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[PMID]: 26858023
[Au] Autor:Kalousová B; Hasegawa H; Petrzelková KJ; Sakamaki T; Kooriyma T; Modrý D
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho tr. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic. barafrikacar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;9:75, 2016 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:ENG
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In general, studies on the diversity of strongylid nematodes in endangered host species are complicated as material obtained by non-invasive sampling methods has limited value for generic and species identification. While egg morphology barely allows assignment to family, the morphology of cultivated infective third stage larvae provides a better resolution at the generic level but cannot be used for exact species identification. Morphology-based taxonomic approaches greatly depend on the examination of adult worms that are usually not available. METHODS: Hookworm parasites in two European researchers, who participated in gorilla research in the Central African Republic, were expelled after anthelmintic treatment to the faeces, collected and morphologically examined. A male worm discharged naturally from a wild bonobo (Pan paniscus) in Congo was also examined for comparison. RESULTS: Two species of Necator were identified in researchers' faecal material: Necator americanus (Stiles, 1902) and N. gorillae Noda & Yamada, 1964; the latter species differed in having a smaller body, smaller buccal cavity and shorter spicules with spade-shaped membranes situated distally. Males of N. gorillae also possessed unusual cuticular thickenings on the dorsal side of the prebursal region of the body. These characters, shared with the male worm from the bonobo, correspond well to the description of N. gorillae described from gorillas in Congo. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the morphology of the hookworms recovered in this study and previous molecular analyses of larvae developed from both humans and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from this locality, we conclude that the researchers became infected with gorilla hookworms during their stay in the field. This is the first report of infection with a Necator species other than N. americanus in humans.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Necator/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Research Personnel
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Central African Republic
Gorilla gorilla
Humans
Necatoriasis/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 161019
[Lr] Last revision date:161019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:201629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-016-1357-0

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[PMID]: 26318523
[Au] Autor:Rey-Burusco MF; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro M; Gabrielsen M; Franchini GR; Roe AJ; Griffiths K; Zhan B; Cooper A; Kennedy MW; Córsico B; Smith BO
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, calles 60 y 120, 1900-La Plata, Argentina.
[Ti] Title:Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus.
[So] Source:Biochem J;471(3):403-14, 2015 Nov 1.
[Is] ISSN:1470-8728
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:ENG
[Ab] Abstract:Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein-ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Host-Parasite Interactions
Necator americanus/metabolism
Necatoriasis/metabolism
Retinol-Binding Proteins/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Binding Sites
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism
Caenorhabditis elegans/pathogenicity
Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry
Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism
Carrier Proteins/chemistry
Carrier Proteins/metabolism
Fatty Acids/chemistry
Fatty Acids/metabolism
Ligands
Necator americanus/chemistry
Necator americanus/pathogenicity
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Reproduction
Retinol-Binding Proteins/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins); 0 (Carrier Proteins); 0 (FAR protein, C elegans); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Retinol-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 161019
[Lr] Last revision date:161019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151017
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1042/BJ20150068

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[PMID]: 27259664
[Au] Autor:Kulkarni AP; Mittal SP
[Ad] Address:Bioinformatics Centre, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address: abhijeet@bioinfo.net.in.
[Ti] Title:Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.
[So] Source:Gene;590(2):317-23, 2016 Sep 30.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26546069
[Au] Autor:Mugambi RM; Agola EL; Mwangi IN; Kinyua J; Shiraho EA; Mkoji GM
[Ad] Address:Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), P.O. Box 54840, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. jrobert.joseph65@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;8:574, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples, is not effective due to its low sensitivity that is brought about mainly by non-random distribution of eggs in stool and day to day variation in egg output. It is tedious, cumbersome to perform and requires experience for correct diagnosis. LAMP-based tests are simple, relatively cheap, offer greater sensitivity, specificity than existing tests, have high throughput capability, and are ideal for use at the point of care. METHODS: We have developed a LAMP diagnostic test for detection of hookworm infection in faecal samples. LAMP relies on auto cycling strand displacement DNA synthesis performed at isothermal temperature by Bst polymerase and a set of 4 specific primers. The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) region and designed using Primer Explorer version 4 Software. The ITS-2 region of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) was identified as a suitable target due to its low mutation rates and substantial differences between species. DNA was extracted directly from human faecal samples, followed by LAMP amplification at isothermal temperature of 63 °C for 1 h. Amplicons were visualized using gel electrophoresis and SYBR green dye. Both specificity and sensitivity of the assay were determined. RESULTS: The LAMP based technique developed was able to detect N. americanus DNA in faecal samples. The assay showed 100 % specificity and no cross-reaction was observed with other helminth parasites (S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura). The developed LAMP assay was 97 % sensitive and DNA at concentrations as low as 0.4 fg were amplified. CONCLUSION: The LAMP assay developed is an appropriate diagnostic method for the detection of N. americanus DNA in human stool samples because of its simplicity, low cost, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful diagnostic tool for use in disease control where infection intensities have been significantly reduced.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feces/parasitology
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Africa South of the Sahara
Animals
Costs and Cost Analysis
DNA Primers/genetics
DNA, Helminth/genetics
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
Humans
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics
Necator americanus/genetics
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics
Sensitivity and Specificity
Temperature
[Pt] Publication type:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA Primers); 0 (DNA, Helminth); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer)
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 151109
[Lr] Last revision date:151109
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-1183-9

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[PMID]: 26672231
[Au] Autor:Zhao JH; Zhan XD; Li CP
[Ti] Title:[One case of Necator americanus infection found under gastroscope].
[So] Source:Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi;33(4):318, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1000-7423
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Gastroscopes
Necator americanus
Necatoriasis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151217
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 363 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25926209
[Au] Autor:Reyes-Leiva BA; De León JL; Castellanos F; Sandoval E; García-Martínez I
[Ad] Address:Department of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Roosevelt Hospital, Guatemala City, Guatemala....
[Ti] Title:Obscure overt gastrointestinal bleeding due to Necator americanus diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy.
[So] Source:Endoscopy;47 Suppl 1 UCTN:E57, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8812
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Double-Balloon Enteroscopy
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/parasitology
Ileal Diseases/parasitology
Jejunal Diseases/parasitology
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Necatoriasis/complications
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1390723

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[PMID]: 25745677
[Ti] Title:Soil-transmitted helminthiases: number of children treated in 2013.
[So] Source:Wkly Epidemiol Rec;90(10):89-94, 2015 Mar 6.
[Is] ISSN:0049-8114
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng; fre
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostomiasis/prevention & control
Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Ascariasis/prevention & control
Necatoriasis/prevention & control
Primary Prevention/statistics & numerical data
Trichuriasis/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Albendazole/therapeutic use
Ancylostoma
Ancylostomiasis/transmission
Animals
Ascariasis/transmission
Ascaris lumbricoides
Child
Child, Preschool
Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data
Global Health
Humans
Infant
Mebendazole/therapeutic use
Necator americanus
Necatoriasis/transmission
Soil/parasitology
Trichuriasis/transmission
Trichuris
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthelmintics); 0 (Soil); 81G6I5V05I (Mebendazole); F4216019LN (Albendazole)
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150306
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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Clinical Trials Registry
PubMed Central Full text
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[PMID]: 24795483
[Au] Autor:Cantacessi C; Giacomin P; Croese J; Zakrzewski M; Sotillo J; McCann L; Nolan MJ; Mitreva M; Krause L; Loukas A
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, Queensland Tropical Health Alliance Laboratory, James Cook University, Cairns....
[Ti] Title:Impact of experimental hookworm infection on the human gut microbiota.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;210(9):1431-4, 2014 Nov 1.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The interactions between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and commensal bacteria are likely to play a pivotal role in the establishment of host-parasite cross-talk, ultimately shaping the development of the intestinal immune system. However, little information is available on the impact of infections by gastrointestinal helminths on the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. Our data show that, although hookworm infection leads to a minor increase in microbial species richness, no detectable effect is observed on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
Microbiota
Necator americanus
Necatoriasis/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Feces/microbiology
Feces/parasitology
Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology
Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology
Humans
Microbiota/physiology
Necatoriasis/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 150806
[Lr] Last revision date:150806
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141014
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu256

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[PMID]: 24968666
[Au] Autor:Phuphisut O; Yoonuan T; Sanguankiat S; Chaisiri K; Maipanich W; Pubampen S; Komalamisra C; Adisakwattana P
[Ti] Title:Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.
[So] Source:Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health;45(2):267-75, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0125-1562
[Cp] Country of publication:Thailand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ascariasis/diagnosis
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
Soil/parasitology
Trichuriasis/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ascariasis/parasitology
Ascaris lumbricoides/isolation & purification
Feces/parasitology
Humans
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/pathology
Sensitivity and Specificity
Thailand
Trichuriasis/parasitology
Trichuris/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140627
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 24797001
[Ti] Title:Image of the month: Hookworm infection observed via a narrow-band imaging system.
[So] Source:Am J Gastroenterol;109(5):626, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:1572-0241
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Duodenoscopy
Narrow Band Imaging
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Humans
Male
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1406
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140506
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.96


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