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[PMID]: 29489456
[Au] Autor:Jaradat N; Al-Lahham S
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, P. O. Box 7, Nablus, State of Palestine.
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical profile, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiobesity activities of Scolymus angiospermus Gaertn. Four fractions from Jericho/Palestine.
[So] Source:J Complement Integr Med;, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1553-3840
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background Many recent studies have shown that medicinal plants, which have been used worldwide through the past history in the folkloric medicine, harbor a significant number of novel metabolic compounds with potent pharmacological properties. In several countries, the aerial parts of the Scolymus angiospermus plant have been used as a food supply and as a folkloric medicinal plant. The current study aimed is to investigate the antimicrobial, antilipase, antioxidant activities and phytochemical profile of methanolic, hexane, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from the aerial parts of S. angiospermus. Methods Phytochemical assessments were based on standard analytical methods. The obtained fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and their antilipase activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory tests, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the obtained fractions was evaluated using broth microdilution assay against several American Type Culture Collection bacterial and fungal strains and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolate. Results Our data showed that of all obtained fractions used in the above-mentioned assays, both of methanolic and aqueous fractions, had the highest content of flavonoids (24.93 ± 2.11 and 12.21 ± 2.11 mg QUE/g, respectively) and phenolic compounds (96.28 ± 2.87 and 91.25 ± 2.63 mg of GAEq/g, respectively) as well as the best levels of both antioxidant (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 13.67 ± 1.44 and 14.69 ± 1.97 µg/ml, respectively) and antilipase (IC50 134.89 ± 1.65 and 269.15 ± 2.33 µg/ml, respectively) activities. In addition, these fractions exhibited various levels of both antibacterial and antifungal activities. Hydrophilic fractions were more potent against the investigated bacterial strains, while hydrophobic fractions were more potent against the investigated fungal strains. Conclusions The hydrophilic fractions derived from S. angiospermus have shown the best antioxidant and antilipase effects. This is may be due to the high contents of phenols and/or flavonoids. However, further investigations are essential to isolate and identify the antioxidant, antilipase and antimicrobial compounds. Our data provide significant evidence that S. angiospermus can be very useful in the prevention and treatment of various infectious and non-infectious chronic diseases and as natural food preservatives.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29469041
[Au] Autor:Rojas Á; Gallego P; Gil-Gómez A; Muñoz-Hernández R; Rojas L; Maldonado R; Gallego R; García-Valdecasas M; Del Campo JA; Bautista JD; Romero-Gómez M
[Ad] Address:Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain. Laboratorio de Investigación clínica y traslacional en enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas y CIBERehd. Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS).
[Ti] Title:Natural Extracts Abolished Lipid Accumulation in Cells Harbouring non-favourable PNPLA3 genotype.
[So] Source:Ann Hepatol;17(2):242-249, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1665-2681
[Cp] Country of publication:Mexico
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background & aims. G-allele of PNPLA3 (rs738409) favours triglycerides accumulation and steatosis. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin and natural extracts from mushroom and artichoke on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were exposed to oleic acid (OA) and treated with quercetin and extracts to observe the lipid accumulation, the intracellular-TG concentration and the LD size. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα-γ) and cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene expression levels were analysed. RESULTS: Quercetin decreased the intracellular lipids, LD size and the levels of intracellular-TG through the down-regulation of SREBP-1c, PPARγ and ACAT1 increasing PPARα. The natural-extracts suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation and the intracellular-TG. They down-regulate the hepatic lipogenesis through SREBP-1c, besides the activation of lipolysis through the increasing of PPARα expression. CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin and the aqueous extracts decrease intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulation of lipogenesis and up-regulation of lipolysis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5604/01.3001.0010.8642

  3 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29444678
[Au] Autor:Geraci A; Amato F; Di Noto G; Bazan G; Schicchi R
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Sezione di Botanica ed Ecologia Vegetale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 38, 90123, Palermo, Italy.
[Ti] Title:The wild taxa utilized as vegetables in Sicily (Italy): a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet.
[So] Source:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed;14(1):14, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1746-4269
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Wild vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin are still often consumed as a part of the diet and, in particular, there is a great tradition regarding their use in Sicily. In this study, an ethnobotanical field investigation was carried out to (a) identify the wild native taxa traditionally gathered and consumed as vegetables in Sicily, comparing the collected ethnobotanical data with those of other countries that have nominated the Mediterranean diet for inclusion in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity and (b) highlight new culinary uses of these plants. METHODS: Interviews were carried out in 187 towns and villages in Sicily between 2005 and 2015. A total of 980 people over the age of 50 were interviewed (mainly farmers, shepherds, and experts on local traditions). Plants recorded were usually collected in collaboration with the informants to confirm the correct identification of the plants. The frequencies of citation were calculated. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-three taxa (specific and intraspecific) belonging to 39 families, and 128 genera were recorded (26 were cited for the first time). The most represented families were Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Malvaceae, and Polygonaceae. Only 14 taxa were cited by 75% of the people interviewed. The aerial parts of wild plants, including leaves, tender shoots, and basal rosettes, are the main portions collected, while the subterranean parts are used to a lesser extent. For some vegetables, more parts are utilized. Most of the reported vegetables are consumed cooked. In addition to the widely known vegetables (Borago officinalis, Beta spp., Cichorium spp., Brassica spp., Carduus spp., etc.), the so-called ancient vegetables are included (Onopordum illyricum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Nasturtium officinale, Scolymus spp., Smyrnium rotundifolium), and some unique uses were described. Comparing the Sicilian findings to those from other countries, a very high number of vegetable taxa were detected, 72 of which are eaten only in Sicily, while 12 are consumed in all the Mediterranean countries examined. CONCLUSIONS: The research shows a high level of Sicilian knowledge about using wild plants as a traditional food source. Wild vegetables are healthy and authentic ingredients for local and ancient recipes, which are fundamental to the revitalization of quality food strictly connected to traditional agroecosystems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180218
[Lr] Last revision date:180218
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0215-x

  4 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29409377
[Au] Autor:Bogavac-Stanojevic N; Kotur Stevuljevic J; Cerne D; Zupan J; Marc J; Vujic Z; Crevar-Sakac M; Sopic M; Munjas J; Radenkovic M; Jelic-Ivanovic Z
[Ad] Address:a Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Belgrade , Belgrade , Serbia.
[Ti] Title:The role of artichoke leaf tincture (Cynara scolymus) in the suppression of DNA damage and atherosclerosis in rats fed an atherogenic diet.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;56(1):138-144, 2018 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. OBJECTIVES: We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate. The ADA group was fed with pellet chow (for 1 week), the atherogenic diet (see above) for the following 4 weeks and then with ALT (0.1 mL/kg body weight) and atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. According to HPLC analysis, the isolated main compounds in ALT were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercitrin and rutin. RESULTS: Normalized HO-1 [0.11 (0.04-0.24)] and MCP-1 [0.29 (0.21-0.47)] mRNA levels and DNA scores [12.50 (4.50-36.50)] were significantly lower in the ADA group than in the AD group [0.84 (0.35-2.51)], p = 0.021 for HO-1 [0.85 (0.61-3.45)], p = 0.047 for MCP-1 and [176.5 (66.50-221.25)], p = 0.020 for DNA scores. HO-1 mRNA was lower in the ADA group than in the CG group [0.30 (0.21-0.71), p = 0.049]. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with ALT limited the effects of the atherogenic diet through reduced MCP-1 expression, thereby preventing oxidative damage.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180207
[Lr] Last revision date:180207
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/13880209.2018.1434549

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[PMID]: 29250985
[Au] Autor:Erci F; Cakir-Koc R; Isildak I
[Ad] Address:a Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science , Necmettin Erbakan University , Meram-Konya , Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata (zahter) aqueous leaf extract and evaluation of their morphology-dependent antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.
[So] Source:Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol;:1-9, 2017 Dec 17.
[Is] ISSN:2169-141X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized at room temperature using different concentrations of the Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata (Zahter) aqueous leaf extracts for the first time. With the synthesis of AgNPs using the leaf extract of Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint), the biological activities of the nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of three economically significant plants have been studied comparatively. Nanoparticles were characterized by different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. TEM analysis of the biosynthesized AgNPs revealed that the size and shape of the AgNPs were changed with the plant extract concentration. Biologically synthesized AgNPs from leaf extracts of the three different plants displayed significant differences in antibacterial activity against two different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Also, the results from this study show the shape dependence of the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using T. spicata leaf extract. The nanoparticles with different shapes exhibited the strongest antibacterial and cytotoxic activity compared to mostly spherical nanoparticles. Present results clearly indicate that biological activities of silver nanoparticles were affected by nanoparticle shape and the source of the plant extract used in the synthesis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/21691401.2017.1415917

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[PMID]: 29113064
[Au] Autor:Röhrig T; Pacjuk O; Hernández-Huguet S; Körner J; Scherer K; Richling E
[Ad] Address:Division of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Straße 52, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. roehrig@chemie.uni-kl.de.
[Ti] Title:Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.
[So] Source:Medicines (Basel);4(4), 2017 Nov 04.
[Is] ISSN:2305-6320
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Four plant extracts ( , , , ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Strawberry tree fruit ( ) and tea ( ) extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke ( ) extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC = 41 ± 10 µM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger ( ) extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC = 455 ± 19 µg/mL). A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171108
[Lr] Last revision date:171108
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28960971
[Au] Autor:Martínez-Esplá A; Valero D; Martínez-Romero D; Castillo S; Giménez MJ; García-Pastor ME; Serrano M; Zapata PJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Technology, School of Engineering of Orihuela (EPSO) and ‡Department of Applied Biology, School of Engineering of Orihuela (EPSO), University Miguel Hernández , Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Preharvest Application of Methyl Jasmonate as an Elicitor Improves the Yield and Phenolic Content of Artichoke.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(42):9247-9254, 2017 Oct 25.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment as an elicitor of artichoke plants [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] on the yield and quality attributes of artichokes, especially those related to individual phenolic content and antioxidant activity, at two harvest dates and along storage were analyzed in this research. Plants treated gave a higher yield of artichokes in comparison to control plants, with 0.55 kg more per plant. MeJa treatment also increased artichoke quality and phenolic content in the edible fraction at harvest and during storage at 2 °C for 28 days as a result of the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids and luteolin derivatives. In addition, antioxidant activity was enhanced by MeJa treatment and correlated with the total phenolic content. Results suggest that MeJa foliar application could be a simple and practical tool to improve the yield and phytochemical content on artichokes, with elicitation being a cheap and environmentally friendly procedure to improve the health-beneficial effects of artichoke consumption.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171025
[Lr] Last revision date:171025
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03447

  8 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28873750
[Au] Autor:Maietta M; Colombo R; Lavecchia R; Sorrenti M; Zuorro A; Papetti A
[Ad] Address:Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) waste as a natural source of carbonyl trapping and antiglycative agents.
[So] Source:Food Res Int;100(Pt 1):780-790, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7145
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The role of polyphenolic compounds extractable from artichoke solid wastes in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was studied. Outer bracts and stems were extracted using different water-ethanol mixtures and HPLC-DAD analyses indicated aqueous and hydro-alcoholic 20:80 stem extracts as the richest in polyphenols. The samples were characterized in their phenolic composition (using mass spectrometry) and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-sugars (glucose, fructose, and ribose) and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) tests, formation of Amadori products assay, direct glyoxal (GO) and MGO trapping capacity. Results indicated both extracts as effective inhibitors of fructosamine formation and antiglycative agents. In particular, aqueous extract showed the best activity in the systems containing glucose and fructose, differently from ethanolic extract, that was demonstrated able to better inhibit AGEs formation when ribose or MGO act as precursors. Ethanolic extract was also shown to be able to trap MGO and GO, with efficiency increasing after 24hours of incubation time. These activities are partially correlated with the antioxidant effect of the extract, as demonstrated by the scavenger capacity against ABTS cation and DPPH stable radicals; this relationship is evident when the model system, containing protein incubated with ribose or MGO, is considered. The different activities of the tested extracts could probably be ascribed to the different composition in chlorogenic acids (CQAs), being aqueous extract richer in 1-CQA, 3-CQA, and 1,3-di-CQA, and ethanolic extract in 5-CQA, caffeic acid, 1,5-di-CQA. These findings support further investigations to study the stability of the different CQAs in simil-physiological conditions and the feasibility of artichoke waste as antiglycative agents in food or pharmacological preparations. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS: 5-caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID 5280633); 3-caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID 1794427); 1-caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID 10155076); 1,3-di-caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID 24720973); 1,5 - di-caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID 122685); caffeic acid (PubChem CID 689043); apigenin-7-glucuronide (PubChem CID 5319484); methylglyoxal PubChem CID (880); aminoguanidine hydrochloride (PubChem CID 2734687).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170906
[Lr] Last revision date:170906
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28722756
[Au] Autor:Spanu E; Deligios PA; Azara E; Delogu G; Ledda L
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione di Agronomia, Coltivazioni erbacee e Genetica, Università di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Effects of alternative cropping systems on globe artichoke qualitative traits.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;, 2017 Jul 19.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertiliser. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons. RESULTS: NCV2 showed statistical differences in terms of fresh product yield with respect to the monoculture systems. In addition, the dihydroxycinnamic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids of non-conventional samples were one-fold significantly higher than the conventional one. All the samples reported good mineral content, although NCV2 achieved a higher Fe content than conventional throughout the two seasons. After two and three dates of sampling, the CONV samples showed the highest levels of K content. CONCLUSION: In our study, an acceptable commercial yield and quality of 'Spinoso sardo' were achieved by shifting the common conventional agronomic management to more sustainable ones, by means of an accurate choice of cover crop species and rotations introduced in the systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170829
[Lr] Last revision date:170829
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8558

  10 / 341 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28717205
[Au] Autor:Acquadro A; Barchi L; Portis E; Mangino G; Valentino D; Mauromicale G; Lanteri S
[Ad] Address:DISAFA, Plant Genetics and Breeding, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Genome reconstruction in Cynara cardunculus taxa gains access to chromosome-scale DNA variation.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):5617, 2017 Jul 17.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus, 2n = 2x = 34) is now available for use. A survey of C. cardunculus genetic resources is essential for understanding the evolution of the species, carrying out genetic studies and for application of breeding strategies. We report on the resequencing analyses (~35×) of four globe artichoke genotypes, representative of the core varietal types, as well as a genotype of the related taxa cultivated cardoon. The genomes were reconstructed at a chromosomal scale and structurally/functionally annotated. Gene prediction indicated a similar number of genes, while distinctive variations in miRNAs and resistance gene analogues (RGAs) were detected. Overall, 23,5 M SNP/indel were discovered (range 6,34 M -14,50 M). The impact of some missense SNPs on the biological functions of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid and sesquiterpene lactone secondary metabolites was predicted. The identified variants contribute to infer on globe artichoke domestication of the different varietal types, and represent key tools for dissecting the path from sequence variation to phenotype. The new genomic sequences are fully searchable through independent Jbrowse interfaces (www.artichokegenome.unito.it), which allow the analysis of collinearity and the discovery of genomic variants, thus representing a one-stop resource for C. cardunculus genomics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170723
[Lr] Last revision date:170723
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-05085-7


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