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Teixeira, Luis Augusto
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[PMID]: 29524852
[Au] Autor:Martinelli AR; Coelho DB; Teixeira LA
[Ad] Address:Human Motor Systems Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Light touch leads to increased stability in quiet and perturbed balance: Equivalent effects between post-stroke and healthy older individuals.
[So] Source:Hum Mov Sci;58:268-278, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7646
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cerebral damage provoked by stroke may lead to deficits of quiet balance control and of the recovery of body equilibrium following an unanticipated postural perturbation. In this investigation we aimed to evaluate the effect of light touch (LT) of an earth-fixed surface on balance stability in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis, taking performance of age-matched healthy participants as reference. Evaluations were made in conditions of full and no visual information. Analysis of quiet balance showed that LT induced higher balance stability, with reduced amplitude and velocity of postural sway. Evaluation of the effect of LT on automatic postural responses was made in the task of recovering body equilibrium following a mechanical perturbation of balance leading to fast forward body sway. Results showed that LT led to reduced amplitude of center of mass displacement following the perturbation, in addition to reduced amplitude and velocity of center of pressure under the feet, and lower activation of the lower legs muscles. Those effects of LT were observed in both the post-stroke and control groups, and did not interact with vision availability. Our results indicated then that individuals who suffered a cerebral stroke can stabilize perturbed and non-perturbed postural responses by lightly touching a stable surface to a similar extent of healthy older individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 416201 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524851
[Au] Autor:Tajima T; Tateuchi H; Koyama Y; Ikezoe T; Ichihashi N
[Ad] Address:Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address: tajima.toshiki.46v@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Gait strategies to reduce the dynamic joint load in the lower limbs during a loading response in young healthy adults.
[So] Source:Hum Mov Sci;58:260-267, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7646
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reducing external joint moments during gait can lead to a reduction in dynamic joint load. There has yet to be a detailed investigation of gait strategies that can reduce external joint moments by decreasing the magnitude of ground reaction force (GRF) without reducing the walking speed. The objectives of this study were to verify whether it is possible to reduce external joint moments by decreasing the GRF magnitude without reducing the walking speed and to identify the alternative walking strategy involved in young healthy adults. This study included 14 young healthy subjects. They performed two types of walking: normal and impact reduction walking. For impact reduction walking, the subjects walked in a manner that reduced the impact upon foot contact. Cadence and step length were unified between the two conditions. The walking speed, peak value of vertical GRF, braking-accelerating force, loading rate, joint angle, and external joint moments of the two conditions were recorded and compared. No significant difference was noted in the walking speed. However, the first peak of vertical GRF, braking force, and loading rate during loading response were significantly reduced during impact reduction walking, and external joint moments in the hip, knee, and ankle joints were reduced. In contrast, the second peak of vertical GRF, hip extension angle, and external ankle dorsiflexion moment were significantly increased during terminal stance. Our data imply that the ankle joint function during the terminal stance is important in reducing the dynamic joint load in the contralateral leg during the loading response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524797
[Au] Autor:Peeters LHC; de Groot IJM; Geurts ACH
[Ad] Address:Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Department of Rehabilitation, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: laura.hc.peeters@radboudumc.nl.
[Ti] Title:Trunk involvement in performing upper extremity activities while seated in neurological patients with a flaccid trunk - A review.
[So] Source:Gait Posture;62:46-55, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2219
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Trunk control is essential during seated activities. The trunk interacts with the upper extremities (UE) and head by being part of a kinematic chain and by providing a stable basis. When trunk control becomes impaired, it may have consequences for the execution of UE tasks. AIM: To review trunk involvement in body movement and stability when performing seated activities and its relation with UE and head movements in neurological patients with a flaccid trunk, with a focus on childhood and development with age. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A search using PubMed was conducted and 32 out of 188 potentially eligible articles were included. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Patients with a flaccid trunk (e.g. with spinal cord injury or cerebral palsy) tend to involve the trunk earlier while reaching than healthy persons. Different balance strategies are observed in different types of patients, like using the contralateral arm as counterweight, eliminating degrees of freedom, or reducing movement speed. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The key role of the trunk in performing activities should be kept in mind when developing interventions to improve seated task performance in neurological patients with a flaccid trunk.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524600
[Au] Autor:Vitale F; Capozzo A; Mazzone P; Scarnati E
[Ad] Address:Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences (DISCAB), University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio 2, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Neurophysiology of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.
[So] Source:Neurobiol Dis;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-953X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The interest in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a structure located in the brainstem at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction, has greatly increased in recent years because it is involved in the regulation of physiological functions that fail in Parkinson's disease and because it is a promising target for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. The PPTg is highly interconnected with the main basal ganglia nuclei and relays basal ganglia activity to thalamic and brainstem nuclei and to spinal effectors. In this review, we address the functional role of the main PPTg outputs directed to the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord. Together, the data that we discuss show that the PPTg may influence thalamocortical activity and spinal motoneuron excitability through its ascending and descending output fibers, respectively. Cerebellar nuclei may also relay signals from the PPTg to thalamic and brainstem nuclei. In addition to participating in motor functions, the PPTg participates in arousal, attention, action selection and reward mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PPTg may be involved in excitotoxic degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra through the glutamatergic monosynaptic input that it provides to these neurons.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524552
[Au] Autor:Doughty AK; Horton BJ; Huyen NTD; Ballagh CR; Corkrey R; Hinch GN
[Ad] Address:University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2350, Australia; CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation, Armidale, NSW, 2350, Australia. Electronic address: amanda.doughty@une.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:The influence of lameness and individuality on movement patterns in sheep.
[So] Source:Behav Processes;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8308
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigated how individuality and lameness altered social organisation by assessing food-directed movement patterns in sheep. One hundred and ninety-six mature Merino ewes were walked in 16 different runs around a 1.1 km track following a food source. Flock position and lameness, were measured and temperament was assessed using an Isolation Box Test. The mean value for the correlations of position between a run and the run preceding it was r = 0.55 ± SEM 0.03. All correlations between runs were positive (r = 0.08 - 0.76) and all but two were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The weakest and least statistically significant correlations were for run 14; where all 16 runs were conducted 3 to 4 times a week, except with an interval of 20 weeks between runs 13 and 14. Additionally, there were differences in overall positions for a lame versus a non-lame individual (all P < 0.05) with lame sheep being further back in position when compared to their non-lame mean positions. These results indicate the movement patterns, as measured by flock position during a food-directed forced movement exercise, are relatively stable provided tests occur frequently, possibly on a bi-weekly basis. However, further work would be required to better account for individual animal variation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 416201 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524356
[Au] Autor:Furuya S; Furukawa Y; Uehara K; Oku T
[Ad] Address:Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc. (Sony CSL), Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Probing sensorimotor integration during musical performance.
[So] Source:Ann N Y Acad Sci;, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1749-6632
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:An integration of afferent sensory information from the visual, auditory, and proprioceptive systems into execution and update of motor programs plays crucial roles in control and acquisition of skillful sequential movements in musical performance. However, conventional behavioral and neurophysiological techniques that have been applied to study simplistic motor behaviors limit elucidating online sensorimotor integration processes underlying skillful musical performance. Here, we propose two novel techniques that were developed to investigate the roles of auditory and proprioceptive feedback in piano performance. First, a closed-loop noninvasive brain stimulation system that consists of transcranial magnetic stimulation, a motion sensor, and a microcomputer enabled to assess time-varying cortical processes subserving auditory-motor integration during piano playing. Second, a force-field system capable of manipulating the weight of a piano key allowed for characterizing movement adaptation based on the feedback obtained, which can shed light on the formation of an internal representation of the piano. Results of neurophysiological and psychophysics experiments provided evidence validating these systems as effective means for disentangling computational and neural processes of sensorimotor integration in musical performance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/nyas.13619

  7 / 416201 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520329
[Au] Autor:Barbosa R; Mendonça M; Ladeira F; Miguel R; Bugalho P
[Ad] Address:Neurology Department, Hospital Egas Moniz - Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Probable REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder and Dysautonomic Symptoms in Essential Tremor.
[So] Source:Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y);7:522, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2160-8288
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Non-motor symptoms can be present in essential tremor (ET). We intend to assess the frequency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and dysautonomic symptoms in ET patients and evaluate the differences between patients with ET and RBD (ET-RBD and ET without RBD [ET-nonRBD]). Methods: All ET patients were contacted by telephone. Autonomic symptoms were assessed using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) questionnaire, and RBD symptoms with the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) using ≥5 as a cut-off for probable RBD (pRBD). Results: From 92 ET patients contacted, 53 (55% female) were included. The mean age at assessment was 73.6±19 years, and the average disease duration was 19.9±17.3 years. Fourteen patients (26.4%) had pRBD and 52 (98.1%) reported at least one autonomic symptom, the most prevalent being urinary symptoms (96%). The ET-RBD group had higher SCOPA-total and thermoregulatory scores than ET-nonRBD patients (13.9±9.6 vs. 7.7±5.1, p=0.017 and 2.5±2.0 vs. 0.9±1.6, p=0.001). There were no other differences between groups. Discussion: Our results suggest that pRBD is common in ET, and its presence is associated with dysautonomic symptoms. As these symptoms are known to be prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), we question if this patient subgroup has a higher risk of developing a synucleinopathy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.7916/D8Z61VW5

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[PMID]: 29520184
[Au] Autor:Masuda T; Nakaura T; Funama Y; Sato T; Higaki T; Kiguchi M; Yamashita Y; Imada N; Awai K
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiological Technology, Tsuchiya General Hospital, Hiroshima 730-8655, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Effect of Patient Characteristics on Vessel Enhancement at Lower Extremity CT Angiography.
[So] Source:Korean J Radiol;19(2):265-271, 2018 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2005-8330
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objective: To evaluate the effect of patient characteristics on popliteal aortic contrast enhancement at lower extremity CT angiography (LE-CTA) scanning. Materials and Methods: Prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 158 patients. All were examined using a routine protocol; the scanning parameters were tube voltage 100 kVp, tube current 100 mA to 770 mA (noise index 12), 0.5-second rotation, 1.25-mm detector row width, 0.516 beam pitch, and 41.2-mm table movement, and the contrast material was 85.0 mL. Cardiac output (CO) was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. To evaluate the effects of age, sex, body size, CO, and scan delay on the CT number of popliteal artery, the researchers used multivariate regression analysis. Results: A significant positive correlation was seen between the CT number of the popliteal artery and the patient age ( = 0.39, < 0.01). A significant inverse correlation was observed between the CT number of the popliteal artery and the height ( = -0.48), total body weight ( = -0.52), body mass index ( = -0.33), body surface area (BSA) ( = -0.56), lean body weight ( = -0.56), and CO ( = -0.35) ( < 0.001 for all). There was no significant correlation between the enhancement and the scan delay ( = 0.06, = 0.47). The BSA, CO, and age had significant effects on the CT number (standardized regression: BSA -0.42, CO -0.22, age 0.15; < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The BSA, CO, and age are significantly correlated with the CT number of the popliteal artery on LE-CTA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3348/kjr.2018.19.2.265

  9 / 416201 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515291
[Au] Autor:England MJ; Bigelow AW; Merchant MJ; Velliou E; Welch D; Brenner DJ; Kirkby KJ
[Ad] Address:Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Automated microbeam observation environment for biological analysis-Custom portable environmental control applied to a vertical microbeam system.
[So] Source:Sens Actuators B Chem;239:1134-1143, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0925-4005
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Vertical Microbeams (VMB) are used to irradiate individual cells with low MeV energy ions. The irradiation of cells using VMBs requires cells to be removed from an incubator; this can cause physiological changes to cells because of the lower CO concentration, temperature and relative humidity outside of the incubator. Consequently, for experiments where cells require irradiation and observation for extended time periods, it is important to provide a controlled environment. The highly customised nature of the microscopes used on VMB systems means that there are no commercially available environmentally controlled microscope systems for VMB systems. The Automated Microbeam Observation Environment for Biological Analysis (AMOEBA) is a highly flexible modular environmental control system used to create incubator conditions on the end of a VMB. The AMOEBA takes advantage of the recent "maker" movement to create an open source control system that can be easily configured by the user to fit their control needs even beyond VMB applications. When applied to the task of controlling cell medium temperature, CO concentration and relative humidity on VMBs it creates a stable environment that allows cells to multiply on the end of a VMB over a period of 36 h, providing a low-cost (costing less than $2700 to build), customisable alternative to commercial time-lapse microscopy systems. AMOEBA adds the potential of VMBs to explore the long-term effects of radiation on single cells opening up new research areas for VMBs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2016.08.076

  10 / 416201 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511187
[Au] Autor:Pehlevan C; Ali F; Ölveczky BP
[Ad] Address:Center for Computational Biology, Flatiron Institute, New York, NY, 10010, USA. cpehlevan@flatironinstitute.org.
[Ti] Title:Flexibility in motor timing constrains the topology and dynamics of pattern generator circuits.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):977, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Temporally precise movement patterns underlie many motor skills and innate actions, yet the flexibility with which the timing of such stereotyped behaviors can be modified is poorly understood. To probe this, we induce adaptive changes to the temporal structure of birdsong. We find that the duration of specific song segments can be modified without affecting the timing in other parts of the song. We derive formal prescriptions for how neural networks can implement such flexible motor timing. We find that randomly connected recurrent networks, a common approximation for how neocortex is wired, do not generally conform to these, though certain implementations can approximate them. We show that feedforward networks, by virtue of their one-to-one mapping between network activity and time, are better suited. Our study provides general prescriptions for pattern generator networks that implement flexible motor timing, an important aspect of many motor skills, including birdsong and human speech.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03261-5


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