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[PMID]: 29524888
[Au] Autor:Li S; Zheng X; Liu C; Yao Z; Zhang W; Han S
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
[Ti] Title:Influences of observation method, season, soil depth, land use and management practice on soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations: A meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:105-114, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers. The influences of observation methods, natural factors and management practices on the measured concentrations, which ranged from 2.5-3970 (mean: 69) mg kg of EOC and 0.4-200 (mean: 12) mg L of DOC, were investigated through a meta-analysis. The observation methods (e.g., extractant, extractant-to-soil ratio and pre-treatment) had significant effects on EOC concentrations. The most significant divergence (approximately 109%) occurred especially at the extractant of potassium sulfate (K SO ) solutions compared to distilled water. As EOC concentrations were significantly different (approximately 47%) between non-cultivated and cultivated soils, they were more suitable than DOC concentrations for assessing the influence of land use on soil dissolvable organic carbon levels. While season did not significantly affect EOC concentrations, DOC concentrations showed significant differences (approximately 50%) in summer and autumn compared to spring. For management practices, applications of crop residues and nitrogen fertilizers showed positive effects (approximately 23% to 91%) on soil EOC concentrations, while tillage displayed negative effects (approximately -17%), compared to no straw, no nitrogen fertilizer and no tillage. Compared to no nitrogen, applications of synthetic nitrogen also appeared to significantly enhance DOC concentrations (approximately 32%). However, further studies are needed in the future to confirm/investigate the effects of ecosystem management practices using standardized EOC measurement protocols or more DOC cases of field experiments.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524844
[Au] Autor:Cheng Z; Shen X; Jiang X; Shan H; Cimini M; Fang P; Ji Y; Park JY; Drosatos K; Yang X; Kevil CG; Kishore R; Wang H
[Ad] Address:Center for Translational Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, 3500 Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Electronic address: zjcheng@temple.edu.
[Ti] Title:Hyperhomocysteinemia potentiates diabetes-impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation: Role of insufficient hydrogen sulfide.
[So] Source:Redox Biol;16:215-225, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:2213-2317
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H S) has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA) of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM) diet. HM diet (8 weeks) induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively), and aggravated the impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh), determined by the presence of eNOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and prostacyclin (PGI ) inhibitor indomethacin (INDO), in SMA from db/db mice but not that from db/+ mice. A non-selective Ca -active potassium channel (K ) opener NS309 rescued T2DM/HHcy-impaired EDHF-mediated vascular relaxation to ACh. EDHF-induced relaxation to ACh was inhibited by a non-selective K blocker TEA and intermediate-conductance K blocker (IK ) Tram-34, but not by small-conductance K (SK ) blocker Apamin. HHcy potentiated the reduction of free sulfide, H S and cystathionine γ-lyase protein, which converts L-cysteine to H S, in SMA of db/db mice. Importantly, a stable H S donor DATS diminished the enhanced O production in SMAs and lung endothelial cells of T2DM/HHcy mice. Antioxidant PEG-SOD and DATS improved T2DM/HHcy impaired relaxation to ACh. Moreover, HHcy increased hyperglycemia-induced IK tyrosine nitration in human micro-vascular endothelial cells. EDHF-induced vascular relaxation to L-cysteine was not altered, whereas such relaxation to NaHS was potentiated by HHcy in SMA of db/db mice which was abolished by ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker Glycolamide but not by K blockers. CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate HHcy potentiated H S reduction via CSE-downregulation in microvasculature of T2DM mice. H S is justified as an EDHF. Insufficient H S impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation via oxidative stress and IK inactivation in T2DM/HHcy mice. H S therapy may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of micro-vascular complications in patients with T2DM and HHcy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524695
[Au] Autor:Kim JH; Choi WG; Moon JY; Lee JY; Lee S; Lee HS
[Ad] Address:BK21 PLUS Team for Creative Leader Program for Pharmacomics-based Future Pharmacy, Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Metabolomics-assisted metabolite profiling of itraconazole in human liver preparations.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1083:68-74, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Itraconazole (ITZ) is a first-generation triazole-containing antifungal agent that effectively treats various fungal infections. As ITZ has a better safety profile than that of ketoconazole (KCZ), ITZ has been used worldwide for over 25 years. However, few reports have explored the metabolic profile of ITZ, and the underlying mechanism of ITZ-induced liver injury is not clearly understood. In the present study, we revisited ITZ metabolism in humans, using a non-targeted metabolomics approach, and identified several novel metabolic pathways including O-dearylation, piperazine oxidation, and piperazine-N,N'-deethylation. Furthermore, we explored the formation of reactive ITZ metabolites using trapping agents as surrogates, to assess the possibility of metabolism-mediated toxicity. We found that ITZ and its metabolites did not form any adducts with nucleophiles including glutathione, potassium cyanide, and semicarbazide. The present study expands our knowledge of ITZ metabolism and supports the suggestion that ITZ has a better safety profile than that of KCZ in terms of metabolism-mediated toxicity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524634
[Au] Autor:Robson E; Tweedy C; Manzanza N; Taylor JP; Atkinson P; Randall F; Reeve A; Clowry GJ; LeBeau FEN
[Ad] Address:Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
[Ti] Title:Impaired fast network oscillations and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model of alpha-synucleinopathy (A30P).
[So] Source:Neuroscience;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7544
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P). We found an age-dependent reduction in the power of the gamma (20-80 Hz) frequency oscillations in slices taken from mice aged 9-16 months (9+), that was not present in either young 2-6 months old (2+) A30P mice, or in control mice at either age. The mitochondrial blockers potassium cyanide and rotenone both reduced network oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner in aged A30P mice and aged control mice but slices from A30P mice showed a greater reduction in the oscillations. Histochemical analysis showed an age-dependent reduction in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, suggesting a mitochondrial dysfunction in the 9+A30P group. A deficit in COX IV expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, our data demonstrate an age-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function and gamma frequency activity associated with the abnormal expression of α-syn. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the consequences of over-expression of α-syn which might contribute to cognitive decline.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524627
[Au] Autor:Matschke LA; Rinné S; Snutch TP; Oertel WH; Dolga AM; Decher N
[Ad] Address:Institute for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Vegetative Physiology and Marburg Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior - MCMBB, Philipps-University Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany; Clinic for Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address: lina.matschke@staff.uni-mar
[Ti] Title:Calcium-activated SK potassium channels are key modulators of the pacemaker frequency in locus coeruleus neurons.
[So] Source:Mol Cell Neurosci;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9327
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Small-conductance Ca -activated K (SK) channels regulate the intrinsic firing patterns in different central neurons and are essential regulators of the intracellular Ca homeostasis. However, the role of SK channels for the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons in mice is still unclear. Therefore we performed qPCR expression analysis as well as patch clamp recordings of in vitro brainstem slices, for instance testing SK channel blockers and activators like apamin and NS309, respectively. Although we found a transcriptional expression of SK1, SK2 and SK3 channels, SK2 was the predominantly expressed subunit in mouse LC neurons. Using perforated-patch clamp experiments, we found that SK channels are essential regulators of the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons, mediating a large fraction of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in these cells. Consistent with previous observations that a concerted action of L- and T-type Cav channels is essential for the pacemaking of LC neurons, we found that SK channel activation, and the respective AHP amplitude, is primarily coupled to Ca influx via these types of Ca channels. Our study identified SK2 channels as drug targets for the tuning of the pacemaker frequency in disorders involving a dysregulation of the LC.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524437
[Au] Autor:Gupta I; Young AMJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.
[Ti] Title:Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell is unaffected by phencyclidine pretreatment: in vitro assessment using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry rat brain slices.
[So] Source:Brain Res;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6240
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release. We showed that the orthosteric mGluR2 agonist LY379268 (0.1 µM, 1 µM and 10 µM) and mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB (1 µM and 10 µM) both attenuated potassium-evoked dopamine release, underscoring their role in modulating dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. Sub-chronic PCP treatment, which caused cognitive deficits measured by performance in the novel object recognition task, modelling aspects of behavioral deficits seen in schizophrenia, induced neurobiological changes that enhanced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, but had no effect on mGluR2 or mGluR5 mediated changes in dopamine release. Therefore it is unlikely that schizophrenia-related behavioural changes seen after sub-chronic phencyclidine pre-treatment are mediated through mGluR modulation of dopamine release.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29516014
[Au] Autor:Repsold L; Joubert AM
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Eryptosis: An Erythrocyte's Suicidal Type of Cell Death.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2018:9405617, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Erythrocytes play an important role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Although erythrocytes possess no nucleus or mitochondria, they fulfil several metabolic activities namely, the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, as well as the hexose monophosphate shunt. Metabolic processes within the erythrocyte contribute to the morphology/shape of the cell and important constituents are being kept in an active, reduced form. Erythrocytes undergo a form of suicidal cell death called eryptosis. Eryptosis results from a wide variety of contributors including hyperosmolarity, oxidative stress, and exposure to xenobiotics. Eryptosis occurs before the erythrocyte has had a chance to be naturally removed from the circulation after its 120-day lifespan and is characterised by the presence of membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and phosphatidylserine exposure that correspond to nucleated cell apoptotic characteristics. After eryptosis is triggered there is an increase in cytosolic calcium (Ca ) ion levels. This increase causes activation of Ca -sensitive potassium (K ) channels which leads to a decrease in intracellular potassium chloride (KCl) and shrinkage of the erythrocyte. Ceramide, produced by sphingomyelinase from the cell membrane's sphingomyelin, contributes to the occurrence of eryptosis. Eryptosis ensures healthy erythrocyte quantity in circulation whereas excessive eryptosis may set an environment for the clinical presence of pathophysiological conditions including anaemia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1155/2018/9405617

  8 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511682
[Au] Autor:Durán Agüero S; Angarita Dávila L; Escobar Contreras MC; Rojas Gómez D; de Assis Costa J
[Ad] Address:Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Sebastián, Santiago de Chile, Chile.
[Ti] Title:Noncaloric Sweeteners in Children: A Controversial Theme.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2018:4806534, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Noncaloric sweeteners (NCS) are food additives used to provide sweetness without adding calories. Their consumption has become more widespread around the world in all age groups, including children. The aim of this study is to show the state of the art about the intake of noncaloric sweeteners in children, as well as their benefits and consumption risk. Scientific searchers were used (PUBMED, Scopus, and Scielo) to analyze articles that included keywords (noncaloric sweeteners/saccharin/cyclamate/acesulfame potassium/aspartame/sucralose/stevia/children) in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Authors conclude that it is imperative that health professionals judiciously and individually evaluate the overall benefits and risks of NCS use in consumers before recommending their use. Different subgroups of the population incorporate products containing NCS in their diet with different objectives, which should be considered when recommending a diet plan for the consumer. In childhood, in earlier age groups, this type of additives should be used as a dietary alternative when other forms of prevention in obesity are not sufficient.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1155/2018/4806534

  9 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29507099
[Au] Autor:Stamler J; Chan Q; Daviglus ML; Dyer AR; Van Horn L; Garside DB; Miura K; Wu Y; Ueshima H; Zhao L; Elliott P; INTERMAP Research Group
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (J.S., M.L.D., A.R.D., L.V.H.); Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois, Chicago (M.L.D., D.B.G.); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Healt
[Ti] Title:Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.
[So] Source:Hypertension;71(4):631-637, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1524-4563
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09928

  10 / 528995 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476854
[Au] Autor:El-Naggar ME; Radwan EK; El-Wakeel ST; Kafafy H; Gad-Allah TA; El-Kalliny AS; Shaheen TI
[Ad] Address:Pre-Treatment and Finishing of Cellulosic Fabric Department, Textile Research Division, National Research Center, 33 El-Buhoth St, Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt. Electronic address: mehrezeelnaggar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of microcrystalline cellulose based nanogel for dyes and heavy metals removal.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:248-258, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recently, naturally occurring biopolymers have attracted the attention as potential adsorbents for the removal of water contaminants. In this work, we present the development of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based nanogel grafted with acrylamide and acrylic acid in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide and potassium persulphate as a crosslinking agent and initiator, respectively. World-class facilities such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), surface analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and zeta sizer were used to characterize the synthesized MCC based nanogel. The prepared nanogel was applied to remove reactive red 195 (RR195) dye and Cd (II) from aqueous medium at different operational conditions. The adsorption experiments showed that the feed concentration of monomers has a significant effect on the removal of RR195 which peaked (93% removal) after 10min of contact time at pH2 and a dose of 1.5g/L. On contrary, the feed concentration has insignificant effect on the removal of Cd (II) which peaked (97% removal) after 30min of contact time at pH6 and a dose of 0.5g/L. The adsorption equilibrium data of RR195 and Cd (II) was best described by Freundlich and Langmuir, respectively. Conclusively, the prepared MCC based nanogels were proved as promising adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants as well as heavy metals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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