Database : MEDLINE
Search on : monkeypox [Words]
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[PMID]: 29401327
[Au] Autor:Cieslak TJ; Kortepeter MG; Wojtyk RJ; Jansen HJ; Reyes RA; Smith JO; And the NATO Biological Medical Advisory Panel
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198.
[Ti] Title:Beyond the Dirty Dozen: A Proposed Methodology for Assessing Future Bioweapon Threats.
[So] Source:Mil Med;183(1-2):e59-e65, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin. In fact, determining whether an outbreak has an unnatural origin can be quite difficult. Thus, the questions remain: could the causative agents of these and other emerging infectious disease outbreaks pose a future weaponization threat? And how great is that threat? Should precious resources be diverted from other defense efforts in order to prepare for possible hostile employment of novel diseases by belligerents? Answering such critical questions requires some form of systematic threat assessment. Methods: Through extensive collaborative work conducted within NATO's Biomedical Advisory Council, we developed a scoring matrix for evaluating the weaponization potential of the causative agents of such diseases and attempted to validate our matrix by examining the reproducibility of data using known threat agents. Our matrix included 12 attributes of a potential weapon and was provided, along with detailed scoring instructions, to 12 groups of biodefense experts in 6 NATO nations. Study participants were asked to score each of these 12 attributes on a scale of 0-3: Infectivity, Infection-to-Disease Ratio (Reliability), Predictability (& Incubation Period), Morbidity & Mortality (Virulence), Ease of Large-Scale Production & Storage, Aerosol Stability, Atmospheric Stability, Ease of Dispersal, Communicability, Prophylactic Countermeasure Availability, Therapeutic Countermeasure Availability, and Ease of Detection. Reproducibility of scoring data was assessed by examining the standard deviations (SD) of mean scores. Results: Our results were unexpected. Several familiar biothreat diseases such as anthrax and tularemia were judged, by our experts, to be less threatening than many others owing to a number of factors including ease of detection, lack of communicability, and the ready availability of countermeasures. Conversely, several toxins were judged by experts to have very high potential as threat agents owing, in part, to their reliability, virulence, and a lack of available countermeasures. Agreement among experts, as determined by lower SD about a mean score, was greater for more familiar threats. Discussion: Our study was designed to provide a concise and east-to-apply set of criteria that could be used by NATO nations to evaluate emerging infectious disease threats with respect to their weaponization potential. Our results were unexpected. We believe that a lack of appropriate weighting factors may explain these results and suggest that future studies weigh each of the 12 proposed criteria based on the intended use of the assessment data and other situational factors. We believe that the greatest value of our study lies in a codification of the attributes of a biological weapon.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/milmed/usx004

  2 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510577
[Au] Autor:Duncan ML; Horsington J; Eldi P; Al Rumaih Z; Karupiah G; Newsome TP
[Ad] Address:School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. melanie.duncan@sydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo.
[So] Source:Viruses;10(3), 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. A36 also functions in the intracellular trafficking of virus mediated by kinesin-1. Here, we describe the generation of a recombinant ECTV that is specifically disrupted in actin-based motility allowing us to examine the role of this transport step in vivo for the first time. We show that actin-based motility has a critical role in promoting the release of virus from infected cells in vitro but plays a minor role in virus spread in vivo. It is likely that loss of microtubule-dependent transport is a major factor for the attenuation observed when is deleted.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29495547
[Au] Autor:Albarnaz JD; Torres AA; Smith GL
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK. jd732@cam.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Modulating Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulators to Improve Immunological Memory.
[So] Source:Viruses;10(3), 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The increasing frequency of monkeypox virus infections, new outbreaks of other zoonotic orthopoxviruses and concern about the re-emergence of smallpox have prompted research into developing antiviral drugs and better vaccines against these viruses. This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described. The ultimate goal is to develop safer and more immunogenic VACV vaccines that induce long-lasting immunological memory.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29361427
[Au] Autor:Faye O; Pratt CB; Faye M; Fall G; Chitty JA; Diagne MM; Wiley MR; Yinka-Ogunleye AF; Aruna S; Etebu EN; Aworabhi N; Ogoina D; Numbere W; Mba N; Palacios G; Sall AA; Ihekweazu C
[Ad] Address:Institute Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal.
[Ti] Title:Genomic characterisation of human monkeypox virus in Nigeria.
[So] Source:Lancet Infect Dis;18(3):246, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1474-4457
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29446492
[Au] Autor:Zehender G; Lai A; Veo C; Bergna A; Ciccozzi M; Galli M
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
[Ti] Title:BAYESIAN RECONSTRUCTION OF THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY AND CROSS-SPECIES TRANSITION OF VARIOLA VIRUS AND ORTHOPOXVIRUSES.
[So] Source:J Med Virol;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9071
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts. In order to estimate the substitution rate, the tree including all of the available Orthopoxviruses was calibrated using historical references dating the South American variola minor clade (alastrim) to between the XVI and XIX century. The mean substitution rate determined by the analysis was 6.5 × 10 substitutions/site/year. Based on this evolutionary estimate, the time of the most recent common ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was placed at about 10,000 years before the present. Cowpox virus was the species closest to the root of the phylogenetic tree. The root of VARV circulating in the XX century was estimated to be about 700 years ago, corresponding to about 1300 AD. The divergence between West African and South American VARV went back about 500 years ago (falling approximately in the XVI century). A rodent species is the most probable ancestral host from which the ancestors of all the known Orthopoxviruses were transmitted to the other mammal host species, and each of these species represented a dead-end for each new poxvirus species, without any further inter-specific spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/jmv.25055

  6 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29231870
[Au] Autor:Reynolds MG; McCollum AM; Nguete B; Shongo Lushima R; Petersen BW
[Ad] Address:US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. nzr6@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Title:Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research.
[So] Source:Viruses;9(12), 2017 Dec 12.
[Is] ISSN:1999-4915
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes. Experimental and natural infection of non-human primates with monkeypox virus can inform the approach to improving patient care, and may suggest options for pharmaceutical intervention. These studies have traditionally been performed to address the threat of smallpox bioterrorism and were designed with the intent of using MPX as a disease surrogate for smallpox. In many cases this necessitated employing high-dose, inhalational or intravenous challenge to recapitulate the severe manifestations of illness seen with smallpox. Overall, these data-and data from biomedical research involving burns, superficial wounds, herpes, eczema vaccinatum, and so forth-suggest that MPX patients could benefit from clinical support to mitigate the consequences of compromised skin and mucosa. This should include prevention and treatment of secondary bacterial infections (and other complications), ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, and protecting vulnerable anatomical locations such as the eyes and genitals. A standard of care that considers these factors should be developed and assessed in different settings, using clinical metrics specific for MPX alongside consideration of antiviral therapies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180101
[Lr] Last revision date:180101
[St] Status:In-Process

  7 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29155663
[Au] Autor:Shiferaw ML; Doty JB; Maghlakelidze G; Morgan J; Khmaladze E; Parkadze O; Donduashvili M; Wemakoy EO; Muyembe JJ; Mulumba L; Malekani J; Kabamba J; Kanter T; Boulanger LL; Haile A; Bekele A; Bekele M; Tafese K; McCollum AA; Reynolds MG
[Ti] Title:Frameworks for Preventing, Detecting, and Controlling Zoonotic Diseases.
[So] Source:Emerg Infect Dis;23(13), 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1080-6059
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. The first, rabies control in Ethiopia, was implemented using an umbrella approach: a comprehensive program designed for accelerated impact. The second, a monkeypox program in Democratic Republic of the Congo, was implemented in a stepwise manner, whereby incremental improvements and activities were incorporated into the program. The third approach, a pathogen discovery program, applied in the country of Georgia, was designed to characterize and understand the ecology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of a new zoonotic pathogen. No one approach is superior, but various factors should be taken into account during design, planning, and implementation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3201/eid2313.170601

  8 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29100534
[Au] Autor:Mucker EM; Hartmann C; Hering D; Giles W; Miller D; Fisher R; Huggins J
[Ad] Address:Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, 21702-5011, USA. eric.m.mucker.ctr@mail.mil.
[Ti] Title:Validation of a pan-orthopox real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of viral genomes from nonhuman primate blood.
[So] Source:Virol J;14(1):210, 2017 Nov 03.
[Is] ISSN:1743-422X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Siberia) and one in the United States (CDC Atlanta). Vaccinations among the general public ceased shortly after the successful eradication campaign, resulting in an increasingly immunologically susceptible population. Because of the possibility of intentional reintroduction of Variola virus and the emergence of other pathogenic poxviruses, there is a great need for the development of medical countermeasures to treat poxvirus disease. It is highly likely that the U.S. FDA "animal rule" will be necessary for regulatory approval of these interventions. Therefore, relevant animal models and the associated supporting assays will require development to stand up to regulatory scrutiny. METHODS: An optimized real time PCR assay for the detection of orthopoxviruses has been developed by researchers at the United States Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). To support animal studies that will be used to support approval of medical countermeasures by the U.S. FDA, the assay was designed to quantitate poxvirus genomic DNA in a nonhuman primate (cynomolgus macaque) blood matrix as a measurement of viremia. This manuscript describes the validation of the process, including DNA extraction from whole blood anticoagulated with EDTA, for obtaining and quantitating monkeypox genomes by evaluating precision, accuracy, the standard curve, specificity, robustness and stability of the assay and/or components of the assay. RESULTS: The assay had a lower limit of quantitation of 50 genome copies/5 uL sample, upper limit of quantitation of 5 × 10 GC/5uL sample and a limit of detection of 2.5 genome copies /5uL sample. The assay was specific for orthopoxvirus. Matrix effects were detected and suggest the presence of PCR inhibitor(s) that was co-extracted with the target DNA. CONCLUSIONS: The assay has been validated for the purpose of quantitating monkeypox viral load in blood from cynomolgus macaques. This assay has and will continue to support submissions to the FDA for approval of antiviral therapeutics for smallpox.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12985-017-0880-8

  9 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29029238
[Au] Autor:Kisalu NK; Mokili JL
[Ad] Address:Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
[Ti] Title:Toward Understanding the Outcomes of Monkeypox Infection in Human Pregnancy.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;216(7):795-797, 2017 Oct 17.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171103
[Lr] Last revision date:171103
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix342

  10 / 714 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29029147
[Au] Autor:Mbala PK; Huggins JW; Riu-Rovira T; Ahuka SM; Mulembakani P; Rimoin AW; Martin JW; Muyembe JT
[Ad] Address:L'Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale.
[Ti] Title:Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Human Monkeypox Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;216(7):824-828, 2017 Oct 17.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171103
[Lr] Last revision date:171103
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix260


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