Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29522648
[Au] Autor:Golding JF; Wesnes KA; Leaker BR
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Westminster, London.
[Ti] Title:The Effects of the Selective Muscarinic M3 Receptor Antagonist Darifenacin, and of Hyoscine (scopolamine), on Motion Sickness, Skin Conductance & Cognitive Function.
[So] Source:Br J Clin Pharmacol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2125
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the selective M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist Darifenacin, oral Hyoscine hydrobromide and Placebo on motion sickness induced by cross-coupled stimulation. METHODS: The effects of Darifenacin 10 mg or 20 mg, Hyoscine hydrobromide 0.6 mg and Placebo were assessed in a randomised, double-blind, 4-way cross over trial of 16 healthy subjects. Motion sickness, skin conductance (a measure of sweating) and psychomotor cognitive function tests were investigated. RESULTS: Hyoscine hydrobromide produced significantly increased tolerance to motion versus Placebo (P<0.05 to P<0.01). The motion protection effect of Darifenacin (10 or 20 mg) was approximately one third of that of Hyoscine hydrobromide, but was not significant versus Placebo. Darifenacin and Hyoscine hydrobromide both significantly reduced skin conductance versus Placebo. Darifenacin produced either no effect or an enhanced effect on cognitive function in contrast to Hyoscine hydrobromide where there was significant impairment of psychomotor performance. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that selective antagonism of the M3 receptor may not be important in the prevention of motion sickness. However selective M3 antagonism does not impair cognitive function. These observations may be important given that long term treatment with non-selective anti-muscarinic agents such as Oxybutynin may lead to an increased incidence of dementia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/bcp.13579

  2 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29401064
[Au] Autor:Neupane AK; Gururaj K; Sinha SK
[Ad] Address:All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysore 570006, India.
[Ti] Title:Higher Asymmetry Ratio and Refixation Saccades in Individuals with Motion Sickness.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Audiol;29(2):175-186, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:2157-3107
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Motion sickness is a complex autonomic phenomenon caused by the intersensory conflict among the balancing systems, resulting in a mismatch of signals between static physical conditions of the susceptible individual exposed to dynamic environment. PURPOSE: The present study was done to assess the sacculocollic reflex pathway and six semicircular canals in individuals susceptible to motion sickness. RESEARCH DESIGN: Standard group comparison was used. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 60 participants with an age range of 17-25 yr were included, where group I comprised 30 participants with motion sickness and group II comprised 30 participants without motion sickness. The Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire-Short was administered to classify the participants into groups with or without motion sickness. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test and video head impulse test (vHIT) were administered to all participants. The Shapiro-Wilk test revealed normal distribution of the data (p > 0.05). Hence a parametric independent sample t test was done to check significant difference in cVEMP and vHIT parameters between the two groups. RESULTS: The present study revealed no significant difference for cVEMP latencies and amplitude in individuals with motion sickness. However, significantly higher cVEMP asymmetry ratio was observed in individuals with motion sickness. Though the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain values showed no significant difference between the two groups except for the right anterior left posterior plane, the asymmetry in VOR gain values revealed significant difference between the groups, suggesting asymmetry as a better parameter than absolute VOR gain values. Also, the presence of refixation saccades in 100% of the individuals with motion sickness accorded with various studies reported earlier with vestibular-related pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of higher asymmetry ratio in cVEMP and vHIT test results plus refixation saccades to stabilize the gaze in vHIT can suggest some amount of vestibular anomalies in individuals with motion sickness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3766/jaaa.16175

  3 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29258975
[Au] Autor:Keller MS; Park HJ; Cunningham ME; Fouladian JE; Chen M; Spiegel BMR
[Ad] Address:Cedars-Sinai Center for Outcomes Research and Education, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
[Ti] Title:Public Perceptions Regarding Use of Virtual Reality in Health Care: A Social Media Content Analysis Using Facebook.
[So] Source:J Med Internet Res;19(12):e419, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8871
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology provides an immersive environment that enables users to have modified experiences of reality. VR is increasingly used to manage patients with pain, disability, obesity, neurologic dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. However, public opinion regarding the use of VR in health care has not been explored. Understanding public opinion of VR is critical to ensuring effective implementation of this emerging technology. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine public opinion about health care VR using social listening, a method that allows for the exploration of unfiltered views of topics discussed on social media and online forums. METHODS: In March 2016, NBC News produced a video depicting the use of VR for patient care. The video was repackaged by NowThis, a social media news website, and distributed on Facebook by Upworthy, a news aggregator, yielding 4.3 million views and 2401 comments. We used Microsoft Excel Power Query and ATLAS.ti software (version 7.5, Scientific Software Development) to analyze the comments using content analysis and categorized the comments around first-, second-, and third-order concepts. We determined self-identified gender from the user's Facebook page and performed sentiment analysis of the language to analyze whether the perception of VR differed by gender using a Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of the 1614 analyzable comments, 1021 (63.26%) were attributed to female Facebook users, 572 (35.44%) to male users, and 21 (1.30%) to users of unknown gender. There were 1197 comments coded as expressing a positive perception about VR (74.16%), 251 coded as expressing a negative perception and/or concern (15.56%), and 560 coded as neutral (34.70%). Informants identified 20 use cases for VR in health care, including the use of VR for pain and stress reduction; bed-bound individuals; women during labor; and patients undergoing chemotherapy, dialysis, radiation, or imaging procedures. Negative comments expressed concerns about radiation, infection risk, motion sickness, and the ubiquity of and overall dependence on technology. There was a statistically significant association between the language valence of the Facebook post and the gender of the Facebook user; men were more likely to post negative perceptions about the use of VR for health care, whereas women were more likely to post positive perceptions (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Most informants expressed positive perceptions about the use of VR in a wide range of health care settings. However, many expressed concerns that should be acknowledged and addressed as health care VR continues to evolve. Our results provide guidance in determining where further research on the use of VR in patient care is needed, and offer a formal opportunity for public opinion to shape the VR research agenda.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Data Collection/methods
Social Media/utilization
Virtual Reality
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Delivery of Health Care
Female
Humans
Male
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2196/jmir.7467

  4 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505848
[Au] Autor:Cowings PS; Toscano WB; Reschke MF; Tsehay A
[Ad] Address:NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 262-2, Moffett Field, CA 94035, United States. Electronic address: patricia.s.cowings@nasa.gov.
[Ti] Title:Psychophysiological assessment and correction of spatial disorientation during simulated Orion spacecraft re-entry.
[So] Source:Int J Psychophysiol;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7697
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures in the rotating chair (Orion tests) simulating angular accelerations of the crew vehicle during re-entry. AFTE subjects received 2 h of training before Orion tests 2, 3, and 4. Motion sickness symptoms, task performance, and physiological measures were recorded on all subjects. Results showed that the AFTE group had significantly lower symptom scores when compared to Controls on test 2 (p = .05), test 3 (p = .03), and test 4 (p = .02). Although there were no significant group differences on task performance, trends showed that AFTE subjects were less impaired than Controls. Heart rate change scores (20 rpm minus baseline) of AFTE subjects indicated significantly less reactivity on Test 4 compared to Test 1 (10.09 versus 16.59, p = .02), while Controls did not change significantly across tests. Results of this study indicate that AFTE may be an effective countermeasure for mitigating spatial disorientation and motion sickness in astronauts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29490570
[Au] Autor:Ishak S; Bubka A; Bonato F
[Ad] Address:5245 School of Social Science and Human Services, Ramapo College of New Jersey , Mahwah, NJ, USA.
[Ti] Title:Visual Occlusion Decreases Motion Sickness in a Flight Simulator.
[So] Source:Perception;:301006618761336, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1468-4233
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sensory conflict theories of motion sickness (MS) assert that symptoms may result when incoming sensory inputs (e.g., visual and vestibular) contradict each other. Logic suggests that attenuating input from one sense may reduce conflict and hence lessen MS symptoms. In the current study, it was hypothesized that attenuating visual input by blocking light entering the eye would reduce MS symptoms in a motion provocative environment. Participants sat inside an aircraft cockpit mounted onto a motion platform that simultaneously pitched, rolled, and heaved in two conditions. In the occluded condition, participants wore "blackout" goggles and closed their eyes to block light. In the control condition, participants opened their eyes and had full view of the cockpit's interior. Participants completed separate Simulator Sickness Questionnaires before and after each condition. The posttreatment total Simulator Sickness Questionnaires and subscores for nausea, oculomotor, and disorientation in the control condition were significantly higher than those in the occluded condition. These results suggest that under some conditions attenuating visual input may delay the onset of MS or weaken the severity of symptoms. Eliminating visual input may reduce visual/nonvisual sensory conflict by weakening the influence of the visual channel, which is consistent with the sensory conflict theory of MS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/0301006618761336

  6 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29436382
[Au] Autor:Tian D; Mo F; Cai X; Miao Z; Xiao F; Chang Y; Wu L; Tang Y; Wang X; Ye C; Qian X; Gu W; Li M
[Ad] Address:Department of Aerospace Medicine Aerospace Biodynamics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.
[Ti] Title:Acupuncture relieves motion sickness via the IR-ERK1/2-dependent insulin receptor signalling pathway.
[So] Source:Acupunct Med;, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1759-9873
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture has been widely used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this research was to study the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of MS. METHODS: To observe the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of MS, 80 rats were randomised into five groups that were subjected to acceleration and either remained untreated (CTRL), or received restraint (REST), scopolamine (SCOP) or acupuncture at SP4 (sham) or PC6+ST36 (verum) acupuncture points. To study the mechanism underlying the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of MS, 48 rats were randomised into three groups: acupuncture+extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor (ERKinh), acupuncture+insulin receptor (IR) antagonist (IRant), and acupuncture+vehicle (VEH). After acceleration, the MS index (MSI) and spontaneous activity (SA) of the rats were recorded. Serum stress hormones, Fos-positive cells, c-fos mRNA in the vestibular nucleus, and IR-, p-IR-, ERK1/2- and p-ERK1/2-positive cells in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) were detected. RESULTS: After acceleration, MS symptoms in the PC6+ST36 and SCOP groups were reduced compared with the CTRL, REST, and SP4 groups. The number of p-IR- and p-ERK1/2-positive cells and insulin levels were higher in the PC6+ST36 group than in the CTRL, REST, and SP4 groups. After ERK1/2 inhibitor and IR antagonist treatment, MS symptoms in the VEH group were lower than in the ERKinh and IRant groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that acupuncture significantly alleviates MS through the IR-ERK1/2-dependent insulin receptor signalling pathway in the DMV.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29477332
[Au] Autor:Kim HK; Park J; Choi Y; Choe M
[Ad] Address:Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Cheongam-ro 77, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: emokubi@postech.ac.kr.
[Ti] Title:Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.
[So] Source:Appl Ergon;69:66-73, 2018 May.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9126
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29463358
[Au] Autor:Previc FH
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX, USA.
[Ti] Title:Intravestibular Balance and Motion Sickness.
[So] Source:Aerosp Med Hum Perform;89(2):130-140, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:2375-6314
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: A theory is presented to explain the major findings regarding motion sickness and to synthetize current theories concerning its etiology. The theory proposes that an imbalance in the output of the two major organs of the labyrinth-favoring the semicircular canals over the otolith organs-is responsible for most instances of motion sickness as experienced in terrestrial and microgravity environments. METHODS: Strengths and limitations of current theories are first outlined before the different roles of the canals and otoliths in the genesis of motion sickness symptoms are described. RESULTS: The proposed theory is shown to explain a large number of findings and integrate current theories. DISCUSSION: The role of vestibular imbalance in motion sickness may be a consequence of the more general differences between the canals and otoliths in autonomic control.Previc FH. Intravestibular balance and motion sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):130-140.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180226
[Lr] Last revision date:180226
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4946.2018

  9 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29298819
[Au] Autor:Chen MM; Xu LH; Chang L; Yin P; Jiang ZL
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurophysiology and Neuropharmacology, Institute of Nautical Medicine and Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Chongchuan District, Nantong, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Reduction of Motion Sickness Through Targeting Histamine -Methyltransferase in the Dorsal Vagal Complex of the Brain.
[So] Source:J Pharmacol Exp Ther;364(3):367-376, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1521-0103
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To investigate the role of histamine -methyltransferase (HNMT) activity in the development of motion sickness (MS) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) to inform the development of new drugs for MS, Beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats were rotated to simulate MS. HNMT expression in the brain stem and DVC was measured. The effects of systemic application of tacrine, an HNMT inhibitor, on the development of MS were observed. Moreover, we microinjected a histamine receptor H1 inhibitor, promethazine, into the DVC to verify the involvement of histaminergic neurotransmission in MS. Finally, lentiviral vectors were microinjected into the DVC to determine the effects of altered HNMT expression on MS. We found the following: 1) HNMT expression in the medulla oblongata of dogs and rats insusceptible to MS was higher than in susceptible animals; 2) tacrine dose-dependently promoted MS in both animals and raised histamine level in rat medulla oblongata; 3) blocking histaminergic neurotransmission in the DVC with promethazine inhibited MS; 4) rotatory stimulus induced an elevation in HNMT expression, and vestibular training elevated the basal level of HNMT in the DVC during habituation to MS; 5) in vivo transfection of a lentiviral vector packaged with the HNMT gene increased HNMT expression in the DVC and reduced MS; and 6) microinjection of a lentiviral vector driving the interference of HNMT gene expression in vivo significantly inhibited HNMT expression in the DVC and exacerbated MS. In conclusion, HNMT expression in the brain stem is inversely correlated with MS development. Increasing HNMT expression or stimulating its activity in the DVC could inhibit MS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1124/jpet.117.244475

  10 / 3355 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29336385
[Au] Autor:Champion S; Zieger L; Hemery C
[Ad] Address:Intensive Care Unit, Parly 2 Clinic, Ramsay Gnrale de Sant, 78150 Le Chesnay, France.
[Ti] Title:Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting after cardiac surgery in high-risk patients: A randomized controlled study.
[So] Source:Ann Card Anaesth;21(1):8-14, 2018 Jan-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0974-5181
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: The role of prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in cardiac surgery is under debate. AIMS: To study the risk factors for PONV after cardiac surgery and the role of betamethasone with or without droperidol for its prevention. SETTING AND DESIGN: Randomized open-label controlled study comparing standard care with PONV prophylaxis from February to November 2016. METHODS: Five hundred and two patients with planned nonemergent cardiac surgery were included. INTERVENTIONS: In the intervention arm, PONV prophylaxis (4 mg betamethasone with/without 0.625 mg droperidol) was administered in high-risk patients (two or more risk factors). Patients in the control arm were treated as per routine hospital practices. RESULTS: Female sex, past history of PONV, and migraines were associated with a significantly increased risk of PONV, while motion sickness, smoking status, and volatile anesthetics were not. Pain and treatment with nefopam or ketoprofen were associated with an increased risk of PONV. PONV was less frequent in the active arm compared to controls (45.5% vs. 54.0%, P = 0.063; visual analogic scale 10.9 vs. 15.3 mm, P = 0.043). Among the 180 patients (35.6%) with ≥2 risk factors, prophylaxis was associated with reduced PONV (intention-to-treat: 46.8% vs. 67.8%, P = 0.0061; per-protocol: 39.2% vs. 69%, P = 0.0002). In multivariate analysis, prophylaxis was independently associated with PONV (odds ratio [OR]: 0.324, 95% confidence interval: 0.167-0.629, P = 0.0009), as were female sex, past history of PONV, and migraines (OR: 3.027, 3.031, and 2.160 respectively). No drug-related side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: Betamethasone with/without droperidol was effective in decreasing PONV in high risk cardiac surgical patients without any side effect.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180208
[Lr] Last revision date:180208
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_122_17


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