:13-23, 2015 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In western and westernized societies, large portions of the population live in what are considered to be "obesogenic" environments. Among other things, obesogenic environments are characterized by a high prevalence of external cues that are associated with highly palatable, energy-dense foods. One prominent hypothesis suggests that these external cues become such powerful conditioned elicitors of appetitive and eating behavior that they overwhelm the internal, physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain energy balance. The present research investigated a learning mechanism that may underlie this loss of internal relative to external control. In Experiment 1, rats were provided with both auditory cues (external stimuli) and varying levels of food deprivation (internal stimuli) that they could use to solve a simple discrimination task. Despite having access to clearly discriminable external cues, we found that the deprivation cues gained substantial discriminative control over conditioned responding. Experiment 2 found that, compared to standard chow, maintenance on a "western-style" diet high in saturated fat and sugar weakened discriminative control by food deprivation cues, but did not impair learning when external cues were also trained as relevant discriminative signals for sucrose. Thus, eating a western-style diet contributed to a loss of internal control over appetitive behavior relative to external cues. We discuss how this relative loss of control by food deprivation signals may result from interference with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, forming the basis of a vicious-cycle of excessive intake, body weight gain, and progressive cognitive decline that may begin very early in life.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25865659
[Au] Autor:Khan NA; Raine LB; Drollette ES; Scudder MR; Hillman CH
[Ad] Address:Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Electronic address: nakhan2@illinois.edu....
[Ti] Title:The relation of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol to childhood cognitive flexibility.
[So] Source:Appetite;93:51-6, 2015 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25862980
[Au] Autor:Hargrave SL; Davidson TL; Lee TJ; Kinzig KP
[Ad] Address:Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University, Asbury Hall, 4400 Massachusetts Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20016, USA. Electronic address: Hargrave@am...
[Ti] Title:Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access.
[So] Source:Appetite;93:35-43, 2015 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Energy dense "Western" diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25843937
[Au] Autor:Ross N; Yau PL; Convit A
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
[Ti] Title:Obesity, fitness, and brain integrity in adolescence.
[So] Source:Appetite;93:44-50, 2015 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: We set out to ascertain the relationship between insulin resistance, fitness, and brain structure and function in adolescents. DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 79 obese and 51 non-obese participants who were recruited from the community, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All participants received medical, endocrine, neuropsychological, and MRI evaluations as well as a 6-minute walk test that was used to estimate fitness (maximal oxygen consumption). RESULTS: Obese adolescents had significantly thinner orbitofrontal cortices and performed significantly worse on Visual Working Memory tasks and the Digit Vigilance task. Insulin sensitivity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were both highly correlated with central obesity and orbitofrontal cortical thickness, although insulin sensitivity was the stronger predictor for orbitofrontal cortical thickness. We also found that VO2 max was the only significant physiological variable related to visual working memory. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report positive associations between insulin resistance, VO2 max, and frontal lobe brain integrity in adolescents. Given the importance of brain health for learning and school performance, we conclude that schools should also emphasize physical fitness in order to maintain structural and functional brain integrity and facilitate academic achievement.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 266100 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26083664
[Au] Autor:Zeidan F; Lobanov OV; Kraft RA; Coghill RC
[Ad] Address:Departments ofaNeurobiology and Anatomy bBiomedical Engineering, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
[Ti] Title:Brain mechanisms supporting violated expectations of pain.
[So] Source:Pain;156(9):1772-85, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6623
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between experiences, future predictions, and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain, whereas expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. This investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, 10 incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine whether expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between prestimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations in which patients' unrealistic expectations of pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 150822
[Lr] Last revision date:150822
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000231


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