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[PMID]: 29524922
[Au] Autor:Kong S; Yan Q; Zheng H; Liu H; Wang W; Zheng S; Yang G; Zheng M; Wu J; Qi S; Shen G; Tang L; Yin Y; Zhao T; Yu H; Liu D; Zhao D; Zhang T; Ruan J; Huang M
[Ad] Address:Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China; Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Electroni
[Ti] Title:Substantial reductions in ambient PAHs pollution and lives saved as a co-benefit of effective long-term PM pollution controls.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:266-279, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Under great efforts in fighting against serious haze problem of China since 2013, decreasing of air pollutants especially for fine particles (PM ) has been revealed for several key regions. This study tried to answer whether the reduction of PM -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was coincident with PM because of long-term pollution control measures (PCM), and to assess source-oriented health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Field measurements were carried out before and after the publishing of local air pollution protection plan for Nanjing, a mega-city in east China. Results indicated that the air quality was substantially improving, with a significant reduction in annual average PM by 34%, and moreover, PM -bound PAHs significantly reduced by 63% (p < 0.001). The remarkable reduction was mainly attributable to the change of emission sources, compared to the influence of atmospheric circulation patterns, surface meteorological conditions, and atmospheric chemical reaction. Four PAHs sources including coal combustion (CC), petroleum and oil burning (PO), wood burning (WB) and vehicle emission (VE) were identified. On an annual basis, contributions to ambient PM -PAHs from WB, PO, CC and VE sources in the period before the action of control measures were 2.26, 2.20, 1.96 and 5.62 ng m , respectively. They reduced to 1.09, 0.37, 1.31 and 1.77 ng m for the four source types, with the reduction percentages as 51, 83, 33 and 68%, respectively. The estimated reduction in lifetime lung cancer risk was around 61%. The study that firstly assessed the health effects of PAHs reduction as a co-benefit raised by air PCM sustained for a long period is believed to be applicable and referential for other mega-cities around the world for assessing the benefits of PCM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524924
[Au] Autor:Han C; Hong YC
[Ad] Address:Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Adverse health effects of ferronickel manufacturing factory on local residents: An interrupted time series analysis.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:288-296, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The first ferronickel manufacturing factory of the Republic of Korea was opened in Gwangyang City on October, 23rd, 2008. There has been public concern regarding heavy metal dust blown from the factory and slag disposal site. Therefore, we evaluated the health impact of the ferronickel factory on Gwangyang City residents by using interrupted time series analysis. We analyzed the monthly incidence patterns of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and dermatitis in Gwangyang City residents from 2004 to 2014. Data were gathered from the National Health Insurance Service database which covers all the hospital use data of entire city residents. Seasonality adjusted quasi-Poisson regression model was used to evaluate whether the operation of the ferronickel factory was associated with the immediate changes in the monthly disease incidence patterns. We set a control region, Yeosu City, near Gwangyang City to ensure that the changes in the disease incidence were specific to Gwangyang City. We conducted sub-regional level analysis to evaluate whether the disease incidence patterns were affected by the distance from the ferronickel factory. The risk estimates after operation of the ferronickel factory showed an abrupt increase in the monthly incidence of unspecified dermatitis [RR (95% CI), 1.75 (1.17-2.60)] and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis [RR (95% CI), 1.23 (1.08-1.39)] in men, and pruritus [RR (95% CI), 1.95 (1.51-2.52)], unspecified dermatitis [RR (95% CI), 1.65 (1.04-2.60)], and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis [RR (95% CI), 1.17 (1.04-1.31)] in women. These findings were significant even after accounting for the changes of the corresponding disease incidence of the comparison city, Yeosu. The effects were greater in young children (aged 0-9) and sub-regions near the ferronickel factory. Our study suggests possible association between the operation of the ferronickel factory and an abrupt increase of pruritus, unspecific dermatitis, and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis in Gwangyang City residents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524919
[Au] Autor:Nawrot TS; Saenen ND; Schenk J; Janssen BG; Motta V; Tarantini L; Cox B; Lefebvre W; Vanpoucke C; Maggioni C; Bollati V
[Ad] Address:Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; Department of Public Health & Primary Care, Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: tim.nawrot@uhasselt.be.
[Ti] Title:Placental circadian pathway methylation and in utero exposure to fine particle air pollution.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:231-241, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In mammals, a central clock maintains the daily rhythm in accordance with the external environment. At the molecular level, the circadian rhythm is maintained by epigenetic regulation of the Circadian pathway. Here, we tested the role of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 m (PM ) exposure during gestational life on human placental Circadian pathway methylation, as an important molecular target for healthy development. In 407 newborns, we quantified placental methylation of CpG sites within the promoter regions of the following genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, CRY1-2 and PER1-3 using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Daily PM exposure levels were estimated for each mother's residence, using a spatiotemporal interpolation model. We applied mixed-effects models to study the methylation status of the Circadian pathway genes and in utero PM exposure, while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. In a multi-gene model, placental Circadian pathway methylation was positively and significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with 3rd trimester PM exposure. Consequently, the single-gene models showed relative methylation differences [Log(fold change)] in placental NPAS2 (+0.16; p = 0.001), CRY1 (+0.59; p = 0.0023), PER2 (+0.36; p = 0.0005), and PER3 (+0.42; p = 0.0008) for an IQR increase (8.9 g/m ) in 3rd trimester PM exposure. PM air pollution, an environmental risk factor leading to a pro-inflammatory state of the mother and foetus, is associated with the methylation pattern of genes in the Circadian pathway. The observed alterations in the placental CLOCK epigenetic signature might form a relevant molecular mechanism through which fine particle air pollution exposure might affect placental processes and foetal development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524917
[Au] Autor:Cardona M; Lewis ET; Turner RM; Alkhouri H; Asha S; Mackenzie J; Perkins M; Suri S; Holdgate A; Winoto L; Chang CW; Gallego-Luxan B; McCarthy S; Kristensen MR; O'Sullivan M; Skjt-Arkil H; Ekmann AA; Nygaard HH; Jensen JJ; Jensen RO; Pedersen JL; Breen D; Petersen JA; Jensen BN; Mogensen CB; Hillman K; Brabrand M
[Ad] Address:The Simpson Centre for Health Services Research, South Western Sydney Clinical School, The University of New South Wales, PO Box 6087, UNSW, NSW, 1466 Australia. Electronic address: magnolia.cardona@unsw.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Efficacy of a tool to predict short-term mortality in older people presenting at emergency departments: Protocol for a multi-centre cohort study.
[So] Source:Arch Gerontol Geriatr;76:169-174, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6976
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Prognostic uncertainty inhibits clinicians from initiating timely end-of-life discussions and advance care planning. This study evaluates the efficacy of the CriSTAL (Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care) checklist in emergency departments. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients aged ≥65 years with any diagnosis admitted via emergency departments in ten hospitals in Australia, Denmark and Ireland. Electronic and paper clinical records will be used to extract risk factors such as nursing home residency, physiological deterioration warranting a rapid response call, personal history of active chronic disease, history of hospitalisations or intensive care unit admission in the past year, evidence of proteinuria or ECG abnormalities, and evidence of frailty to be concurrently measured with Fried Score and Clinical Frailty Scale. Patients or their informal caregivers will be contacted by telephone around three months after initial assessment to ascertain survival, self-reported health, post-discharge frailty and health service utilisation since discharge. Logistic regression and bootstrapping techniques and AUROC curves will be used to test the predictive accuracy of CriSTAL for death within 90 days of admission and in-hospital death. DISCUSSION: The CriSTAL checklist is an objective and practical tool for use in emergency departments among older patients to determine individual probability of death in the short-term. Its validation in this cohort is expected to reduce clinicians' prognostic uncertainty on the time to patients' death and encourage timely end-of-life conversations to support clinical decisions with older frail patients and their families about their imminent or future care choices.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524916
[Au] Autor:Lopes H; Mateus C; Rosati N
[Ad] Address:Escola Nacional de Sade Pblica, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address: h.lopes@ensp.unl.pt.
[Ti] Title:Impact of long term care and mortality risk in community care and nursing homes populations.
[So] Source:Arch Gerontol Geriatr;76:160-168, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6976
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To identify the survival time, the mortality risk factors and the individuals' characteristics associated with cognitive and physical status at discharge, among the Portuguese long-term care (LTC) populations. SETTINGS: Home-and-Community-Based Services (HCBS) and three types of Nursing Homes (NH). PARTICIPANTS: 20,984 individuals admitted and discharged in 2015. MEASUREMENTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to study the mortality risk; the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to identify the number of individuals with cognitive and physical changes between admission and discharge; two cumulative odds ordinal logistic regressions to predict the cognitive and physical dependence levels at discharge RESULTS: The mortality rate at HCBS was 30%, and 17% at the NH, with a median survival time of 173 and 200 days, respectively. The main factors associated with higher mortality were older age, male gender, family/neighbour support, neoplasms and cognitive/physical dependence at admission. In NH/HCBS, 26%/18% of individuals improve their cognitive status, while in physical status the proportion was 38%/27%, respectively. Finally, older age, being illiterate and being classified at the lowest cognitive and physical status at admission decrease the likelihood of achieving a higher level of cognitive and physical independence at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of a robust and complete assessment tool, the definition of guidelines to enable a periodical assessment of individuals' autonomy and the adoption of benchmark metrics allowing the comparison of results between similar units are some of the main goals to be taken into account for future developments of this care in Portugal.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524910
[Au] Autor:Lessi GC; Silva RS; Serro FV
[Ad] Address:Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of So Carlos, So Carlos, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of the effects of fatigue on kinematics and muscle activation between men and women after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
[So] Source:Phys Ther Sport;31:29-34, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1600
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Studies comparing the effects of fatigue between men and women after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of muscle fatigue on trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics and on lower limb muscle activation between male and female athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen recreational athletes (7 males and 7 females) with unilateral ACL reconstruction participated of this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics and muscle activation of the vastus lateralis, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus were evaluated during a single-leg drop vertical jump landing before and after a fatigue protocol. RESULTS: Females had greater peak knee abduction after fatigue in relation to before fatigue (P = 0.008), and in relation to men after fatigue (P = 0.011). Also, in females, peak knee abduction was greater in the reconstructed limb in relation to the non-reconstructed limb after fatigue (P = 0.029). Males showed a greater mean amplitude of activation of the vastus lateralis muscle after fatigue in relation to before fatigue (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle fatigue produced kinematic alterations that have been shown to increase the risk for a second ACL injury in female athletes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
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[PMID]: 29524905
[Au] Autor:Li J; Zhang Y; Sun T; Hao H; Wu H; Wang L; Chen Y; Xing L; Niu Z
[Ad] Address:School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
[Ti] Title:The health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator posed by PCDD/Fs in atmosphere and soil.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:81-91, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0.40 to 5.90 with a mean of 1.80, suggesting that the PCDD/Fs mainly came from combustion sources and studied MSWI could be a key source of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere. The F/D ratios of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 with a mean of 0.90, suggesting combustion is not the mainly sources of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil, and studied MSWI may have limited influence on PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil. O8CDD and 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF could be the total PCDD/Fs and TEQ indicators in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI, respectively. The carcinogenic risk (CR) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and soil for children, teens and adults were 1.24E-06, 9.06E-07 and 4.41E-06, respectively, suggesting that the potential cancer risk occurred but the risk was at acceptable levels for both children and adults (<1.00E-05), and the cancer risk for teens was negligible (<1.00E-06). The non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) values of three age groups were lower than 1, indicating that no obvious non-carcinogenic effects occurred. Inhalation of air was the largest contributor of health risk (both CR and non-CR) for three age groups. In addition, a comparison of the health risk between PCDD/Fs and other emerging contaminants and traditional pollutants in soil and atmosphere was performed, which will help us have a good view of the health risk levels of PCDD/Fs in surrounding environment of MWSI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
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[PMID]: 29524904
[Au] Autor:Hagenlocher M; Renaud FG; Haas S; Sebesvari Z
[Ad] Address:United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), UN Campus, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: hagenlocher@ehs.unu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Vulnerability and risk of deltaic social-ecological systems exposed to multiple hazards.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:71-80, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Coastal river deltas are hotspots of global change impacts. Sustainable delta futures are increasingly threatened due to rising hazard exposure combined with high vulnerabilities of deltaic social-ecological systems. While the need for integrated multi-hazard approaches has been clearly articulated, studies on vulnerability and risk in deltas either focus on local case studies or single hazards and do not apply a social-ecological systems perspective. As a result, vulnerabilities and risks in areas with strong social and ecological coupling, such as coastal deltas, are not fully understood and the identification of risk reduction and adaptation strategies are often based on incomplete assumptions. To overcome these limitations, we propose an innovative modular indicator library-based approach for the assessment of multi-hazard risk of social-ecological systems across and within coastal deltas globally, and apply it to the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), and Mekong deltas. Results show that multi-hazard risk is highest in the GBM delta and lowest in the Amazon delta. The analysis reveals major differences between social and environmental vulnerability across the three deltas, notably in the Mekong and the GBM deltas where environmental vulnerability is significantly higher than social vulnerability. Hotspots and drivers of risk vary spatially, thus calling for spatially targeted risk reduction and adaptation strategies within the deltas. Ecosystems have been identified as both an important element at risk as well as an entry point for risk reduction and adaptation strategies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
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[PMID]: 29524902
[Au] Autor:Zhu S; Xia L; Wu J; Chen S; Chen F; Zeng F; Chen X; Chen C; Xia Y; Zhao X; Zhang J
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610044, China.
[Ti] Title:Ambient air pollutants are associated with newly diagnosed tuberculosis: A time-series study in Chengdu, China.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:47-55, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although a few studies have analyzed the associations between ambient air pollutants and the development of tuberculosis (TB), most have been conducted in the core countries with inconsistent results. In this study, we used a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate the associations between the newly diagnosed TB cases and daily exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10m (PM ), nitrogen dioxide (NO ), and sulfur dioxide (SO ) in Chengdu, a severely polluted city. There were 36,108 newly diagnosed active TB cases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 in Chengdu. In a single-pollutant model, the cumulative relative risk of active TB cases was 1.06 [lag of 0 to 21days, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.11] for each 10g/m increase in PM above the threshold of 70g/m ; 1.06 (lag of 0 to 2days, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09) for each 10g/m increase in NO above the threshold of 40g/m ; and 1.07 (lag of 0 to 2days, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12) for each 10g/m increase in SO above the threshold of 60g/m . Meanwhile, we found a positive association in males after exposure to a 10g/m increase in SO above the threshold of 60g/m at a lag of 0 to 2days. Exposure to PM , NO , and SO was associated with an increment in the incidence of active TB cases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524899
[Au] Autor:Barbosa APM; Mndez-Fernandez P; Dias PS; Santos MCO; Taniguchi S; Montone RC
[Ad] Address:Laboratrio de Qumica Orgnica Marinha, Instituto Oceanogrfico, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei; Cetartiodactyla, Pontoporiidae).
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;631-632:239-245, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in the fat tissue of living organisms and are found in relatively high concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, such as dolphins. The ability of these compounds to interact with the endocrine system of marine mammals constitutes a risk for the reproduction and conservation of species. The La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is exclusive to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified on the IUCN red list as a vulnerable species. Blubber, liver, kidney and muscle samples from four P. blainvillei mother-fetus pairs were analyzed to evaluate the transfer of POPs to fetal tissues through the placenta. The presence of POPs in fetal tissues indicates the maternal transfer of compounds. In the pregnant females, blubber was the tissue with POP highest concentration, followed by the liver, kidneys and muscles. In the fetuses, POP accumulation mainly occurred in the blubber followed by the muscles, liver and kidneys. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were found in all tissues analyzed and had the highest concentrations among all compounds. The main PCB congeners in the fetal samples had five to seven chlorine atoms. The only polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in the fetal samples was 47 and was found only in blubber. The main DDT metabolite in the fetuses was p,p'-DDE. POP transfer via the placenta occurs in the first months of gestation and increases with fetal development, according to fetus/mother (F/M) ratio: HCB>DDT>PCB>PBDE>Mirex, which may follow the order of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K ) values.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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