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[PMID]: 29524874
[Au] Autor:DePhilippis D; Petry NM; Bonn-Miller MO; Rosenbach SB; McKay JR
[Ad] Address:Center of Excellence in Substance Addiction Treatment and Education, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, United States; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, United States. Electronic address: dominick.dephilippis@va.go
[Ti] Title:The national implementation of Contingency Management (CM) in the Department of Veterans Affairs: Attendance at CM sessions and substance use outcomes.
[So] Source:Drug Alcohol Depend;185:367-373, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0046
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Department of Veterans Affairs launched an initiative to expand patients' access to contingency management (CM) for the treatment of substance use disorders, particularly stimulant use disorder. This study evaluates the uptake and effectiveness of the VA initiative by presenting data on participation in coaching, fidelity to key components of the CM protocol, and clinical outcomes (CM attendance and substance use). METHODS: Fifty-five months after the first VA stations began offering CM to patients in June 2011, 94 stations had made CM available to 2060 patients. As those 94 VA stations began delivering CM to Veterans, their staff participated in coaching calls to maintain fidelity to CM procedures. As a part of the CM coaching process, those 94 implementation sites provided data describing the setting and structure of their CM programs as well as their fidelity practices. Additional data on patients' CM attendance and urine test results also were collected from the 94 implementation sites. RESULTS: The mean number of coaching calls the 94 programs participated in was 6.5. The majority of sites implemented CM according to recommended standard guidelines and reported high fidelity with most CM practices. On average, patients attended more than half their scheduled CM sessions, and the average percent of samples that tested negative for the target substance was 91.1%. CONCLUSION: The VA's CM implementation initiative has resulted in widespread uptake of CM and produced attendance and substance use outcomes comparable to those found in controlled clinical trials.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524803
[Au] Autor:Del Cueto J; Møller BL; Dicenta F; Sánchez-Pérez R
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Breeding, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain; University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, DK-1871 Copenhagen C, Denmark; VILLUM Research Center for Plant Plasticity, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:ß-Glucosidase activity in almond seeds.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;126:163-172, 2017 Dec 16.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called ß-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the ß-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds. RNA was extracted from the tegument, nucellus and cotyledon of one sweet (Lauranne) and two bitter (D05-187 and S3067) almond genotypes throughout fruit ripening. Sequences of nine positive Phs were then obtained from all of the genotypes by RT-PCR and cloning. These clones, from mid ripening stage, were expressed in a heterologous system in tobacco plants by agroinfiltration. The PH activity was detected using the Feigl-Anger method and quantifying the hydrogen cyanide released with prunasin as substrate. Furthermore, ß-glucosidase activity was detected by Fast Blue BB salt and Umbelliferyl method. Differences at the sequence level (SNPs) and in the activity assays were detected, although no correlation with bitterness was found.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524746
[Au] Autor:Li Y; Altaner C
[Ad] Address:School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Predicting extractives content of Eucalyptus bosistoana F. Muell. Heartwood from stem cores by near infrared spectroscopy.
[So] Source:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc;198:78-87, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3557
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Time and resource are the restricting factors for the wider use of chemical information of wood in tree breeding programs. NIR offers an advantage over wet-chemical analysis in these aspects and is starting to be used for tree breeding. This work describes the development of a NIR-based assessment of extractive content in heartwood of E. bosistoana, which does not require milling and conditioning of the samples. This was achieved by applying the signal processing algorithms (external parameter orthogonalisation (EPO) and significance multivariate correlation (sMC)) to spectra obtained from solid wood cores, which were able to correct for moisture content, grain direction and sample form. The accuracy of extractive content predictions was further improved by variable selection, resulting in a root mean square error of 1.27%. Considering the range of extractive content in E. bosistoana heartwood of 1.3 to 15.0%, the developed NIR calibration has the potential to be used in an E. bosistoana breeding program or to assess the special variation in extractive content throughout a stem.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524735
[Au] Autor:Toth AG; Mitchell O
[Ad] Address:Department of Criminology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., SOC 107, Tampa, FL 33602, United States. Electronic address: agtoth@mail.usf.edu.
[Ti] Title:A qualitative examination of the effects of international counter-drug interdictions.
[So] Source:Int J Drug Policy;55:70-76, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4758
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. METHODS: Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations. RESULTS: The findings indicate that sporadic counter-drug interdictions do not a have permanent deterrent effect on transnational drug smuggling operations. However, these types of law enforcement operations produce temporary alterations in drug trafficking, as traffickers adopted a variety of methods to thwart the efforts of law enforcement-often by relying on information acquired from corrupt local law enforcement. The results also indicate that while interdiction operations displaced trafficking activities (temporally, spatially, and methodological), there is little evidence that drug traffickers responded to such operations by moving into new areas (i.e., malign spatial displacement). CONCLUSION: Sporadic international drug interdiction programs do little to deter drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) from engaging in their illicit trade. Instead, DTOs adjust in a calculating manner to these operations to ensure that their illegal products reach consumer marketplaces, which is congruent with the rational choice theoretical perspective.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524734
[Au] Autor:Keane C; Egan JE; Hawk M
[Ad] Address:University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 6124 Parran Hall, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA. Electronic address: crkcity@pitt.edu.
[Ti] Title:Effects of naloxone distribution to likely bystanders: Results of an agent-based model.
[So] Source:Int J Drug Policy;55:61-69, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4758
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths in the US rose dramatically in the past 16 years, creating an urgent national health crisis with no signs of immediate relief. In 2017, the President of the US officially declared the opioid epidemic to be a national emergency and called for additional resources to respond to the crisis. Distributing naloxone to community laypersons and people at high risk for opioid overdose can prevent overdose death, but optimal distribution methods have not yet been pinpointed. METHODS: We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods design using qualitative data to inform an agent-based model to improve understanding of effective community-based naloxone distribution to laypersons to reverse opioid overdose. The individuals in the model were endowed with cognitive and behavioral variables and accessed naloxone via community sites such as pharmacies, hospitals, and urgent-care centers. We compared overdose deaths over a simulated 6-month period while varying the number of distribution sites (0, 1, and 10) and number of kits given to individuals per visit (1 versus 10). Specifically, we ran thirty simulations for each of thirteen distribution models and report average overdose deaths for each. The baseline comparator was no naloxone distribution. Our simulations explored the effects of distribution through syringe exchange sites with and without secondary distribution, which refers to distribution of naloxone kits by laypersons within their social networks and enables ten additional laypersons to administer naloxone to reverse opioid overdose. RESULTS: Our baseline model with no naloxone distribution predicted there would be 167.9 deaths in a six month period. A single distribution site, even with 10 kits picked up per visit, decreased overdose deaths by only 8.3% relative to baseline. However, adding secondary distribution through social networks to a single site resulted in 42.5% fewer overdose deaths relative to baseline. That is slightly higher than the 39.9% decrease associated with a tenfold increase in the number of sites, all distributing ten kits but with no secondary distribution. This suggests that, as long as multiple kits are picked up per visit, adding secondary distribution is at least as effective as increasing sites from one to ten. Combining the addition of secondary distribution with an increase in sites from one to ten resulted in a 61.1% drop in deaths relative to the baseline. Adding distribution through a syringe exchange site resulted in a drop of approximately 65% of deaths relative to baseline. In fact, when enabling distribution through a clean-syringe site, the secondary distribution through networks contributed no additional drops in deaths. CONCLUSION: Community-based naloxone distribution to reverse opioid overdose may significantly reduce deaths. Optimal distribution methods may include secondary distribution so that the person who picks up naloxone kits can enable others in the community to administer naloxone, as well as targeting naloxone distribution to sites where individuals at high-risk for opioid overdose death are likely to visit, such as syringe-exchange programs. This study design, which paired exploratory qualitative data with agent-based modeling, can be used in other settings seeking to implement and improve naloxone distribution programs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524679
[Au] Autor:Griffiths TL; Daniels D; Austerweil JL; Tenenbaum JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States. Electronic address: tom_griffiths@berkeley.edu.
[Ti] Title:Subjective randomness as statistical inference.
[So] Source:Cogn Psychol;103:85-109, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-5623
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524651
[Au] Autor:Il Kim S; De Medeiros BAS; Byun BK; Lee S; Kang JH; Lee B; Farrell BD
[Ad] Address:Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address: sikim@g.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:West meets east: How do rainforest beetles become circum-Pacific? Evolutionary origin of Callipogon relictus and allied species (Cerambycidae: Prioninae) in the New and Old Worlds.
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The longhorn beetle genus Callipogon Audinet-Serville represents a small group of large wood-boring beetles whose distribution pattern exhibits a unique trans-Pacific disjunction between the East Asian temperate rainforest and the tropical rainforest of the Neotropics. To understand the biogeographic history underlying this circum-Pacific disjunct distribution, we reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Prioninae with extensive sampling of Callipogon using multilocus sequence data of 99 prionine and four parandrine samples (ingroups), together with two distant outgroup species. Our sampling of Callipogon includes 18 of the 24 currently accepted species, with complete representation of all species in our focal subgenera. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the purported affinity between the Palearctic Callipogon relictus and its Neotropical congeners. Furthermore, based on molecular dating under the fossilized birth-death (FBD) model with comprehensive fossil records and probabilistic ancestral range reconstructions, we estimated the crown group Callipogon to have originated in the Paleocene circa 60 million years ago (Ma) across the Neotropics and Eastern Palearctics. The divergence between the Palearctic C. relictus and its Neotropical congeners is explained as the result of a vicariance event following the demise of boreotropical forest across Beringia at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. As C. relictus represents the unique relictual species that evidentiates the lineage's expansive ancient distribution, we evaluated its conservation importance through species distribution modelling. Though we estimated a range expansion for C. relictus by 2050, we emphasize a careful implementation of conservation programs towards the protection of primary forest across its current habitats, as the species remains highly vulnerable to habitat disturbance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524616
[Au] Autor:Simpkin AL; Khan A; West DC; Garcia BM; Sectish TC; Spector ND; Landrigan CP
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QT, UK. Electronic address: asimpkin@partners.org.
[Ti] Title:Stress From Uncertainty and Resilience among Depressed and Burned Out Residents: a Cross-Sectional Study.
[So] Source:Acad Pediatr;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1876-2867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Depression and burnout are highly prevalent among residents, but little is known about modifiable personality variables-such as resilience and stress from uncertainty-that may predispose to these conditions. Residents are routinely faced with uncertainty when making medical decisions. We sought to determine how stress from uncertainty is related to resilience among pediatric residents and whether these attributes are associated with depression and burnout. METHODS: We surveyed 86 residents in pediatric residency programs from four urban freestanding children's hospitals in North America in 2015. Stress from uncertainty was measured using the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty Scale; resilience using the 14-item Resilience Scale; depression using the Harvard National Depression Screening Scale; and burnout using single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: 50/86 residents responded to the survey(58.1%). Higher levels of stress from uncertainty were correlated with lower resilience (r=-.60;p<0.001). Five residents(10%) met depression criteria and 15 residents(31%) met criteria for burnout. Depressed residents had higher mean levels of stress due to uncertainty (51.6[9.1] vs. 38.7[6.7];p<0.001) and lower mean levels of resilience (56.6[10.7] vs. 85.4[8.0];p<0.001) compared to residents who were not depressed. Burned out residents also had higher mean levels of stress due to uncertainty (44.0[8.5] vs. 38.3[7.1];p=0.02) and lower mean levels of resilience (76.7[14.8] vs. 85.0[9.77];p=0.02) compared to residents who were not burned out. CONCLUSIONS: We found high levels of stress from uncertainty and low levels of resilience were strongly correlated with depression, and burnout. Efforts to enhance tolerance of uncertainty and resilience among residents may provide opportunities to mitigate resident depression and burnout.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524398
[Au] Autor:Medrinal C; Prieur G; Combret Y; Quesada AR; Debeaumont D; Bonnevie T; Gravier FE; Dupuis Lozeron E; Quieffin J; Contal O; Lamia B
[Ad] Address:Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, EA3830 - GRHV, 76000 Rouen, France; Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine (IRIB), 76000 Rouen, France; Pulmonology Department, avenue Pierre Mendes France 76290 Montivilliers, France. Electronic address: medrinal.clement.mk@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Functional Electrical Stimulation-A new therapeutic approach to enhance exercise intensity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients : a randomised controlled cross-over trial.
[So] Source:Arch Phys Med Rehabil;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1532-821X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of quadriceps Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-Cycling on exertional VO compared with Placebo FES-cycling in patients with COPD. DESIGN: A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial SETTING: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Department PARTICIPANTS: 23 consecutive patients with COPD GOLD stage 2, 3 or 4 (mean FEV1 : 1.4±0.4 L (50.3% pred)) who had recently begun a respiratory rehabilitation program. INTERVENTION: Two consecutive 30-minute sessions were carried out at a constant load with active and placebo FES-Cycling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean VO during the 30-minute exercise session. The secondary outcomes were respiratory gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters averaged over the 30-minute endurance session. Lactate values, dyspnea and perceived muscle fatigue were evaluated at the end of the sessions. RESULTS: FES-Cycling increased the physiological response more than the placebo, with a greater VO achieved of 36.6 (95% CI 8.9-64.3) mL/min (p=0.01). There was also a greater increase in lactate after FES-Cycling (+1.5 (95% CI 0.05 to 2.9) mmol/L; p=0.01). FES-Cycling did not change dyspnoea or muscle fatigue compared with the placebo condition. CONCLUSION: FES-Cycling effectively increased exercise intensity in patients with COPD. Further studies should evaluate longer-term FES-Cycling rehabilitation programs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 693005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524371
[Au] Autor:Gróf M; Vagasová T; Oltman M; Skladaný L; Malická L
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Economics, Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Slovak Republic.
[Ti] Title:Inequalities in Cancer Deaths by Age, Gender and Education.
[So] Source:Cent Eur J Public Health;25 Suppl 2:S59-S63, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1210-7778
[Cp] Country of publication:Czech Republic
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: The economy of each state provides a significant amount of money into the health care system with the aim of knowing the health status of its population in the context of socioeconomic characteristics for effective resource allocation. In recent years, there is a growing number of cancer deaths in Slovakia. Therefore, the structure of cancer deaths according to its primary determinants, such as age, sex and education with the aim of effective implementation of prevention programs in Slovakia was examined. METHODS: Main source of data on deaths from 1996 to 2014 was provided by National Health Information Centre in Slovakia. However, data were available only from 2011. Standardized mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated by the method of direct standardization using European standard population. The R project for statistical computing was used for calculation of statistically significant differences among various groups of mortality. RESULTS: The results show that people with primary education die from cancer later than people with higher education. However, major differences related to both sex and age are present in people with university education. A different variety of cancers occur in childhood (neoplasm of brain), adolescents (neoplasm of bone), young adults (neoplasm of brain), or adults (lung cancer and breast cancer). Malignant neoplasm of brain was more prevalent at higher education levels, Malignant neoplasm of bladder and Malignant melanoma of skin were more prevalent at the university level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.21101/cejph.a5055


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