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[PMID]: 24441737
[Au] Autor:Tang YT; Gao X; Rosa BA; Abubucker S; Hallsworth-Pepin K; Martin J; Tyagi R; Heizer E; Zhang X; Bhonagiri-Palsikar V; Minx P; Warren WC; Wang Q; Zhan B; Hotez PJ; Sternberg PW; Dougall A; Gaze ST; Mulvenna J; Sotillo J; Ranganathan S; Rabelo EM; Wilson RK; Felgner PL; Bethony J; Hawdon JM; Gasser RB; Loukas A; Mitreva M
[Ad] Address:1] The Genome Institute at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA. [2]....
[Ti] Title:Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus.
[So] Source:Nat Genet;46(3):261-9, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1546-1718
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron-deficiency anemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. We report sequencing and assembly of the N. americanus genome (244 Mb, 19,151 genes). Characterization of this first hookworm genome sequence identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also used a protein microarray to demonstrate a postgenomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts toward fundamental and applied postgenomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Genome, Helminth
Necator americanus/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics
Female
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology
Humans
Male
Molecular Sequence Data
Necator americanus/growth & development
Necator americanus/immunology
Necatoriasis/immunology
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Necatoriasis/prevention & control
Pregnancy
Species Specificity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1404
[Cu] Class update date: 140902
[Lr] Last revision date:140902
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140226
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ng.2875

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[PMID]: 24516284
[Au] Autor:Phosuk I; Intapan PM; Thanchomnang T; Sanpool O; Janwan P; Laummaunwai P; Aamnart W; Morakote N; Maleewong W
[Ad] Address:Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. ; Research and Diagnostic Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand....
[Ti] Title:Molecular detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in humans in northeastern and southern Thailand.
[So] Source:Korean J Parasitol;51(6):747-9, 2013 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1738-0006
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostoma/isolation & purification
Ancylostomiasis/epidemiology
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ancylostoma/classification
Ancylostoma/genetics
Animals
Cluster Analysis
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
Feces/parasitology
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Necator americanus/classification
Necator americanus/genetics
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prevalence
RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S/genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Thailand/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S)
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3347/kjp.2013.51.6.747

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[PMID]: 24968666
[Au] Autor:Phuphisut O; Yoonuan T; Sanguankiat S; Chaisiri K; Maipanich W; Pubampen S; Komalamisra C; Adisakwattana P
[Ti] Title:Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.
[So] Source:Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health;45(2):267-75, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0125-1562
[Cp] Country of publication:Thailand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ascariasis/diagnosis
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
Soil/parasitology
Trichuriasis/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ascariasis/parasitology
Ascaris lumbricoides/isolation & purification
Feces/parasitology
Humans
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/pathology
Sensitivity and Specificity
Thailand
Trichuriasis/parasitology
Trichuris/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140627
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 24797001
[Ti] Title:Image of the month: Hookworm infection observed via a narrow-band imaging system.
[So] Source:Am J Gastroenterol;109(5):626, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:1572-0241
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Duodenoscopy
Narrow Band Imaging
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Humans
Male
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1406
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140506
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.96

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[PMID]: 24493672
[Au] Autor:Gunawardena S; Gunawardena NK; Kahathuduwa G; Karunaweera ND; de Silva NR; Ranasinghe UB; Samarasekara SD; Nagodavithana KC; Rao RU; Rebollo MP; Weil GJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka; Anti Filariasis Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka; Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;90(4):661-6, 2014 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antigens, Helminth/immunology
Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
Epidemiological Monitoring
Helminthiasis/epidemiology
School Health Services
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ascariasis/epidemiology
Ascariasis/immunology
Ascariasis/transmission
Ascaris lumbricoides/immunology
Child
Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology
Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission
Feasibility Studies
Feces/parasitology
Helminthiasis/immunology
Helminthiasis/transmission
Humans
Necator americanus/immunology
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
Necatoriasis/immunology
Necatoriasis/transmission
Parasite Egg Count
School Health Services/economics
Soil/parasitology
Sri Lanka/epidemiology
Trichuriasis/epidemiology
Trichuriasis/immunology
Trichuriasis/transmission
Trichuris/immunology
Wuchereria bancrofti/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1405
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140403
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0641

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[PMID]: 24574217
[Au] Autor:Baloch HM; Armstrong DT; Pulling TM; Miller LM
[Ad] Address:Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, GA.
[Ti] Title:Hookworm-associated reactive spondyloarthritis.
[So] Source:Arthritis Rheumatol;66(3):578, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2326-5205
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Arthritis, Reactive/parasitology
Necatoriasis/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Male
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1405
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/art.38289

  7 / 350 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24445211
[Au] Autor:Knopp S; Salim N; Schindler T; Karagiannis Voules DA; Rothen J; Lweno O; Mohammed AS; Singo R; Benninghoff M; Nsojo AA; Genton B; Daubenberger C
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, United Republic of Tanzania; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Division for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Ludwig-Maximilians University Hospital, Munich, Germany; National Institute for Medical Research, Mbeya Medical Research Center, Mbeya, Tanzania.
[Ti] Title:Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;90(3):535-45, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Helminthiasis/diagnosis
Helminths/genetics
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ancylostoma/genetics
Ancylostoma/isolation & purification
Ancylostomiasis/diagnosis
Animals
Ascariasis/diagnosis
Ascaris lumbricoides/genetics
Ascaris lumbricoides/isolation & purification
Child
Child, Preschool
DNA, Helminth/analysis
Feces/parasitology
Female
Helminths/isolation & purification
Humans
Infant
Larva
Male
Middle Aged
Necator americanus/genetics
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
Parasite Egg Count
Schistosoma mansoni/genetics
Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification
Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis
Sensitivity and Specificity
Strongyloides stercoralis/genetics
Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification
Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis
Tanzania
Trichuriasis/diagnosis
Trichuris/genetics
Trichuris/isolation & purification
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Entry month:1404
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0268

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[PMID]: 23556013
[Au] Autor:Keiser J; Tritten L; Silbereisen A; Speich B; Adelfio R; Vargas M
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland. jennifer.keiser@unibas.ch
[Ti] Title:Activity of oxantel pamoate monotherapy and combination chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and hookworms: revival of an old drug.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;7(3):e2119, 2013.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. METHODOLOGY: We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI) = 2.53). Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively). A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15) was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg) lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be launched.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostomiasis/drug therapy
Anthelmintics/administration & dosage
Necatoriasis/drug therapy
Pyrantel Pamoate/analogs & derivatives
Trichuriasis/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ancylostoma/drug effects
Ancylostomiasis/parasitology
Animals
Anthelmintics/pharmacology
Disease Models, Animal
Drug Synergism
Drug Therapy, Combination/methods
Female
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Necator americanus/drug effects
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Pyrantel Pamoate/administration & dosage
Pyrantel Pamoate/pharmacology
Treatment Outcome
Trichuriasis/parasitology
Trichuris/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthelmintics); 81BK194Z5M (Pyrantel Pamoate); UPY1D732T0 (oxantel pamoate)
[Em] Entry month:1308
[Cu] Class update date: 131121
[Lr] Last revision date:131121
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:130404
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002119

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[PMID]: 22964044
[Au] Autor:Ungcharoensuk C; Putaporntip C; Pattanawong U; Jongwutiwes S
[Ad] Address:Molecular Biology of Malaria and Opportunistic Parasites Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;12(8):1926-32, 2012 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (p<0.05), suggesting that introns and synonymous sites in exons may evolve at a similar rate whereas functional constraints at the amino acid could limit amino acid substitutions in Na-ASP-2. A recombination site was identified in an intron near the 3' portion of the gene. The positions of introns and the intron phases in the Na-asp-2 gene comparing with those in other pathogenesis-related-1 proteins of Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Conserved Sequence
Helminth Proteins/genetics
Necator americanus/genetics
Necatoriasis/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Base Sequence
Haplotypes
Helminth Proteins/chemistry
Humans
Introns
Larva
Molecular Sequence Data
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Protein Conformation
Sequence Alignment
Thailand
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Helminth Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:121031
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 350 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23032277
[Au] Autor:Mudenda NB; Malone JB; Kearney MT; Mischler PD; Nieto Pdel M; McCarroll JC; Vounatsou P
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. nmuden1@tigers.lsu.edu
[Ti] Title:Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate.
[So] Source:Geospat Health;6(3):S111-23, 2012 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1970-7096
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km) using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD) water budget (WB) concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD) was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus) conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration) of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB). Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga), low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostomatoidea
Climate
Geographic Information Systems
Necator americanus
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Brazil/epidemiology
Disease Models, Animal
Geographic Mapping
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Necatoriasis/transmission
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk Assessment/methods
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1303
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:121003
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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