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[PMID]: 24781514
[Au] Autor:Thompson JL; Rosell DR; Slifstein M; Girgis RR; Xu X; Ehrlich Y; Kegeles LS; Hazlett EA; Abi-Dargham A; Siever LJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, 10032, USA, judy.thompson@rutgers.edu.
[Ti] Title:Prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors and working memory in schizotypal personality disorder: a PET study with [(11)C]NNC112.
[So] Source:Psychopharmacology (Berl);231(21):4231-40, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2072
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is associated with working memory (WM) impairments that are similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Imaging studies have suggested that schizophrenia is associated with alterations in dopamine D1 receptor availability in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that may be related to the WM impairments that characterize this disorder. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize prefrontal D1 receptor availability and its relation to WM performance in SPD. METHODS: We used positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [(11)C]NNC112 with 18 unmedicated SPD and 21 healthy control participants; as an index of D1 receptor availability, binding potential (BP) measures (BPF, BPND, and BPP) were calculated for prefrontal and striatal subregions. To assess WM, SPD participants completed the 2-back and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). RESULTS: There were no significant group differences in PFC BP. BPF and BPP in the medial PFC were significantly negatively related to PASAT performance (r s = -0.551, p = .022 and r s = -0.488, p = .047, respectively), but BP was not related to 2-back performance. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to what has been found in schizophrenia, SPD was not associated with significant alterations in prefrontal D1 receptor availability. Similar to previous schizophrenia findings, however, higher prefrontal D1 receptor availability was associated with poorer WM performance (as measured by the PASAT) in SPD. These findings suggest that schizophrenia and SPD may share a common pathophysiological feature related to prefrontal dopamine functioning that contributes to WM dysfunction, but that in SPD, alterations in D1 may occur only in a subset of individuals and/or to an extent that is minor relative to what occurs in schizophrenia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3566-6

  2 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24733237
[Au] Autor:Porter JN; Minhas D; Lopresti BJ; Price JC; Bradberry CW
[Ad] Address:Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Altered cerebellar and prefrontal cortex function in rhesus monkeys that previously self-administered cocaine.
[So] Source:Psychopharmacology (Berl);231(21):4211-8, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2072
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Differences in brain function in cocaine users can occur even when frank deficits are not apparent, indicating neuroadaptive consequences of use. Using monkeys to investigate altered metabolic activity following chronic cocaine self-administration allows an assessment of altered function due to cocaine use, without confounding pre-existing differences or polysubstance use often present in clinical studies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alterations in metabolic function during a working memory task in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum following 1 year of chronic cocaine self-administration followed by a 20 month drug-free period. METHODS: Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F) PET imaging was used to evaluate changes in relative regional metabolic activity associated with a delayed match to sample working memory task. Chronic cocaine animals were compared to a control group, and region of interest analyses focused on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cerebellum. RESULTS: Despite no differences in task performance, in the cocaine group, the cerebellum showed greater metabolic activity during the working memory task (relative to the control task) compared to the control group. There was also a trend toward a significant difference between the groups in DLPFC activity (p = 0.054), with the cocaine group exhibiting lower DLPFC metabolic activity during the delay task (relative to the control task) than the control group. CONCLUSION: The results support clinical indications of increased cerebellar activity associated with chronic cocaine exposure. Consistent with evidence of functional interactions between cerebellum and prefrontal cortex, these changes may serve to compensate for potential impairments in functionality of DLPFC.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3560-z

  3 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24824142
[Au] Autor:Buss E; Taylor CN; Leibold LJ
[Ti] Title:Factors affecting sensitivity to frequency change in school-age children and adults.
[So] Source:J Speech Lang Hear Res;57(5):1972-82, 2014 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1558-9102
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. METHOD: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of children had musical training. The task was a 3-alternative forced choice in which listeners identified the interval with the higher frequency tone or the tone characterized by frequency modulation (FM). The standard was 500 or 5000 Hz, and the FM rate was either 2 or 20 Hz. RESULTS: Thresholds tended to be higher for younger children than for older children and adults for all conditions, although this age effect was smaller for FM detection than for pure-tone frequency discrimination. Neither standard frequency nor modulation rate affected the child/adult difference FM thresholds. Children with musical training performed better than their peers on pure-tone frequency discrimination at 500 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Testing frequency discrimination using a low-rate FM detection task may minimize effects related to cognitive factors like memory for pitch or training effects. Maturation of frequency discrimination does not appear to differ across conditions in which listeners are hypothesized to rely on temporal cues and place cues.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-H-13-0254

  4 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25296334
[Au] Autor:Li L; Lin M; Krassilnikova M; Ostrow K; Bader A; Radbill B; Uribarri J; Tokita J; Leisman S; Lapsia V; Albrecht RA; García-Sastre A; Branch AD; Heeger PS; Mehrotra A
[Ad] Address:Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on inflammation and cellular alloimmunity in hemodialysis patients: data from a randomized controlled pilot trial.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109998, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Memory T-cells are mediators of transplant injury, and no therapy is known to prevent the development of cross-reactive memory alloimmunity. Activated vitamin D is immunomodulatory, and vitamin D deficiency, common in hemodialysis patients awaiting transplantation, is associated with a heightened alloimmune response. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that vitamin D3 supplementation would prevent alloreactive T-cell memory formation in vitamin D-deficient hemodialysis patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a 12-month single-center pilot randomized, controlled trial of 50,000 IU/week of cholecalciferol (D3) versus no supplementation in 96 hemodialysis patients with serum 25(OH)D<25 ng/mL, measuring effects on serum 25(OH)D and phenotypic and functional properties of T-cells. Participants were randomized 2∶1 to active treatment versus control. D3 supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D at 6 weeks (13.5 [11.2] ng/mL to 42.5 [18.5] ng/mL, p<0.001) and for the duration of the study. No episodes of sustained hypercalcemia occurred in either group. Results of IFNγ ELISPOT-based panel of reactive T-cell assays (PRT), quantifying alloreactive memory, demonstrated greater increases in the controls over 1 year compared to the treatment group (delta PRT in treatment 104.8+/-330.8 vs 252.9+/-431.3 in control), but these changes in PRT between groups did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: D3 supplements are safe, effective at treating vitamin D deficiency, and may prevent time-dependent increases in T-cell alloimmunity in hemodialysis patients, but their effects on alloimmunity need to be confirmed in larger studies. These findings support the routine supplementation of vitamin D-deficient transplant candidates on hemodialysis and highlight the need for large-scale prospective studies of vitamin D supplementation in transplant candidates and recipients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01175798.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109998

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[PMID]: 25296032
[Au] Autor:Michalowski JM; Weymar M; Hamm AO
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.
[Ti] Title:Remembering the Object You Fear: Brain Potentials during Recognition of Spiders in Spider-Fearful Individuals.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109537, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental) encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109537

  6 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298759
[Au] Autor:Salaoru I; Li Q; Khiat A; Prodromakis T
[Ad] Address:Nano Research Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK....
[Ti] Title:Coexistence of memory resistance and memory capacitance in TiO2 solid-state devices.
[So] Source:Nanoscale Res Lett;9(1):552, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1931-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This work exploits the coexistence of both resistance and capacitance memory effects in TiO2-based two-terminal cells. Our Pt/TiO2/TiO x /Pt devices exhibit an interesting combination of hysteresis and non-zero crossing in their current-voltage (I-V) characteristic that indicates the presence of capacitive states. Our experimental results demonstrate that both resistance and capacitance states can be simultaneously set via either voltage cycling and/or voltage pulses. We argue that these state modulations occur due to bias-induced reduction of the TiO x active layer via the displacement of ionic species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-9-552

  7 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25156174
[Au] Autor:Yano Y; Ning H; Allen N; Reis JP; Launer LJ; Liu K; Yaffe K; Greenland P; Lloyd-Jones DM
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (Y.Y., H.N., N.A., K.L., P.G., D.M.L.-J.); Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (J.P.R.); Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and B...
[Ti] Title:Long-Term Blood Pressure Variability Throughout Young Adulthood and Cognitive Function in Midlife: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
[So] Source:Hypertension;64(5):983-8, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1524-4563
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Whether long-term blood pressure (BP) variability throughout young adulthood is associated with cognitive function in midlife remains uncertain. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), which recruited healthy young adults aged 18 to 30 years (mean age, 25 years) at baseline (Y0), we assessed BP variability by SD and average real variability (ARV) for 25 years (8 visits). Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (executive function test) at follow-up (Y25). At the Y25 examination, participants (n=2326) had a mean age of 50.4 years, 43% were men, and 40% were black. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher ARVSBP, ARVDBP, and SDDBP were significantly associated with lower scores of Digit Symbol Substitution Test (ß [SE]: -0.025 [0.006], -0.029 [0.007], and -0.029 [0.007], respectively; all P<0.001) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (ß [SE]: -0.016 [0.006], -0.021 [0.007], and -0.019 [0.007], respectively; all P<0.05) after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics and with cumulative exposure to BP through Y0 to Y25. Neither SDBP nor ARVBP was associated with the Stroop score. The associations between ARVBP or SDBP and each cognitive function test were similar between blacks and whites except for 1 significant interaction between race and SDSBP on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P<0.05). Long-term BP variability for 25 years beginning in young adulthood was associated with worse psychomotor speed and verbal memory tests in midlife, independent of cumulative exposure to BP during follow-up.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03978

  8 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298775
[Au] Autor:Custodio N; Lira D; Herrera-Perez E; Nuñez Del Prado L; Parodi J; Guevara-Silva E; Castro-Suarez S; Montesinos R; Cortijo P
[Ad] Address:Servicio de Neurología, Unidad de Diagnóstico de Deterioro Cognitivo y Prevención de Demencia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru ; Unidad de Diagnóstico de Deterioro Cognitivo y Prevención de Demencia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru ; Unidad de Investigación, Institu...
[Ti] Title:The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.
[So] Source:Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra;4(2):314-21, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:1664-5464
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). METHODS: The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000365280

  9 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298774
[Au] Autor:Ong YT; Hilal S; Cheung CY; Xu X; Chen C; Venketasubramanian N; Wong TY; Ikram MK
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore ; Department of NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore ; Department of Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore....
[Ti] Title:Retinal vascular fractals and cognitive impairment.
[So] Source:Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra;4(2):305-13, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:1664-5464
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years) from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. CONCLUSION: A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000363286

  10 / 250262 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25289699
[Au] Autor:Danek A; Deorowicz S; Grabowski S
[Ad] Address:Institute of Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.
[Ti] Title:Indexes of Large Genome Collections on a PC.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109384, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The availability of thousands of individual genomes of one species should boost rapid progress in personalized medicine or understanding of the interaction between genotype and phenotype, to name a few applications. A key operation useful in such analyses is aligning sequencing reads against a collection of genomes, which is costly with the use of existing algorithms due to their large memory requirements. We present MuGI, Multiple Genome Index, which reports all occurrences of a given pattern, in exact and approximate matching model, against a collection of thousand(s) genomes. Its unique feature is the small index size, which is customisable. It fits in a standard computer with 16-32 GB, or even 8 GB, of RAM, for the 1000GP collection of 1092 diploid human genomes. The solution is also fast. For example, the exact matching queries (of average length 150 bp) are handled in average time of 39 µs and with up to 3 mismatches in 373 µs on the test PC with the index size of 13.4 GB. For a smaller index, occupying 7.4 GB in memory, the respective times grow to 76 µs and 917 µs. Software is available at http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/mugi under a free license. Data S1 is available at PLOS One online.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109384


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