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[PMID]: 29473987
[Au] Autor:Spence-Aizenberg A; Kimball BA; Williams LE; Fernandez-Duque E
[Ad] Address:Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Chemical composition of glandular secretions from a pair-living monogamous primate: Sex, age, and gland differences in captive and wild owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).
[So] Source:Am J Primatol;80(2), 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2345
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Broadening our knowledge of olfactory communication in strictly monogamous systems can inform our understanding of how chemosignals may facilitate social and reproductive behavior between the sexes. Compared to other social and mating systems, relatively little is known about olfactory communication in strictly monogamous non-human primates. Furthermore, platyrrhines are not well represented in chemical analyses of glandular secretions. We conducted semi-quantitative headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to investigate the chemical components of glandular secretions from the subcaudal and pectoral glands of a strictly pair-living platyrrhine, the owl monkey (Aotus spp.). In this study, the first chemical analysis of a wild platyrrhine population, our goals were to (1) conduct a robust analysis of glandular secretions from both captive and wild owl monkey populations and (2) identify whether biologically relevant traits are present in glandular secretions. We also compared and contrasted the results between two Aotus species in different environmental contexts: wild Aotus azarae (N = 33) and captive A. nancymaae (N = 104). Our findings indicate that secretions from both populations encode sex, gland of origin, and possibly individual identity. These consistent patterns across species and contexts suggest that secretions may function as chemosignals. Our data also show that wild A. azarae individuals are chemically discriminated by age (adult or subadult). Among the captive A. nanycmaae, we found chemical differences associated with location, possibly caused by dietary differences. However, there was no noticeable effect of contraception on the chemical profiles of females, nor evidence that closely related individuals exhibit more similar chemical profiles in A. nancymaae. Overall, our data suggest that glandular secretions of both wild and captive Aotus convey specific information. Future studies should use behavioral bioassays to evaluate the ability of owl monkeys to detect signals, and consider whether odor may ultimately facilitate social and sexual relationships between male and female owl monkeys.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajp.22730

  2 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29466640
[Au] Autor:Herrera EA; Castro Y
[Ti] Title:Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Rodentia: Hydrochoeridae): prevalence, effect and sexual selection.
[So] Source:Rev Biol Trop;65(1):229-37, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0034-7744
[Cp] Country of publication:Costa Rica
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parasites play a crucial role in the ecology of animals. They also appear to be important in mechanisms underlying sexual selection processes. In this article we study the prevalence, effect and potential role in sexual selection of the protozoon Trypanosoma evansi in capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. We collected our samples from the annual capybara cull of a ranch in Venezuela, using the volume of the snout scent gland as an indicator of dominance; the residuals of body weight as indicators of condition; and the residuals of the spleen mass as indicators of immune function. Overall prevalence was 30.9% (N=97) with no difference between males and females and no relation between infection with T. evansi and condition. However, we found that infected animals had larger spleens (residuals), indicating an immunological cost of the infection. Further, males with larger snout scent glands (more dominant) were less likely to be infected than males with smaller glands (less dominant) suggesting that by choosing males with a large gland, females may be using the gland as an indicator of health, which is consistent with the "good genes" view of sexual selection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29258402
[Au] Autor:Alexander KA; Laver PN; Williams MC; Sanderson CE; Kanipe C; Palmer MV
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Pathology of the Emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi, in the Banded Mongoose ( Mungos mungo).
[So] Source:Vet Pathol;55(2):303-309, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1544-2217
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Wild banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo) in northeastern Botswana and northwest Zimbabwe are infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi. We evaluated gross and histologic lesions in 62 infected mongooses (1999-2017). Many tissues contained multifocal irregular, lymphohistiocytic to granulomatous infiltrates and/or multifocal or coalescing noncaseating to caseating granulomas with variable numbers of intralesional acid-fast bacilli. Over one-third of nasal turbinates examined had submucosal lymphohistiocytic to granulomatous infiltrates, erosion and ulceration of the nasal mucosa, bony remodeling, and nasal distortion. Similar inflammatory cell infiltrates expanded the dermis of the nasal planum with frequent ulceration. However, even in cases with intact epidermis, acid-fast bacilli were present in variable numbers among dermal infiltrates and on the epidermal surface among desquamated cells and debris, most commonly in small crevices or folds. In general, tissue involvement varied among cases but was highest in lymph nodes (50/54, 93%), liver (39/53, 74%), spleen (37/51, 73%), and anal glands/sacs (6/8, 75%). Pulmonary lesions were present in 67% of sampled mongooses (35/52) but only in advanced disseminated disease. The pathological presentation of M. mungi in the banded mongoose is consistent with pathogen shedding occurring through scent-marking behaviors (urine and anal gland secretions) with new infections arising from contact with these contaminated olfactory secretions and percutaneous movement of the pathogen through breaks in the skin, nasal planum, and/or skin of the snout. Given the character and distribution of lesions and the presence of intracellular acid-fast bacilli, we hypothesize that pathogen spread occurs within the body through a hematogenous and/or lymphatic route. Features of prototypical granulomas such as multinucleated giant cells and peripheral fibrosis were rarely present in affected mongooses. Acid-fast bacilli were consistently found intracellularly, even in regions of necrosis. The mongoose genome has a unique deletion (RD1 ) that includes part of the encoding region for PPE68 (Rv3873), a gene co-operonic with PE35. These proteins can influence the host's cellular immune response to mycobacterial infections, and it remains uncertain how this deletion might contribute to observed patterns of pathology. M. mungi infection in banded mongooses is characterized by both a unique transmission and exposure route, as well as accompanying pathological features, providing an opportunity to increase our understanding of MTC pathogenesis across host-pathogen systems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180219
[Lr] Last revision date:180219
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1177/0300985817741730

  4 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29445970
[Au] Autor:Plachno BJ; Swiatek P; Stpiczynska M; Miranda VFO
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, 9 Gronostajowa Str, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. bartosz.plachno@uj.edu.pl.
[Ti] Title:Flower palate ultrastructure of the carnivorous plant Genlisea hispidula Stapf with remarks on the structure and function of the palate in the subgenus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae).
[So] Source:Protoplasma;, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1615-6102
[Cp] Country of publication:Austria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In the genus Genlisea as well as in its sister genus Utricularia, the palate probably plays a key role in providing the colour, mechanical and olfactory stimuli to attract insect pollinators and to guide them to the generative structures and the nectary spur. However, information about the micro-morphology of the palate of Genlisea is scarce. This study aims to examine the structure of the palate in Genlisea hispidula in detail as well as the palate from other five species from the subgenus Genlisea. In particular, its aim is to ascertain whether these palates function as an area for the osmophores in the flower or whether they produce nectar. We showed that the palate in all of the species that were examined was the glandular type and that it had capitate, glandular trichomes, which had a similar general architecture across the species that were examined. No nectar secretion was observed on the palates. The ultrastructure of the palate trichomes showed that the palate glandular trichomes most probably function as scent glands that produce an olfactory stimulus for flower pollinators.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00709-018-1220-6

  5 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29208220
[Au] Autor:Jurenka R
[Ad] Address:Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. Electronic address: rjurenka@iastate.edu.
[Ti] Title:Regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in moths.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Insect Sci;24:29-35, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2214-5753
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Female moths release sex pheromones for attracting males from a distance. Most moths are nocturnal so there is a periodicity to the release of sex pheromone. The temporal release of sex pheromone in most moths is regulated by calling behavior and by the biosynthesis of sex pheromone. In most moths, biosynthesis occurs in the pheromone gland and is controlled by the neuropeptide PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide). PBAN is produced in the subesophageal ganglion and released into circulation where it travels to the pheromone gland to activate pheromone biosynthesis. The G-protein coupled receptor that binds PBAN has been identified as well as aspects of signal transduction to activate the biosynthetic pathway. This review will highlight recent advances in the study of regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in moths.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Insect Proteins/metabolism
Moths/metabolism
Scent Glands/metabolism
Sex Attractants/biosynthesis
Signal Transduction
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Neuropeptides/metabolism
Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insect Proteins); 0 (Neuropeptides); 0 (Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled); 0 (Sex Attractants)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180119
[Lr] Last revision date:180119
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29112984
[Au] Autor:Stritih N; Zunic Kosi A
[Ad] Address:National Institute of Biology, Department of Organisms and Ecosystems Research, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
[Ti] Title:Olfactory signaling of aggressive intent in male-male contests of cave crickets (Troglophilus neglectus; Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0187512, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In animal contests, communicating aggressive motivation is most often mediated by visual or acoustic signals, while chemical signals are not expected to serve such a function since they are less able to be modulated by the sender during the changing behavioral context. We describe a rare example of ephemeral olfactory signals in terrestrial animals, signals that are emitted via protrusive scent glands in male cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) to reflect the state of the signaler's aggression. We correlate the intensity of behaviorally expressed aggression of the individuals in dyadic contests with the frequency and extent of their gland tissue protrusion, the latter serving as an indication of the amount of released odor. We detected large amounts of odor release during brief gland protrusions, and the absence of its release during gland retraction. Males protruded the glands during and after encountering a rival, with the degree of protrusion increasing with the intensity of the signalers' aggression. During the encounters, the degree of gland protrusion increased most strongly with the occurrence of the elevated body posture, directly preceding the attack. This degree was significantly higher in encounter winners than in losers displaying such posture, suggesting the highly important role of the released odor for contest resolution. After the encounters, glands were protruded almost exclusively by winners, apparently announcing victory. We tested for the function of the olfactory signals also directly, by preventing gland tissue protrusion in symmetric and asymmetric treatments of the contestants. Treating only the dominant individuals decreased the percentage of encounters they won by over 60%, while treating both contestants elicited a significant increase in the frequency and duration of fights. During contests, the olfactory signals of T. neglectus apparently function as a highly effective threat, which prevents maximal contest escalation and decreases the conflict-related costs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171119
[Lr] Last revision date:171119
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187512

  7 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28841690
[Au] Autor:Kücklich M; Möller M; Marcillo A; Einspanier A; Weiß BM; Birkemeyer C; Widdig A
[Ad] Address:Junior Research Group of Primate Kin Selection, Department of Primatology, Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183440, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD) tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113), with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52). The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35), of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55), but very few volatiles (N = 10). Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%). Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Callithrix/physiology
Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Communication
Animals
Female
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Odorants
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170826
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183440

  8 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28621451
[Au] Autor:Luo J; Li Z; Ma C; Zhang Z; Hull JJ; Lei C; Jin S; Chen L
[Ad] Address:National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Centre of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.
[Ti] Title:Knockdown of a metathoracic scent gland desaturase enhances the production of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal and suppresses female sexual attractiveness in the plant bug Adelphocoris suturalis.
[So] Source:Insect Mol Biol;26(5):642-653, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2583
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Insect sex pheromones (SPs) are central to mate-finding behaviour, and play an essential role in the survival and reproduction of organisms. Understanding the roles, biosynthetic pathways and evolution of insect chemical communication systems has been an exciting challenge for biologists. Compared with Lepidoptera, little is known about the mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in Hemiptera. In this study, we isolated and characterized two new desaturase-like genes, termed Asutdes1 and Asutdes2, from Adelphocoris suturalis, an important agricultural pest in China. Although the two genes encode an identical protein, Southern blot analysis revealed that they are duplicated genes. The Asutdes2 transcript is more abundant than Asutdes1 in the tissues tested, in particular the metathoracic scent gland and fat body. Silencing Asutdes expression in females by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsAsutdes) against a portion of the coding sequence shared by the two genes enhanced the production of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, a component of the A. suturalis SP blend, and dramatically suppressed the sexual attractiveness of A. suturalis females. We conclude that dsAsutdes is associated with the SP biosynthetic pathway in A. suturalis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aldehydes/metabolism
Fatty Acid Desaturases/metabolism
Hemiptera/metabolism
Hexanones/metabolism
Insect Proteins/metabolism
Sex Attractants/metabolism
Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics
Female
Hemiptera/genetics
Insect Proteins/genetics
Male
Molecular Sequence Data
RNA Interference
Scent Glands/metabolism
Sequence Analysis, DNA
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Aldehydes); 0 (Hexanones); 0 (Insect Proteins); 0 (Sex Attractants); EC 1.14.19.- (Fatty Acid Desaturases)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170617
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/imb.12325

  9 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28607369
[Au] Autor:Leclaire S; Jacob S; Greene LK; Dubay GR; Drea CM
[Ad] Address:Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175, CNRS, 1919 route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, France. sarah.leclaire@free.fr.
[Ti] Title:Social odours covary with bacterial community in the anal secretions of wild meerkats.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):3240, 2017 Jun 12.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The fermentation hypothesis for animal signalling posits that bacteria dwelling in an animal's scent glands metabolize the glands' primary products into odorous compounds used by the host to communicate with conspecifics. There is, however, little evidence of the predicted covariation between an animal's olfactory cues and its glandular bacterial communities. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we first identified the volatile compounds present in 'pure' versus 'mixed' anal-gland secretions ('paste') of adult meerkats (Suricata suricatta) living in the wild. Low-molecular-weight chemicals that likely derive from bacterial metabolism were more prominent in mixed than pure secretions. Focusing thereafter on mixed secretions, we showed that chemical composition varied by sex and was more similar between members of the same group than between members of different groups. Subsequently, using next-generation sequencing, we identified the bacterial assemblages present in meerkat paste and documented relationships between these assemblages and the host's sex, social status and group membership. Lastly, we found significant covariation between the volatile compounds and bacterial assemblages in meerkat paste, particularly in males. Together, these results are consistent with a role for bacteria in the production of sex- and group-specific scents, and with the evolution of mutualism between meerkats and their glandular microbiota.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170922
[Lr] Last revision date:170922
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-03356-x

  10 / 486 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28587589
[Au] Autor:Weiss K; Herzner G; Strohm E
[Ad] Address:Evolutionary Ecology Group, Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Sexual selection and the evolution of male pheromone glands in philanthine wasps (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae).
[So] Source:BMC Evol Biol;17(1):128, 2017 Jun 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2148
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Sexual selection is thought to promote evolutionary changes and diversification. However, the impact of sexual selection in relation to other selective forces is difficult to evaluate. Male digger wasps of the tribe Philanthini (Hymenoptera, Philanthinae) scent mark territories to attract receptive females. Consequently, the organs for production and storage of the marking secretion, the mandibular gland (MG) and the postpharyngeal gland (PPG), are subject to sexual selection. In female Philanthini, these glands are most likely solely subject to natural selection and show very little morphological diversity. According to the hypothesis that sexual selection drives interspecific diversity, we predicted that the MG and PPG show higher interspecific variation in males than in females. Using histological methods, 3D-reconstructions, and multivariate statistical analysis of morphological characters, we conducted a comparative analysis of the MG and the PPG in males of 30 species of Philanthini and three species of the Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, two related tribes within the Philanthinae. RESULTS: We found substantial interspecific diversity in gland morphology with regard to gland incidence, size, shape and the type of associated secretory cells. Overall there was a phylogenetic trend: Ensuing from the large MGs and small PPGs of male Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, the size and complexity of the MG was reduced in male Philanthini, while their PPG became considerably enlarged, substantially more complex, and associated with an apparently novel type of secretory cells. In some clades of the Philanthini the MG was even lost and entirely replaced by the PPG. However, several species showed reversals of and exceptions from this trend. Head gland morphology was significantly more diverse among male than among female Philanthinae. CONCLUSION: Our results show considerable variation in male head glands including the loss of an entire gland system and the evolution of a novel kind of secretory cells, confirming the prediction that interspecific diversity in head gland morphology is higher in male than in female Philanthini. We discuss possible causes for the remarkable evolutionary changes in males and we conclude that this high diversity has been caused by sexual selection.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biological Evolution
Wasps/anatomy & histology
Wasps/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Exocrine Glands/anatomy & histology
Female
Male
Mandible/metabolism
Pheromones/metabolism
Phylogeny
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Pheromones)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170927
[Lr] Last revision date:170927
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170608
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12862-017-0963-6


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