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[PMID]: 23984711
[Au] Autor:Szwed K; Pawliszak W; Anisimowicz L; Bucinski A; Borkowska A
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum , Bydgoszcz , Poland.
[Ti] Title:Short-term outcome of attention and executive functions from aorta no-touch and traditional off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.
[So] Source:World J Biol Psychiatry;15(5):397-403, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1814-1412
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abstract Objectives. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important neuropsychiatric complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It is most likely caused by microembolic brain damage and affects domains of attention, memory, executive functions and dexterity. In order to achieve better neuroprotection, surgeons introduced some advantageous operating procedures. Noteworthy among them is a state-of-the-art off-pump CABG aorta no-touch technique ("no touch" OPCABG). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of "no touch" OPCABG on patients' attention and executive functions. Methods. In this prospective, observational, single-surgeon trial, 74 patients scheduled for elective CABG were studied. Thirty-five patients underwent "no-touch" OPCABG and were compared to 39 patients who underwent "traditional" OPCABG. Subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological evaluation at the time of admission (7 ± 2 days preoperatively) and discharge (7 days postoperatively). Results. Patients who underwent "traditional" OPCABG showed a significant decline in postoperative performance on 4 neuropsychological tests, while patients treated with "no touch" OPCABG showed a significant decline on 1 test. Twenty patients from "traditional" OPCABG group and ten patients from "no touch" OPCABG group were diagnosed with POCD. Conclusions. Use of "no touch" OPCABG was associated with better attention and executive functions 1 week after surgery compared with "traditional" OPCABG.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3109/15622975.2013.824611

  2 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23800199
[Au] Autor:Demirakca T; Brusniak W; Tunc-Skarka N; Wolf I; Meier S; Matthäus F; Ende G; Schulze TG; Diener C
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/University of Heidelberg , Mannheim , Germany.
[Ti] Title:Does body shaping influence brain shape? Habitual physical activity is linked to brain morphology independent of age.
[So] Source:World J Biol Psychiatry;15(5):387-96, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1814-1412
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abstract Objectives. Physical activity (PA) was found to influence human brain morphology. However, the impact of PA on brain morphology was mainly demonstrated in seniors. We investigated healthy individuals across a broad age range for the relation between habitual PA and brain morphology. Methods. Ninety-five participants (19-82 years) were assessed for self-reported habitual PA with the "Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire", and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were evaluated with whole brain voxel based morphometry for gray and white matter volumes and densities. Results. Regression analyses revealed a positive relation between the extent of physical activity and gray matter volume bilaterally in the anterior hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus independent of age and gender. Age as well as leisure and locomotion activities were linked to enhanced white matter volumes in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, suggesting a positive interaction especially in seniors. Conclusions. Habitual physical activity is associated with regional volumetric gray and white matter alterations. The positive relation of hippocampal volume and physical activity seems not to be restricted to seniors. Thus, habitual physical activity should be generally considered as an influencing factor in studies investigating medial temporal lobe volume and associated cognitive functions (memory), especially in psychiatric research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3109/15622975.2013.803600

  3 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25023459
[Au] Autor:Aquino G; Tweedy L; Heinrich D; Endres RG
[Ad] Address:Department of Life Sciences and Centre for Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Memory improves precision of cell sensing in fluctuating environments.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;4:5688, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Biological cells are often found to sense their chemical environment near the single-molecule detection limit. Surprisingly, this precision is higher than simple estimates of the fundamental physical limit, hinting towards active sensing strategies. In this work, we analyse the effect of cell memory, e.g. from slow biochemical processes, on the precision of sensing by cell-surface receptors. We derive analytical formulas, which show that memory significantly improves sensing in weakly fluctuating environments. However, surprisingly when memory is adjusted dynamically, the precision is always improved, even in strongly fluctuating environments. In support of this prediction we quantify the directional biases in chemotactic Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a flow chamber with alternating chemical gradients. The strong similarities between cell sensing and control engineering suggest universal problem-solving strategies of living matter.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep05688

  4 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024847
[Au] Autor:Krishnadas R; Ramanathan S; Wong E; Nayak A; Moore B
[Ad] Address:Sackler Institute of Psychobiological Research, Southern General Hospital, Room 25, University Corridor, Ground Floor, Neurology Building, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK....
[Ti] Title:Residual negative symptoms differentiate cognitive performance in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
[So] Source:Schizophr Res Treatment;2014:785310, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2090-2085
[Cp] Country of publication:Egypt
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140715
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/785310

  5 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024913
[Au] Autor:Jenkins R; McLachlan JL; Renaud K
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of York , United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication.
[So] Source:PeerJ;2:e444, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2167-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised 'facelock', in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140715
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7717/peerj.444

  6 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25020050
[Au] Autor:Khatami A; Clutterbuck EA; Thompson AJ; McKenna JA; Pace D; Birks J; Snape MD; Pollard AJ
[Ad] Address:Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of the Induction of Immune Memory following Infant Immunisation with Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis Conjugate Vaccines - Exploratory Analyses within a Randomised Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e101672, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot) following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory. METHODS: Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age. RESULTS: Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p = 0.001) or 2-dose (p<0.0001) MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children. CONCLUSIONS: MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101672

  7 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019944
[Au] Autor:Yamanaka K; Tomioka H; Kawasaki S; Noda Y; Yamagata B; Iwanami A; Mimura M
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Effect of parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation on spatial working memory in healthy elderly persons - comparison of near infrared spectroscopy for young and elderly.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102306, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In a previous study, we succeeded in improving the spatial working memory (WM) performance in healthy young persons by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex and simultaneously measuring the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Since an improvement in WM was observed when TMS was applied to the right parietal cortex, the oxy-Hb distribution seemed to support a model of hemispheric asymmetry (HA). In the present study, we used the same study design to evaluate healthy elderly persons and investigated the effect of TMS on WM performance in the elderly, comparing the results with those previously obtained from young persons. The application of TMS did not affect WM performance (both reaction time and accuracy) of 38 elderly participants (mean age  = 72.5 years old). To investigate the reason for this result, we conducted a three-way ANOVA examining oxy-Hb in both young and elderly participants. For the right parietal TMS site in the elderly, TMS significantly decreased the oxy-Hb level during WM performance; this result was the opposite of that observed in young participants. An additional three-way ANOVA was conducted for each of the 52 channels, and a P value distribution map was created. The P value maps for the young participants showed a clearly localized TMS effect for both the WM and control task, whereas the P map for the elderly participants showed less significant channels and localization. Further analysis following the time course revealed that right-side parietal TMS had almost no effect on the frontal cortex in the elderly participants. This result can most likely be explained by age-related differences in HA arising from the over-recruitment of oxy-Hb, differentiation in the parietal cortex, and age-related alterations of the frontal-parietal networks.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102306

  8 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019526
[Au] Autor:Schmidt JR; Weissman DH
[Ad] Address:Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Congruency Sequence Effects without Feature Integration or Contingency Learning Confounds.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102337, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The congruency effect in distracter interference (e.g., Stroop) tasks is often reduced after incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials. It has been proposed that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) results from trial-by-trial adjustments of attention, which are triggered by changes in response conflict, expectancy, or negative affect. Hence, a large literature has developed to investigate the source(s) of attention adaptation in distracter interference tasks. Recent work, however, suggests that CSEs may stem from feature integration and/or contingency learning processes that are confounded with congruency sequence in the vast majority of distracter interference tasks. By combining an established method for measuring CSEs in the absence of these learning and memory confounds with a prime-probe task, we observed robust CSEs in two experiments. These findings provide strong evidence of CSEs independent of learning and memory confounds, which might be explainable by trial-by-trial adjustments of attention. They also reveal a highly effective approach for observing CSEs independent of the typical confounds, which will facilitate future studies of how people adapt to distraction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102337

  9 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019225
[Au] Autor:Wolfsgruber S; Wagner M; Schmidtke K; Frölich L; Kurz A; Schulz S; Hampel H; Heuser I; Peters O; Reischies FM; Jahn H; Luckhaus C; Hüll M; Gertz HJ; Schröder J; Pantel J; Rienhoff O; Rüther E; Henn F; Wiltfang J; Maier W; Kornhuber J; Jessen F
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Memory concerns, memory performance and risk of dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e100812, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Concerns about worsening memory ("memory concerns"; MC) and impairment in memory performance are both predictors of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The relationship of both in dementia prediction at the pre-dementia disease stage, however, is not well explored. Refined understanding of the contribution of both MC and memory performance in dementia prediction is crucial for defining at-risk populations. We examined the risk of incident AD by MC and memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: We analyzed data of 417 MCI patients from a longitudinal multicenter observational study. Patients were classified based on presence (n = 305) vs. absence (n = 112) of MC. Risk of incident AD was estimated with Cox Proportional-Hazards regression models. RESULTS: Risk of incident AD was increased by MC (HR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1.33-4.89), lower memory performance (HR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.56-0.71) and ApoE4-genotype (HR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.18-3.02). An interaction effect between MC and memory performance was observed. The predictive power of MC was greatest for patients with very mild memory impairment and decreased with increasing memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the power of MC as a predictor of future dementia at the MCI stage varies with the patients' level of cognitive impairment. While MC are predictive at early stage MCI, their predictive value at more advanced stages of MCI is reduced. This suggests that loss of insight related to AD may occur at the late stage of MCI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100812

  10 / 245728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25023300
[Au] Autor:Glasgow NG; Johnson JW
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA.
[Ti] Title:Whole-Cell Patch-Clamp Analysis of Recombinant NMDA Receptor Pharmacology Using Brief Glutamate Applications.
[So] Source:Methods Mol Biol;1183:23-41, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1940-6029
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that are essential for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Dysfunction of NMDARs has been implicated in many nervous system disorders; therefore, pharmacological modulation of NMDAR activity has great therapeutic potential. However, given the broad physiological importance of NMDARs, modulating their activity often has detrimental side effects precluding pharmaceutical use of many NMDAR modulators. One approach to possibly improve the therapeutic potential of NMDAR modulators is to identify compounds that modulate subsets of NMDARs. An obvious target for modulating NMDAR subsets is the many NMDAR subtypes produced through different combinations of NMDAR subunits. With seven identified genes that encode NMDAR subunits, there are many neuronal NMDAR subtypes with distinct properties and potentially differential pharmacological sensitivities. Study of NMDAR subtype-specific pharmacology is complicated in neurons, however, because most neurons express at least three NMDAR subtypes. Thus, use of an approach that permits study in isolation of a single receptor subtype is preferred. Additionally, the effects of drugs on agonist-activated responses typically depend on duration of agonist exposure. To evaluate drug effects on synaptic transmission, an approach should be used that allows for activation of receptor responses as brief as those observed during synaptic transmission, both in the absence and presence of drug. To address these issues, we designed a fast perfusion system capable of (1) delivering brief (~5 ms) and consistent applications of glutamate to recombinant NMDARs of known subunit composition, and (2) easily and quickly (~5 s) changing between glutamate applications in the absence and presence of drug.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-1096-0_2


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