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[PMID]: 29222532
[Au] Autor:Wu CY; Jansen ME; Andrade J; Chui TYP; Do AT; Rosen RB; Deobhakta A
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York.
[Ti] Title:Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.
[So] Source:JAMA Ophthalmol;136(1):82-85, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6173
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Importance: Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. Objective: To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Design, Setting, and Participant: Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. Results: The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Conclusions and Relevance: Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially in the middle and outer retina. Young adults may be especially vulnerable and need to be better informed of the risks of viewing the sun with inadequate protective eyewear.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.5517

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[PMID]: 29350588
[Au] Autor:Borgdorff P
[Ad] Address:a Department of Physiology, ICaR-VU , VU University Medical Center , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Arguments against the role of cortical spreading depression in migraine.
[So] Source:Neurol Res;40(3):173-181, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1743-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern. However, there are many arguments against this theory. CSD is difficult to evoke in man, and electroencephalography (EEG) readings are not flattened during migraine (as opposed to EEG during CSD). Moreover, in contrast to CSD, migraine can occur bilaterally, and is not accompanied by a disrupted blood-brain barrier, increased cerebral metabolism, or cerebral cell swelling. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, which is thought to be characteristic of migraine pain, is increased in the blood from the external jugular vein during migraine in humans, but not during CSD in cats or rats. Moreover, CSD does not explain the appearance of premonitory symptoms or allodynia, long before the actual onset of aura. In addition, there is a variation in the pain mechanisms of migraine and CSD, and in their reaction to transcranial magnetic stimulation and several pharmacologic interventions. Finally, the origin of putative CSD in migraine is currently unknown.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/01616412.2018.1428406

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[PMID]: 29506321
[Au] Autor:Denniss J; Astle AT
[Ad] Address:Visual Neuroscience Group, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
[Ti] Title:Modified images reflecting effects of age-related macular degeneration on perception of everyday scenes.
[So] Source:Clin Exp Optom;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1444-0938
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Depictions of vision with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in public information material typically show a central region of absolute vision loss. Patients with early and moderate disease frequently do not report this. We aimed to measure how a group of people with AMD perceive everyday scenes in order to produce accurate depictions. METHODS: We report on six people aged 65-82 years with monocular AMD (visual acuity +0.04 to +1.64 logMAR) and normal vision in the fellow eye. Participants viewed four images monocularly, alternating between eyes. The image was digitally altered to approximate participants' descriptions of their perception with the affected eye. The altered image was viewed with the unaffected eye, and compared with the original image viewed with the affected eye. This was repeated iteratively until a perceptual match was achieved between the modified image/unaffected eye and the original image/affected eye. RESULTS: For five AMD participants with visual acuity +0.04 to +0.50 logMAR the modified images did not resemble those in current public information material. Image modifications required to achieve perceptual similarity with the affected eyes included localised distortion, contrast reduction and blur. Widespread colour desaturation was also required in some cases. One participant with advanced geographic atrophy reported an absolute positive scotoma, similar to existing depictions. CONCLUSIONS: Vision in people with AMD may not conform to the common depiction of a central region of absolute vision loss. The accurate representations of AMD patients' vision produced in this study will enable better understanding of the visual consequences of AMD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/cxo.12672

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[PMID]: 29490347
[Au] Autor:Gupta A; Mesik J; Engel SA; Smith R; Schatza M; Calabrèse A; van Kuijk FJ; Erdman AG; Legge GE
[Ad] Address:Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
[Ti] Title:Beneficial Effects of Spatial Remapping for Reading With Simulated Central Field Loss.
[So] Source:Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci;59(2):1105-1112, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1552-5783
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Purpose: People with central field loss (CFL) lose information in the scotomatous region. Remapping is a method to modify images to present the missing information outside the scotoma. This study tested the hypothesis that remapping improves reading performance for subjects with simulated CFL. Methods: Circular central scotomas, with diameters ranging from 4° to 16°, were simulated in normally sighted subjects using an eye tracker on either a head-mounted display (HMD) (experiments 1, 2) or a traditional monitor (experiment 3). In the three experiments, reading speed was measured for groups of 7, 11, and 13 subjects with and without remapping of text. Results: Remapping increased reading speed in all three experiments. On the traditional monitor, it increased reading speed by 34% (8°), 38% (12°), and 35% (16°). In the two HMD experiments, remapping increased reading speed only for the largest scotoma size, possibly due to latency of updating of the simulated scotoma. Conclusions: Remapping significantly increased reading speed in simulated CFL subjects. Additional testing should examine the efficacy of remapping for reading and other visual tasks for patients with advanced CFL.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-21404

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[PMID]: 29490394
[Au] Autor:Giacuzzo C; Potic J; Wolfensberger TJ; Daruich A
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Zentrales Skotom nach Silikonölentfernung nach Netzhautablösung: ein multimodaler Bildgebungsbericht. Central Scotoma after Removal of Silicone Oil in Retinal Detachment: A Multimodal Imaging Case Report.
[So] Source:Klin Monbl Augenheilkd;, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1439-3999
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0043-123643

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[PMID]: 29253656
[Au] Autor:Hummer A; Ritter M; Woletz M; Ledolter AA; Tik M; Dumoulin SO; Holder GE; Schmidt-Erfurth U; Windischberger C
[Ad] Address:MR Centre of Excellence, Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
[Ti] Title:Artificial scotoma estimation based on population receptive field mapping.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;169:342-351, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Population receptive field (pRF) mapping based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an ideal method for obtaining detailed retinotopic information. One particularly promising application of pRF mapping is the estimation and quantification of visual field effects, for example scotomata in patients suffering from macular dysfunction or degeneration (MD) or hemianopic defects in patients with intracranial dysfunction. However, pRF mapping performance is influenced by a number of factors including spatial and temporal resolution, distribution of dural venous sinuses and patient performance. This study addresses the ability of current pRF methodology to assess the size of simulated scotomata in healthy individuals. The data demonstrate that central scotomata down to a radius of 2.35° (4.7° diameter) visual angle can be reliably estimated in single subjects using high spatial resolution protocols and multi-channel receive array coils.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29451988
[Au] Autor:Kosior-Jarecka E; Bartosinska J; Lukasik U; Wróbel-Dudzinska D; Krasowska D; Chodorowska G; Zarnowski T
[Ad] Address:a Department of Diagnostics and Microsurgery of Glaucoma , Medical University , Lublin , Poland.
[Ti] Title:Results of Nailfold Capillaroscopy in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma.
[So] Source:Curr Eye Res;:1-7, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2202
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of nailfold videocapillaroscopic examination in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) in comparison to age-matched individuals without glaucoma and young healthy volunteers and to assess the relation between the results of this examination with clinical status in NTG group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group consisted of 188 patients: 80 patients with NTG and 2 control groups (58 young healthy and 50 age-matched volunteers). The nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) was performed in all participants. The results of every NVC were qualified as a normal or abnormal pattern. In the NTG group, ophthalmic examination was performed and medical history regarding glaucoma, chronic general disorders, and vascular risk factors was recorded. RESULTS: In the NTG group, an abnormal NVC pattern was more common than in young controls (p = 0.0008). Microbleedings were present more frequently in NTG patients (p = 0.0365). Enlargement of capillaries (p = 0.0006) and branching capillaries (p = 0.0221) were more frequent in the NTG group compared to age-matched controls. Maximal intraocular pressure was higher in NTG patients with abnormal NVC pattern than with normal NVC (p = 0.0000). Disc hemorrhages were more frequently observed in patients with abnormal NVC pattern (p = 0.0313). Presence of paracentral scotoma was associated with abnormal NVC pattern (p = 0.0054). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in nailfold capillaroscopy are more frequent in NTG patients. The results of capillaroscopic examination differ in NTG patients according to the profile of ocular and general risk factor.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/02713683.2018.1438632

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[PMID]: 29282563
[Au] Autor:Kadavath Meethal NS; Mazumdar D; Asokan R; Panday M; van der Steen J; Vermeer KA; Lemij HG; George RJ; Pel JJM
[Ad] Address:Medical and Vision Research Foundation, Chennai, India.
[Ti] Title:Development of a test grid using Eye Movement Perimetry for screening glaucomatous visual field defects.
[So] Source:Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol;256(2):371-379, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1435-702X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Perimetry (EMP) uses Saccadic Eye Movement (SEM) responses for visual field evaluation. Previous studies have demonstrated significant delay in initiation of SEMs among glaucoma patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The aim of the current study was to develop an EMP-based screening grid to identify glaucomatous visual field defects. METHODS: An interactive test consisting of 36 locations and two stimulus contrasts (162 cd/m and 190 cd/m on a background of 140 cd/m ) was evaluated in 54 healthy subjects and 50 primary glaucoma patients. Each subject was presented a central fixation target combined with the random projection of Goldmann size III peripheral targets. Instructions were given to look at each peripheral target on detection and then re-fixate at the central fixation target while the saccades were assessed using an eye tracker. From each seen peripheral target, the Saccadic Reaction Time (SRT) was calculated for contrast level 162 cd/ m . These values were used to plot Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for each test locations and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were used to identify the locations with highest susceptibility to glaucomatous damage. Each stimulus location with an AUC less than 0.75 along with its mirrored test location around the horizontal axis were eliminated from the grid. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.1 ± 16.6 years and 50.0 ± 14.5 years for healthy subjects and glaucoma patients respectively. A significant increase of SRT values by 76.5% (p < 0.001) was found in glaucoma patients in comparison with the healthy subjects. From the ROC analysis, ten out of 36 locations meeting the cut-off criteria of AUC were eliminated resulting in a new grid containing 26 test locations. SRT values were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the healthy subjects and glaucoma irrespective of the grids used. CONCLUSIONS: The present study resulted in a screening grid consisting of 26 locations predominantly testing nasal, superior and inferior areas of the visual field. An internal validation of the modified grid showed 90.4% of screening accuracy which makes it a potential approach for population based glaucoma screening.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Eye Movements
Glaucoma/complications
Scotoma/diagnosis
Vision Screening/methods
Visual Field Tests/methods
Visual Fields/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Female
Glaucoma/diagnosis
Glaucoma/physiopathology
Humans
Incidence
India/epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
ROC Curve
Reproducibility of Results
Scotoma/epidemiology
Scotoma/etiology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180214
[Lr] Last revision date:180214
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00417-017-3872-x

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[PMID]: 28451988
[Au] Autor:Badhani A; Padhi TR; Panda GK; Mukherjee S; Das T; Jalali S
[Ad] Address:Department of Vitreoretinal services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
[Ti] Title:Correlation of macular structure and function in a boy with primary foveomacular retinitis and sequence of changes over 5 years.
[So] Source:Doc Ophthalmol;135(1):43-52, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2622
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, macular structure and function, and to document sequential changes over 5 years in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral primary foveomacular retinitis. METHODS: A 10-year-old boy presented with sudden onset scotoma in both eyes, experienced after getting up from bed on a non-eclipse day. He persistently denied direct sun-gazing. He neither had any significant systemic illness, nor was using any medications. In addition to a detailed examination at presentation that included fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA), electroretinogram (ERG), pattern ERG and electrooculogram (EOG), he was examined periodically for 5 years with Humphrey visual field (HVF), spectral domain optical coherence tomogram (SDOCT), Amsler grid charting and multifocal ERG. The macular structure and functions were analyzed over the years and correlated with the symptoms. RESULTS: All findings were bilaterally symmetrical at each visit. At presentation, his corrected visual acuity was 20/25 with subfoveal yellow dot similar to solar retinopathy, central scotoma with reduced foveal threshold in HVF 24-2, micropsia in Amsler grid, missing of two plates on Ishihara color vision chart, transfoveal full thickness hyper-reflective band on SD OCT, unremarkable FFA and normal foveal peak in mfERG. The flash ERG and EOG were unremarkable. A month later, his VA improved to 20/20, he had relative scotoma in Amsler grid, no scotoma in HVF (10-2), restoration of the inner segment of the photoreceptors with sharp defect involving ellipsoid and photoreceptor interdigitation zone in SDOCT and blunting of foveal peaks in mfERG. Three months later, his corrected VA was 20/20 with relative scotoma in Amsler grid, normal color vision, no scotoma in HVF 10-2 and unchanged SDOCT findings. In subsequent examinations at 6, 9, 14, 29, 39 and 60 months, he was symptomless with VA 20/20, unremarkable fundus, normal Amsler grid and HVF (normal foveal threshold), unchanged SDOCT findings and the reduced foveal peaks on mfERG in both eyes got normalized only at 60 months. CONCLUSION: Presented here is a case of bilaterally symmetrical idiopathic foveomacular retinitis that had a clinical appearance similar to solar retinopathy. The fundus changes persisted for 4 weeks, the symptoms and changes in Amsler grid lasted for 3 months, and the foveal threshold in visual fields normalized within 3 months. Maximum change in the SDOCT defect occurred within a month, and the extrafoveal defect in the ellipsoid and photoreceptor interdigitation line persisted despite resolution of symptoms and resolution of the visual field defect and normal distance vision. Probably, the foveal lesion detected on SDOCT was too small to cause a reduction in the distance visual acuity or show up in the visual field and mfERG later.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fovea Centralis/physiopathology
Retinitis/physiopathology
Scotoma/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Child
Electrooculography
Electroretinography
Fluorescein Angiography
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Retinitis/diagnosis
Scotoma/diagnosis
Statistics as Topic
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Visual Acuity/physiology
Visual Field Tests
Visual Fields/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10633-017-9590-1

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[PMID]: 29240745
[Au] Autor:Ramachandran N; Bhikoo R; Ah-Chan J; Bradshaw H
[Ad] Address:Ophthalmology Registrar, Southern DHB.
[Ti] Title:Waking up to poor vision after a night out.
[So] Source:N Z Med J;130(1467):87-89, 2017 12 15.
[Is] ISSN:1175-8716
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Retina/physiopathology
Scotoma/diagnostic imaging
Valsalva Maneuver
Vision, Low/diagnostic imaging
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Diagnosis, Differential
Humans
Male
Scotoma/etiology
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Vision, Low/etiology
Visual Acuity
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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