Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524919
[Au] Autor:Nawrot TS; Saenen ND; Schenk J; Janssen BG; Motta V; Tarantini L; Cox B; Lefebvre W; Vanpoucke C; Maggioni C; Bollati V
[Ad] Address:Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; Department of Public Health & Primary Care, Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: tim.nawrot@uhasselt.be.
[Ti] Title:Placental circadian pathway methylation and in utero exposure to fine particle air pollution.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:231-241, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In mammals, a central clock maintains the daily rhythm in accordance with the external environment. At the molecular level, the circadian rhythm is maintained by epigenetic regulation of the Circadian pathway. Here, we tested the role of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 m (PM ) exposure during gestational life on human placental Circadian pathway methylation, as an important molecular target for healthy development. In 407 newborns, we quantified placental methylation of CpG sites within the promoter regions of the following genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, CRY1-2 and PER1-3 using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Daily PM exposure levels were estimated for each mother's residence, using a spatiotemporal interpolation model. We applied mixed-effects models to study the methylation status of the Circadian pathway genes and in utero PM exposure, while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. In a multi-gene model, placental Circadian pathway methylation was positively and significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with 3rd trimester PM exposure. Consequently, the single-gene models showed relative methylation differences [Log(fold change)] in placental NPAS2 (+0.16; p = 0.001), CRY1 (+0.59; p = 0.0023), PER2 (+0.36; p = 0.0005), and PER3 (+0.42; p = 0.0008) for an IQR increase (8.9 g/m ) in 3rd trimester PM exposure. PM air pollution, an environmental risk factor leading to a pro-inflammatory state of the mother and foetus, is associated with the methylation pattern of genes in the Circadian pathway. The observed alterations in the placental CLOCK epigenetic signature might form a relevant molecular mechanism through which fine particle air pollution exposure might affect placental processes and foetal development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524899
[Au] Autor:Barbosa APM; Mndez-Fernandez P; Dias PS; Santos MCO; Taniguchi S; Montone RC
[Ad] Address:Laboratrio de Qumica Orgnica Marinha, Instituto Oceanogrfico, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei; Cetartiodactyla, Pontoporiidae).
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:239-245, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in the fat tissue of living organisms and are found in relatively high concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, such as dolphins. The ability of these compounds to interact with the endocrine system of marine mammals constitutes a risk for the reproduction and conservation of species. The La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is exclusive to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified on the IUCN red list as a vulnerable species. Blubber, liver, kidney and muscle samples from four P. blainvillei mother-fetus pairs were analyzed to evaluate the transfer of POPs to fetal tissues through the placenta. The presence of POPs in fetal tissues indicates the maternal transfer of compounds. In the pregnant females, blubber was the tissue with POP highest concentration, followed by the liver, kidneys and muscles. In the fetuses, POP accumulation mainly occurred in the blubber followed by the muscles, liver and kidneys. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were found in all tissues analyzed and had the highest concentrations among all compounds. The main PCB congeners in the fetal samples had five to seven chlorine atoms. The only polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in the fetal samples was 47 and was found only in blubber. The main DDT metabolite in the fetuses was p,p'-DDE. POP transfer via the placenta occurs in the first months of gestation and increases with fetal development, according to fetus/mother (F/M) ratio: HCB>DDT>PCB>PBDE>Mirex, which may follow the order of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K ) values.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510677
[Au] Autor:Pine PS; Lund SP; Parsons JR; Vang LK; Mahabal AA; Cinquini L; Kelly SC; Kincaid H; Crichton DJ; Spira A; Liu G; Gower AC; Pass HI; Goparaju C; Dubinett SM; Krysan K; Stass SA; Kukuruga D; Van Keuren-Jensen K; Courtright-Lim A; Thompson KL; Rosenzweig BA; Sorbara L; Srivastava S; Salit ML
[Ad] Address:Joint Initiative for Metrology in Biology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. p.scott.pine@nist.gov.
[Ti] Title:Summarizing performance for genome scale measurement of miRNA: reference samples and metrics.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;19(1):180, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The potential utility of microRNA as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases is being investigated with genome-scale profiling of differentially expressed microRNA. Processes for measurement assurance are critical components of genome-scale measurements. Here, we evaluated the utility of a set of total RNA samples, designed with between-sample differences in the relative abundance of miRNAs, as process controls. RESULTS: Three pure total human RNA samples (brain, liver, and placenta) and two different mixtures of these components were evaluated as measurement assurance control samples on multiple measurement systems at multiple sites and over multiple rounds. In silico modeling of mixtures provided benchmark values for comparison with physical mixtures. Biomarker development laboratories using next-generation sequencing (NGS) or genome-scale hybridization assays participated in the study and returned data from the samples using their routine workflows. Multiplexed and single assay reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to confirm in silico predicted sample differences. Data visualizations and summary metrics for genome-scale miRNA profiling assessment were developed using this dataset, and a range of performance was observed. These metrics have been incorporated into an online data analysis pipeline and provide a convenient dashboard view of results from experiments following the described design. The website also serves as a repository for the accumulation of performance values providing new participants in the project an opportunity to learn what may be achievable with similar measurement processes. CONCLUSIONS: The set of reference samples used in this study provides benchmark values suitable for assessing genome-scale miRNA profiling processes. Incorporation of these metrics into an online resource allows laboratories to periodically evaluate their performance and assess any changes introduced into their measurement process.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-018-4496-1

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[PMID]: 29425317
[Au] Autor:Vornhagen J; Quach P; Santana-Ufret V; Alishetti V; Brokaw A; Armistead B; Qing Tang H; MacDonald JW; Bammler TK; Adams Waldorf KM; Uldbjerg N; Rajagopal L
[Ad] Address:Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Human cervical mucus plugs exhibit insufficiencies in antimicrobial activity towards Group B Streptococcus.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified antimicrobial factors in CMPs that were collected from healthy human pregnancies. However, we noted that the concentration of antimicrobial peptides present in the human CMPs were insufficient to directly kill GBS and antimicrobial activity, when observed, was due to antibiotics retained in the CMPs. Despite this insufficiency, CMP proteins were able to activate leukocytes in whole blood resulting in increased rates of bacterial killing, suggesting a role for the CMP in enhancing complement-mediated killing or leukocyte activation. This study provides new insight into how the human CMP may limit ascending bacterial infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiy076

  5 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29386359
[Au] Autor:Platt DJ; Smith AM; Arora N; Diamond MS; Coyne CB; Miner JJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
[Ti] Title:Zika virus-related neurotropic flaviviruses infect human placental explants and cause fetal demise in mice.
[So] Source:Sci Transl Med;10(426), 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1946-6242
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. We hypothesized that ZIKV is not unique among arboviruses in its ability to cause congenital infection. To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice. Although all four viruses caused placental infection, only infection with the neurotropic flaviviruses (WNV and POWV) resulted in fetal demise. WNV and POWV also replicated efficiently in second-trimester human maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villi and fetal membrane) explants, whereas CHIKV and MAYV replicated less efficiently. In mice, RNA in situ hybridization and histopathological analysis revealed that WNV infected the placenta and fetal central nervous system, causing injury to the developing brain. In comparison, CHIKV and MAYV did not cause substantive placental or fetal damage despite evidence of vertical transmission. On the basis of the susceptibility of human maternal and fetal tissue explants and pathogenesis experiments in immunocompetent mice, other emerging neurotropic flaviviruses may share with ZIKV the capacity for transplacental transmission, as well as subsequent infection and injury to the developing fetus.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29331320
[Au] Autor:Luo H; Winkelmann ER; Fernandez-Salas I; Li L; Mayer SV; Danis-Lozano R; Sanchez-Casas RM; Vasilakis N; Tesh R; Barrett AD; Weaver SC; Wang T
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
[Ti] Title:Zika, dengue and yellow fever viruses induce differential anti-viral immune responses in human monocytic and first trimester trophoblast cells.
[So] Source:Antiviral Res;151:55-62, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9096
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8). Our results suggest that all three viruses have similar tropisms for both cells. Nevertheless, ZIKV induced strong type 1 IFN and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, ZIKV infection in trophoblasts induced lower IFN and higher inflammatory immune responses. Placental inflammation is known to contribute to the risk of brain damage in preterm newborns. Inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR8 each abrogated the inflammatory cytokine responses in ZIKV-infected trophoblasts. Our findings identify a potential link between maternal immune activation and ZIKV-induced congenital diseases, and a potential therapeutic strategy that targets TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in the placenta.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524345
[Au] Autor:Paniagua-Gonzlez L; Jimnez-Morigosa C; Lendoiro E; Concheiro M; Cruz A; Lpez-Rivadulla M; de Castro A
[Ad] Address:Toxicology Service, Institute of Forensic Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
[Ti] Title:DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN LC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE AND ITS METABOLITES IN PLACENTA AND UMBILICAL CORD.
[So] Source:Drug Test Anal;, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1942-7611
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is associated with obstetric and fetal complications. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) in placenta (PL) and umbilical cord (UC). Specimens were homogenized in water, followed by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis HILIC Silica column. Detection was accomplished in electrospray in positive mode. Method validation included: linearity (5 to 1000 ng/g), accuracy (86.9 to 105.2% of target concentration in PL, and 89.1 to 105.0% in UC), imprecision (6.8 to 11.8% in PL, and 7.6 to 12.2% in UC), limits of detection (2 ng/g for cotinine and OH-cotinine, and 5 ng/g for nicotine) and quantification (5 ng/g), selectivity (no endogenous or exogenous interferences), matrix effect (-34.1 to -84.5% in PL, %CV=9.1-24.0%; -18.9 to -84.7% in UC, %CV=10.2-23.9%), extraction efficiency (60.7 to 131.5% in PL, and 64.1 to 134.2% in UC), and stability 72 h in the autosampler (<11.5% loss in PL, and <13% loss in UC). The method was applied to 14 PL and UC specimens from tobacco users during pregnancy. Cotinine (6.8-312.2 ng/g in PL; 6.7-342.3 ng/g in UC) was the predominant analyte, followed by OH-cotinine (
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/dta.2381

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[PMID]: 29523493
[Au] Autor:Leviton A; Hooper SR; Hunter SJ; Scott MN; Allred EN; Joseph RM; O'Shea TM; Kuban K; ELGAN Study Investigators
[Ad] Address:Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: alan.leviton@childrens.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:Antecedents of Screening Positive for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Ten-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.
[So] Source:Pediatr Neurol;, 2017 Dec 21.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5150
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. RESULTS: The risk profile of screening positive for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on a parent's report differed from the risk profile based on the teacher's report, whereas the risk profile according to a physician and according to any two observers closely resembled the parent-reported profile. Among the statistically significant risk factors were young maternal age (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal obesity (parent, physician, and two observers), maternal smoking (parent, physician, and two observers), magnesium given at delivery for seizure prophylaxis (parent and two observers), recovery of Mycoplasma sp. from the placenta (teacher and two observers), low gestational age (parent and two observers), low birth weight (teacher and physician), singleton (parent, physician, and two observers), male (parent, teacher, physician, and two observers), mechanical ventilation on postnatal day seven (physician), receipt of a sedative (parent and two observers), retinopathy of prematurity (parent), necrotizing enterocolitis (physician), antibiotic receipt (physician and two observers), and ventriculomegaly on brain scan (parent and two observers). CONCLUSIONS: The multiplicity of risk factors identified can be subsumed as components of four broad themes: low socioeconomic state, immaturity or vulnerability, inflammation, and epigenetic phenomena.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523485
[Au] Autor:Grant TR; Ellinas EH; Kula AO; Muravyeva MY
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
[Ti] Title:Risk-stratification, resource availability, and choice of surgical location for the management of parturients with abnormal placentation: a survey of United States-based obstetric anesthesiologists.
[So] Source:Int J Obstet Anesth;, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1532-3374
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Parturients with abnormally adherent placentas present anesthetic challenges that include risk-stratification, management planning and resource utilization. The labor and delivery unit may be remote from the main operating room services. METHODS: Division chiefs of North American obstetric anesthesiology services were surveyed about their practices and management of parturients with an abnormally adherent placenta. RESULTS: Eighty-four of 122 chiefs, representing 103 hospital sites, responded to the survey (response rate 69%). Sixty-one percent of respondents agreed that women with preoperative placental imaging that was "suspicious" of placenta accreta represented a lower risk category; all other suggested descriptions fell into a higher risk category. Seventy-nine percent of respondents indicated that lower risk cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit, while 71% indicated that higher risk cases would be managed in the main operating room. Institutions where all cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit had better access to human and technical resources, were less remote from their main operating areas, and promoted neuraxial rather than general anesthesia, even for parturients perceived to be at higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric anesthesia leaders identified patients at lower clinical risk and those less likely to require greater resources. Additional resources were available in institutions where all abnormal placentation cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit. Practitioners should consider risk-stratification and resource availability when planning high-risk cases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 96291 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523279
[Au] Autor:Morgan JL; Kogutt BK; Meek C; Stehel EK; McIntire DD; Sheffield JS; Roberts SW
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States. Electronic address: jamie.morgan@utsouthwestern.edu.
[Ti] Title:Pharmacokinetics of amlodipine besylate at delivery and during lactation.
[So] Source:Pregnancy Hypertens;11:77-80, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2210-7797
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Amlodipine is rarely used in the treatment of pregnant hypertensive women due to limited pharmacokinetic data during pregnancy and the postpartum period. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine besylate in the peri-partum period including quantities of placental passage, breast milk excretion and infant exposure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of pregnant women who were prescribed 5 mg of amlodipine daily for treatment of chronic hypertension and delivered at term. Cord and maternal blood samples were collected at delivery. On postpartum day 2, six paired maternal plasma and breast milk samples were obtained at 4, 6, 8, 12, 15 and 24 h following amlodipine dosing. Infant plasma samples were collected 24-48 h after delivery. All samples were analyzed for amlodipine concentration. A one compartment, first-order model was used to calculate pharmacokinetic estimates for maternal plasma. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients enrolled in the study, 11 had cord blood and maternal serum collected at delivery, of which only 6 produced sufficient breast milk for sampling. Amlodipine was detected in infant cord blood plasma with a mean concentration of 0.49  0.29 ng/mL compared to mean maternal serum level of 1.27  0.84 ng/mL. Amlodipine concentrations in both in breast milk and infant plasma were undetectable at the lower limit of assay detection (<0.1 ng/mL). In the immediate postpartum period, the amlodipine elimination half-life was 13.7  4.9 h, the area under the curve was 53.4  19.8 ng*h/mL and the peak concentration was 2.0  1.0 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Amlodipine does cross the placenta in measurable quantities, but is not detected in breast milk or infant plasma at 24-48 h of life indicating that it is likely safe to use during the peripartum period.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process


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