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[PMID]: 29511183
[Au] Autor:Tang J; Qin N; Chong Y; Diao Y; Yiliguma; Wang Z; Xue T; Jiang M; Zhang J; Zheng G
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
[Ti] Title:Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):786, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03212-0

  2 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29486235
[Au] Autor:Schreuder MJ; Meyer T; Krix AC
[Ad] Address:Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Frightened by the perpetrator's voice: Startle responsivity and cognitive processing predict earwitness speaker identification.
[So] Source:Biol Psychol;134:80-88, 2018 Feb 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6246
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study was inspired by the case of a robbery victim who was startled and reminded of the crime upon hearing a stranger's voice, while not clearly recognizing the speaker. To investigate whether specific voices can modulate startle reactions and thereby predict speaker identification, we presented an audio hijack scenario to 84 participants and afterwards asked them to identify the perpetrator among neutral and negative speech fragments, while measuring flash-evoked eye-blink startle responses. Furthermore, we addressed data-driven cognitive processing during the audio scenario as a potential moderator in voice discrimination. Negative speech and the perpetrator's voice led to potentiated startle. Enhanced startle was positively associated with voice discrimination, but only in neutral speech fragments. In negative fragments, this association was weakened as a function of self-reported levels of data-driven processing during encoding. Thus, startle responses can generally predict accurate voice recognition, but speech emotionality and cognitive processing moderate this relationship.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471072
[Au] Autor:Cunha AF; Felippe ISA; Ferreira-Junior NC; Resstel LBM; Guimarães DAM; Beijamini V; Paton JFR; Sampaio KN
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Neuroreflex control of cardiovascular function is impaired after acute poisoning with chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide: Possible short and long term clinical implications.
[So] Source:Toxicology;398-399:13-22, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3185
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Adult male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CPF (30 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%). 24 h after injections, cardiovascular reflexes were tested in awake rats. Potassium cyanide (KCN) and phenylbiguanide (PBG) were injected intravenously to activate the chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, respectively. The baroreflex was activated by phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Blood samples were taken for measurements of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity while acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in brainstem samples. Animals treated with CPF presented signs of intoxication such as ataxia, tremor, lacrimation, salivation, tetany, urination and defecation. The hypertensive and the bradycardic responses of the chemoreflex as well as the hypotensive and bradycardic responses of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex were attenuated in CPF treated animals (P < 0.05). Concerning the baroreflex responses, CPF treatment reduced the bradycardia plateau, the range and the gain of the reflex (P < 0.05). Plasma BChE and brainstem AChE were both reduced significantly after CPF treatment (P < 0.05). Our results showed that acute sub-lethal exposure to CPF impairs the cardiovascular responses of homeostatic and defensive cardiovascular reflexes. These effects are associated with a marked inhibition of plasma BChE and brainstem AChE.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432808
[Au] Autor:Grønlund D; Poulsen JL; Krogh K; Brock C; Liao D; Gregersen H; Drewes AM; Olesen AE
[Ad] Address:Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:The impact of naloxegol on anal sphincter function - Using a human experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;117:187-192, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid treatment interferes with anal sphincter function and its regulation during defecation. This may result in straining, incomplete evacuation, and contribute to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). Employing an experimental model of oxycodone-induced OIBD, we hypothesized that co-administration of the peripherally acting µ-opioid antagonist naloxegol would improve anal sphincter function in comparison to placebo. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized crossover trial, 24 healthy males were assigned to a six-day treatment of oral oxycodone 15 mg twice daily in combination with either oral naloxegol 25 mg once daily or placebo. At baseline and at day 6, anal resting pressure and the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) were evaluated using manometry and rectal balloon distension. Furthermore, the functional lumen imaging probe was used to measure distensibility of the anal canal. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom (PAC-SYM) questionnaire and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. RESULTS: During oxycodone treatment, naloxegol improved RAIR-induced sphincter relaxation by 15% (-45.9 vs -38.8 mm Hg; P < 0.01). No differences in anal resting pressure and anal canal distensibility were found between treatments (all P > 0.5). Naloxegol improved PAC-SYM symptoms (mean score over days; 2.6 vs 4.5, P < 0.001) and improved stool consistency scores (mean score over days; 3.3 vs 2.9, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental model of OIBD, naloxegol improved the RAIR and reduced gastrointestinal symptoms. Hence, in contrast to conventional laxatives, naloxegol may regulate opioid-induced anal sphincter dysfunction and facilitate the defecation process.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29424769
[Au] Autor:Hellman N; Kuhn BL; Lannon EW; Payne MF; Sturycz CA; Palit S; Shadlow JO; Rhudy JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa OK.
[Ti] Title:Emotional Modulation of Pain and Spinal Nociception in Sexual Assault Survivors.
[So] Source:Psychosom Med;, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1534-7796
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Sexual assault (SA) is associated with an increased risk for chronic pain and affective distress. Given that emotional processes modulate pain (e.g., negative emotions enhance pain, positive emotions inhibit pain), increased pain risk in SA survivors could stem from a disruption of emotional modulation processes. METHODS: A well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm was used to study emotional modulation of pain in 33 healthy, pain-free SA survivors and a control group of 33 healthy, pain-free individuals with no reported history of SA (matched on age, sex, race, and number of non-SA traumas). Unpleasant (mutilation), neutral, and pleasant (erotica) pictures were presented while painful electrocutaneous stimulations were delivered at the ankle. Pain intensity ratings and nociceptive flexion reflex magnitudes (NFR; a physiologic measure of spinal nociception) were recorded in response to electric stimuli. Multilevel models were used to analyze the data with Group (SA vs. no-SA) and Content (mutilation, neutral, erotica) as IVs. RESULTS: Both groups demonstrated similar emotional modulation of pain [FGroupXContent(F(2,646.52)=0.44, p=.65], but a main effect of group [FGroup(1,65.42)=4.24, p=.043] indicated the SA group experienced more overall pain from electric stimuli (hyperalgesia). A significant Group X Content interaction for NFR (p=.035) indicated that emotional modulation of NFR was present for the no-SA group [FContentSimpleEffect(2,684.55)=12.43, p<.001], but not the SA group [FContentSimpleEffect(2,683.38)=1.71, p=.18]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest SA survivors have difficulty emotionally engaging brain-to-spinal cord mechanisms to modulate spinal nociception. A disruption of descending inhibition plus hyperalgesia could contribute to comorbidity between sexual trauma and chronic pain.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000567

  6 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524234
[Au] Autor:Stussi Y; Delplanque S; Coraj S; Pourtois G; Sander D
[Ad] Address:Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Measuring Pavlovian appetitive conditioning in humans with the postauricular reflex.
[So] Source:Psychophysiology;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1540-5958
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Despite its evolutionary and clinical significance, appetitive conditioning has been rarely investigated in humans. It has been proposed that this discrepancy might stem from the difficulty in finding suitable appetitive stimuli that elicit strong physiological responses. However, this might also be due to a possible lack of sensitivity of the psychophysiological measures commonly used to index human appetitive conditioning. Here, we investigated whether the postauricular reflex-a vestigial muscle microreflex that is potentiated by pleasant stimuli relative to neutral and unpleasant stimuli-may provide a valid psychophysiological indicator of appetitive conditioning in humans. To this end, we used a delay differential appetitive conditioning procedure, in which a neutral stimulus was contingently paired with a pleasant odor (CS+), while another neutral stimulus was not associated with any odor (CS-). We measured the postauricular reflex, the startle eyeblink reflex, and skin conductance response (SCR) as learning indices. Taken together, our results indicate that the postauricular reflex was potentiated in response to the CS+ compared with the CS-, whereas this potentiation extinguished when the pleasant odor was no longer delivered. In contrast, we found no evidence for startle eyeblink reflex attenuation in response to the CS+ relative to the CS-, and no effect of appetitive conditioning was observed on SCR. These findings suggest that the postauricular reflex is a sensitive measure of human appetitive conditioning and constitutes a valuable tool for further shedding light on the basic mechanisms underlying emotional learning in humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/psyp.13073

  7 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524209
[Au] Autor:Boyle R; Ehsanian R; Mofrad A; Popova Y; Varelas J
[Ad] Address:Vestibular Biophysics Laboratory, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000, USA.
[Ti] Title:Morphology of the Utricular Otolith Organ in the Toadfish, Opsanus tau.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish, and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize otolith mass and morphological polarization patterns of hair cells. Afferent nerve fibers were visualized following labeling with biocytin, and light microscope images were used to make three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of individual labeled afferents to identify dendritic morphology with respect to epithelial location. Transmission electron micrographs were compiled to create a serial 3-D reconstruction of a labeled afferent over a segment of its dendritic field and to examine the cell-afferent synaptic contacts. Major observations are: a well-defined striola, medial and lateral extra-striolar regions with a zonal organization of hair bundles; prominent lacinia projecting laterally; dependence of hair cell density on macular location; narrow afferent dendritic fields that follow the hair bundle polarization; synaptic specializations issued by afferents are typically directed towards a limited number of 7-13 hair cells, but larger dendritic fields in the medial extra-striola can be associated with > 20 hair cells also; and hair cell synaptic bodies can be confined to only an individual afferent or can synapse upon several afferents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.24429

  8 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523116
[Au] Autor:Ryska A; Berzinec P; Brcic L; Cufer T; Dziadziuszko R; Gottfried M; Kovalszky I; Olszewski W; Oz B; Plank L; Timar J
[Ad] Address:The Fingerland Department of Pathology, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. ryskaale@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:NSCLC molecular testing in Central and Eastern European countries.
[So] Source:BMC Cancer;18(1):269, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2407
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The introduction of targeted treatments for subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has highlighted the importance of accurate molecular diagnosis to determine if an actionable genetic alteration is present. Few data are available for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on mutation rates, testing rates, and compliance with testing guidelines. METHODS: A questionnaire about molecular testing and NSCLC management was distributed to relevant specialists in nine CEE countries, and pathologists were asked to provide the results of EGFR and ALK testing over a 1-year period. RESULTS: A very high proportion of lung cancer cases are confirmed histologically/cytologically (75-100%), and molecular testing of NSCLC samples has been established in all evaluated CEE countries in 2014. Most countries follow national or international guidelines on which patients to test for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements. In most centers at that time, testing was undertaken on request of the clinician rather than on the preferred reflex basis. Immunohistochemistry, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmation of positive cases, has been widely adopted for ALK testing in the region. Limited reimbursement is a significant barrier to molecular testing in the region and a disincentive to reflex testing. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are established in most of the countries and centers, with 75-100% of cases being discussed at a multidisciplinary tumor board at specialized centers. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular testing is established throughout the CEE region, but improved and unbiased reimbursement remains a major challenge for the future. Increasing the number of patients reviewed by multidisciplinary boards outside of major centers and access to targeted therapy based on the result of molecular testing are other major challenges.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12885-018-4023-4

  9 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522919
[Au] Autor:Jun SW; Yong SJ; Jo M; Kim YH; Kim SH
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Clinical Engineering, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, 20 Ilsan-ro, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do 26426, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Brief report: Preliminary study on evaluation of spasticity in patients with brain lesions using mechanomyography.
[So] Source:Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon);54:16-21, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1271
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Electromyography and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) are among the most effective methods for evaluating spasticity; however, these are often inappropriate for clinical use, owing to the complicated procedure and subjective evaluation outcomes. METHODS: A passive stretch reflex test was performed on 10 subjects with brain lesions. Furthermore, mechanomyography and electromyography were conducted on the vastus lateralis muscle (agonist) and semitendinosus muscle (antagonist) of the subjects with brain lesions. A new equation to define the normalized hull area; that is, the mechanomyography (MMG) ratio, was applied to quantify the triaxial motion of the agonist muscle versus antagonist muscles, reflecting the electromyographic firing point of the spastic muscle. FINDINGS: The MMG ratio was proposed, which statistically distinguishes the spastic and normal muscles (p = 0.01) and exhibits a concordance with the conventional mean MAS (r = 0.69, p = 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Patients suspected to have spasticity of 0 to 1+ grade can be quantitatively evaluated using the normalized hull area ratio, which can be used as an additional clinical indicator for spasticity evaluation. REGISTRATION OF CLINICAL TRIALS: The study was conducted in conformity with the Helsinki declaration principles and performed in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare (Republic of Korea); 2010; KCT0002385; A new approach of spasticity measurement using mechanomyography in patients with brain lesions: A randomized pilot study for a parallel randomized controlled trial; October 8, 2015 [Cited on July 21, 2017]; [1 screen]. Available from: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_en.jsp?seq=7805<ype=&rtype=.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 125338 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520058
[Au] Autor:Bohnsack JP; Hughes BA; O'Buckley TK; Edokpolor K; Besheer J; Morrow AL
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7178, USA.
[Ti] Title:Histone deacetylases mediate GABA receptor expression, physiology, and behavioral maladaptations in rat models of alcohol dependence.
[So] Source:Neuropsychopharmacology;, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1740-634X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Alcohol use disorders are chronic debilitating diseases characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms that contribute to morbidity and relapse. GABA receptor (GABA R) adaptations have long been implicated in the chronic effects of alcohol and contribute to many withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. In rodents, GABA R hypofunction results from decreases in Gabra1 expression, although the underlying mechanism controlling Gabra1 expression after chronic ethanol exposure is still unknown. We found that chronic ethanol exposure using either ethanol gavage or two-bottle choice voluntary access paradigms decreased Gabra1 expression and increased Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) after chronic ethanol exposure prevents the decrease in Gabra1 expression and function as well as the increase in Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression in both the cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal, but not acute ethanol exposure or acute withdrawal, cause a selective upregulation of HDAC2 and HDAC3 associated with the Gabra1 promoter that accompanies a decrease in H3 acetylation of the Gabra1 promoter and the reduction in GABA R α1 subunit expression. TSA administration prevented each of these molecular events as well as behavioral manifestations of ethanol dependence, including tolerance to zolpidem-induced loss of righting reflex, reduced open-arm time in the elevated plus maze, reduced center-time and locomotor activity in the open-field assay, and TSA reduced voluntary ethanol consumption. The results show how chronic ethanol exposure regulates the highly prominent GABA R α1 subunit by an epigenetic mechanism that represents a potential treatment modality for alcohol dependence.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41386-018-0034-8


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