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[PMID]: 29524717
[Au] Autor:Wang T; Gao T; Niu X; Xing X; Yang Y; Liu Y; Mao Q
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Guoxue Alley 37, Chengdu, 610041, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Xi'an Central Hospital, Xi'an, China.
[Ti] Title:Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Analysis of Glioma with HIV Patients.
[So] Source:World Neurosurg;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1878-8769
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform an survival analysis of HIV patients with glioma and to assess the relationship between various prognostic factors and overall survival. METHODS: We reported in detail the management and prognosis of two patients in our hospital and performed a quantitative and comprehensive systematic literature review of patients with HIV-associated glioma. We combined our treatment experience with retrospectively obtained treatment information and studied the resultant survival time to statistically analyze and discuss whether age, surgery, gender, WHO grade, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and RT combined CTh could predict patients' survival. RESULT: We included 34 cases in our study, including two of our cases. The median survival was 9 months. On survival analysis, among the aforementioned parameters, WHO grade(LGG/HGG), surgery(SR/SB) and radiotherapy showed significant association with overall survival by univariate analysis. Multivariable analysis showed WHO grade and surgery were a significant predictor of OS. CONCLUSION: Most patients had astrocytoma or high-grade glioma. The median survival of all of glioma in HIV patients was shorter than that of GBM patients. Surgery and WHO grade were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520191
[Au] Autor:Zhang Q; Wei YM; Qi YG; Li BS
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250031, China.
[Ti] Title:Early Changes in Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for Salivary Glands during Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Associated with Xerostomia.
[So] Source:Korean J Radiol;19(2):328-333, 2018 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2005-8330
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objective: To evaluate the early changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the salivary glands during radiotherapy (RT) and their association with the degree of xerostomia at 6 months after RT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 patients with NPC who underwent RT. Each patient underwent diffusion-weighted MRI of the salivary glands at rest and with gustatory stimulation within 1 week before RT and 2 weeks after the beginning of RT. The ADC at rest (ADC ) and increase and increase rate with stimulation (ADC , ADC ) of the submandibular and parotid glands were calculated. The differences in the variables' values between 2 weeks after the beginning of RT and baseline (ΔADC , ΔADC , and ΔADC ) were compared to the degree of xerostomia at 6 months after RT. Results: The ADC of the submandibular and parotid glands were both significantly higher at 2 weeks after the beginning of RT than found at baseline (both < 0.01). The ADC and ADC for the parotid glands were both significantly lower at 2 weeks after the beginning of RT than found at baseline (both < 0.01). ΔADC and ΔADC of the parotid glands were associated with the degree of xerostomia at 6 months after RT ( = -0.61 and -0.72, both < 0.01). Conclusion: The ADCs of the salivary glands change early during RT. The differences in the ADC increase and increase rate of the parotid glands between 2 weeks after the beginning of RT and baseline were associated with the degree of xerostomia at 6 months after RT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3348/kjr.2018.19.2.328

  3 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511688
[Au] Autor:Ma Z; Zhang W; Su Y; Liu P; Pan Y; Zhang G; Song Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiation Oncology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai 264000, China.
[Ti] Title:Optical Surface Management System for Patient Positioning in Interfractional Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2018:6415497, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: The Optical Surface Management System (OSMS) is a simple, fast, reproducible, and accurate solution for patient set-up and can minimize random day-to-day set-up errors. However, studies in breast cancer patients are rare. Objective: To analyze 200 patient set-ups in 20 patients with breast cancer by comparing the OSMS with the conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Method: Displacements from concurrent OSMS and CBCT registrations were compared in a total of 200 setups of 20 patients to analyze the interfractional displacement and positioning displacement in three dimensions (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions). Results: The interfractional displacement on the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for OSMS versus CBCT was 0.049 ± 0.254 versus 0.041 ± 0.244 centimeters (cm); 0.018 ± 0.261 versus 0.040 ± 0.242 cm; 0.062 ± 0.254 versus 0.065 ± 0.240 cm, respectively, without any significant difference (all > 0.05). The duration for CBCT scan was about 60 seconds (s), while that for image processing, matching, and couch displacement was at least 5 minutes (min). The average scanning time with OSMS was less than 20 s, and the total duration for positioning was less than 1 min. Conclusion: OSMS is an efficient tool to improve the accuracy and increase the speed for verifying the patient positioning in radiotherapy for breast cancer.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1155/2018/6415497

  4 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506564
[Au] Autor:Patel KB; Nichols AC; Fung K; Yoo J; MacNeil SD
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Schulich Medicine & Dentistry, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, Victoria Hospital, London, ON, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Treatment of early stage Supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma: meta-analysis comparing primary surgery versus primary radiotherapy.
[So] Source:J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg;47(1):19, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1916-0216
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: For early stage supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), single modality treatment either in the form of primary organ preservation surgery alone or radiation alone is recommended. Thus, a definite treatment strategy for early stage supraglottic SCC remains undefined. The primary objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the oncologic outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy in early stage (Stage I and II) T1 N0 and T2 N0 supraglottic SCC. METHODS: Systematic methods were used to identify published and unpublished data. Two reviewers independently screened all titles, abstracts and articles for relevance using predefined criteria. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Five studies met the inclusion criteria for disease specific mortality with a total of 2864 pooled patients. 5-year disease specific mortality was lower in the surgery group (ORs 0.43, 95% CI 0.31-0.60). Four studies met the inclusion criteria for 5-year overall mortality with a total of 2790 pooled patients. Five-year overall mortality was lower in surgery group (ORs 0.40, 95% CI 0.29-0.55). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the management of early stage supraglottic SCC using meta-analytic methodology. Our results suggest that primary surgery may result in decreased disease specific and overall mortality compared to primary radiotherapy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40463-018-0262-2

  5 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29477046
[Au] Autor:Hegedus C; Kovács K; Polgár Z; Regdon Z; Szabó É; Robaszkiewicz A; Forman HJ; Martner A; Virág L
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
[Ti] Title:Redox control of cancer cell destruction.
[So] Source:Redox Biol;16:59-74, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:2213-2317
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Redox regulation has been proposed to control various aspects of carcinogenesis, cancer cell growth, metabolism, migration, invasion, metastasis and cancer vascularization. As cancer has many faces, the role of redox control in different cancers and in the numerous cancer-related processes often point in different directions. In this review, we focus on the redox control mechanisms of tumor cell destruction. The review covers the tumor-intrinsic role of oxidants derived from the reduction of oxygen and nitrogen in the control of tumor cell proliferation as well as the roles of oxidants and antioxidant systems in cancer cell death caused by traditional anticancer weapons (chemotherapeutic agents, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy). Emphasis is also put on the role of oxidants and redox status in the outcome following interactions between cancer cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes and tumor infiltrating macrophages.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29427749
[Au] Autor:Badic B; Joumond A; Thereaux J; Gancel CH; Bail JP
[Ad] Address:Department of General and Digestive Surgery, La Cavale Blanche University Hospital, Brest, France. Electronic address: bogdan.badic@chu-brest.fr.
[Ti] Title:Long-term functional and oncological results after sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer - Cohort study.
[So] Source:Int J Surg;52:1-6, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1743-9159
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The treatment of rectal cancer could be complex and the long term complications have the potential to greatly impact the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term functional and oncological results after sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2013, a total of 187 rectal resections with total mesorectal excision (TME) for cancer were performed. The data of 72 (38.5%) patients were available for analysis. Long-term follow-up was used to analyze the oncologic and functional results. Standardized questionnaires were used to determine fecal incontinence and urinary function. Relevant clinical variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The overall survival rate was 71% and the distribution of the International Union against Cancer (UICC) stages was 48.6% stage 1, 18% stage 2, and 33.3% stage 3. In univariate analysis, neoadjuvant radiotherapy (P < 0.01), rectal pouch (P < 0.01) and hand-sewn anastomosis (P = 0.02) was found to adversely affect fecal continence. On multivariate analysis fecal incontinence was significantly correlated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (P < 0.05) and low rectal resection (P < 0.01). Urinary function was not statistically significant affected by preoperative treatment (P = 0.48) or surgical procedure (P = 0.45). CONCLUSION: Tumor location, surgical technique and neoadjuvant treatment had an impact on long term oncologic and functional results after sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. Urinary dysfunction occurs less frequently than anal disorders. These results highlight the importance of functional evaluation before and after rectal cancer resection in daily clinical practice and the necessity to tailor treatment to each patient.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29369481
[Au] Autor:Xiao C; Wang Y; Zheng M; Chen J; Song G; Zhou Z; Zhou C; Sun X; Zhong L; Ding E; Zhang Y; Yang L; Wu G; Xu S; Zhang H; Wang X
[Ad] Address:Department of General Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Title:RBBP6 increases radioresistance and serves as a therapeutic target for preoperative radiotherapy in colorectal cancer.
[So] Source:Cancer Sci;, 2018 Jan 25.
[Is] ISSN:1349-7006
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Radiotherapy (RT) can be used as preoperative treatment to downstage initially unresectable locally rectal carcinoma, but radioresistance and recurrence remain significant problems. Retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and chemoresistance both in vitro and in vivo. The present study investigated whether the inhibition of RBBP6 expression would improve radiosensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells. After SW620 and HT29 cells were exposed to radiation, the levels of RBBP6 mRNA and protein increased over time in both cells. Moreover, a significant reduction in clonogenic survival and a decrease in cell viability in parallel with an obvious increase in cell apoptosis were demonstrated in irradiated RBBP6-knockdown cells. Transfection with RBBP6 shRNA improved the levels of G2-M phase arrest, which blocked the cells in a more radiosensitive period of the cell cycle. These observations indicated that cell cycle and apoptosis mechanisms may be connected with tumor cell survival following radiotherapy. In vivo, the tumor growth rate of nude mice in the RBBP6-knockdown group was significantly slower than that in other groups. These results indicated that RBBP6 overexpression could resist colorectal cancer cells against radiation by regulating cell cycle and apoptosis pathways, and inhibition of RBBP6 could enhance radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/cas.13516

  8 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29188298
[Au] Autor:Zaghloul MS; Christodouleas JP; Smith A; Abdallah A; William H; Khaled HM; Hwang WT; Baumann BC
[Ad] Address:National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
[Ti] Title:Adjuvant Sandwich Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy vs Adjuvant Chemotherapy Alone for Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer After Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Phase 2 Trial.
[So] Source:JAMA Surg;153(1):e174591, 2018 Jan 17.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6262
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Importance: Locoregional failure for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (LABC) after radical cystectomy (RC) is common even with chemotherapy and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can decrease locoregional failure but has not been studied in the chemotherapy era. Objective: To investigate if adjuvant sequential RT plus chemotherapy can improve locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) compared with adjuvant chemotherapy alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized phase 3 trial was opened to compare adjuvant RT vs sequential chemotherapy plus RT after RC for LABC, but a third arm was added later as a randomized phase 2 trial to compare chemotherapy plus RT vs adjuvant chemotherapy alone, an emerging standard. The intent-to-treat phase 2 trial reported herein enrolled patients from December 2002 to July 2008. Data were analyzed from August 3, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Routine follow-up and surveillance pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans every 6 months during the first 2 years were performed. The setting was an academic center. Patients with bladder cancer 70 years or younger having 1 or more risk factors (≥pT3b, grade 3, or positive nodes) with negative margins after radical cystectomy plus pelvic lymph node dissection were eligible. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, no evidence of distant metastases on CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis or on chest imaging, and adequate renal, hepatic, and hematologic function. Ninety-one percent (109 of 120) had ≥ pT3 disease. Interventions: Chemotherapy plus RT included 2 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15) and cisplatin (70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 2) before and after RT to 4500 cGy in 150 cGy twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks using 3-dimensional conformal techniques. Chemotherapy alone included 4 cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin. Main Outcome and Measure: Locoregional recurrence-free survival. Results: The chemotherapy plus RT arm accrued 75 patients, and the chemotherapy-alone arm accrued 45 patients, with a weighted randomization to speed accrual. Fifty-three percent (64 of 120) had urothelial carcinoma, and 46.7% (56 of 120) had squamous cell carcinoma or other. The arms were balanced except for age (median, 52 vs 55 years; P = .04) and tumor size (mean, 4.9 vs 5.8 cm; P < .01), both favoring chemotherapy plus RT. Two-year outcomes and overall adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for chemotherapy plus RT vs chemotherapy alone were 96% vs 69% (HR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.39; P < .01) for LRFS, 68% vs 56% (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.27-1.06; P = .07) for disease-free survival, and 71% vs 60% (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.33-1.11; P = .11) for overall survival (OS). Five patients (7%) had RT-associated late grade 3 gastrointestinal tract adverse effects in the chemotherapy plus RT arm. Conclusions and Relevance: Adjuvant chemotherapy plus RT was reasonably well tolerated and was associated with significant improvements in LRFS and marginal improvements in disease-free survival vs chemotherapy alone in LABC. The addition of adjuvant RT should be considered for LABC. This regimen warrants further study in phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01734798.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2017.4591

  9 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524319
[Au] Autor:Gunaratne DA; Veness MJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Efficacy of hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer: Results of a systematic review.
[So] Source:J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1754-9485
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Radiation oncologists are increasingly tasked with the management of elderly patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, unsuitable for surgical intervention due to inoperable lesions and/or poor performance status. In this cohort, hypofractionated radiotherapy, delivered either daily, alternative daily or once weekly is highly effective. A systematic literature search was conducted of PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the algorithm ('radiotherapy' OR 'radiation therapy' OR 'brachytherapy') AND ('hypofraction' OR 'hypofractionated' OR 'hypofractionation') AND ('skin neoplasms' OR 'carcinoma' OR 'malignancy') AND ('skin' OR 'epidermis' OR 'epidermal' OR 'cutaneous'). Forty relevant publications (1983-2017) encompassing 12,337 irradiated lesions were retrieved. Studies documented a mean age of 71.73 years and male predilection (54.5%). Both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy were utilized. Tumour subtype was squamous cell carcinoma (23.5%), basal cell carcinoma (75.2%) or others (1.3%). Irradiated lesions were primary (or denovo) (92.6%), located on the head and neck (95.7%) and received definitive therapy (96.5%). Analysis demonstrated a mean weighted total radiotherapy dose (38.15 Gy), dose per fraction (7.95 Gy) and treatments per week (2.98). Despite significant heterogeneity in the study population, the radiotherapy delivered and follow-up, local recurrence rate (crude or Kaplan-Meier analysis) did not exceed 7.9% in all but three of the 36 publications providing these data. Twenty-nine publications documented local control exceeding 90%. There is a body of evidence documenting the efficacy of hypofractionated radiotherapy as an option that confers no obvious disadvantage in local control when compared to traditional more protracted radiotherapy schedules.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/1754-9485.12718

  10 / 223575 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524301
[Au] Autor:Zhang X; Rong Y; Morrill S; Fang J; Narayanasamy G; Galhardo E; Maraboyina S; Croft C; Xia F; Penagaricano J
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR, USA.
[Ti] Title:Robust optimization in lung treatment plans accounting for geometric uncertainty.
[So] Source:J Appl Clin Med Phys;, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1526-9914
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Robust optimization generates scenario-based plans by a minimax optimization method to find optimal scenario for the trade-off between target coverage robustness and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. In this study, 20 lung cancer patients with tumors located at various anatomical regions within the lungs were selected and robust optimization photon treatment plans including intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated. The plan robustness was analyzed using perturbed doses with setup error boundary of ±3 mm in anterior/posterior (AP), ±3 mm in left/right (LR), and ±5 mm in inferior/superior (IS) directions from isocenter. Perturbed doses for D , D , and D were computed from six shifted isocenter plans to evaluate plan robustness. Dosimetric study was performed to compare the internal target volume-based robust optimization plans (ITV-IMRT and ITV-VMAT) and conventional PTV margin-based plans (PTV-IMRT and PTV-VMAT). The dosimetric comparison parameters were: ITV target mean dose (D ), R (D /D ), Paddick's conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), monitor unit (MU), and OAR doses including lung (D , V and V ), chest wall, heart, esophagus, and maximum cord doses. A comparison of optimization results showed the robust optimization plan had better ITV dose coverage, better CI, worse HI, and lower OAR doses than conventional PTV margin-based plans. Plan robustness evaluation showed that the perturbed doses of D , D , and D were all satisfied at least 99% of the ITV to received 95% of prescription doses. It was also observed that PTV margin-based plans had higher MU than robust optimization plans. The results also showed robust optimization can generate plans that offer increased OAR sparing, especially for normal lungs and OARs near or abutting the target. Weak correlation was found between normal lung dose and target size, and no other correlation was observed in this study.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/acm2.12291


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