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[PMID]: 29518525
[Au] Autor:Takai H; Asaoka K; Ishizuna F; Kiuchi T; Katsuma S; Shimada T
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Insect Genetics and Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Morphological and electrophysiological differences in tarsal chemosensilla between the wild silkmoth Bombyx mandarina and the domesticated species Bombyx mori.
[So] Source:Arthropod Struct Dev;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5495
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs. In both species, females have 3.6-6.9 times more T-sensilla than males. Therefore, T-sensilla seem to play more important roles in females than in males. Moreover, gustatory cells of T-sensilla of B. mandarina females responded intensely to mulberry leaf extract in electrophysiological experiments, while T-sensilla of B. mori females (N4 strain) hardly responded to mulberry leaf extract. These results suggest that T-sensilla of B. mandarina females are involved in the recognition of oviposition sites. We also observed that, in three B. mori strains (N4, p50T, and Kinshu × Showa), the densities of sensilla on the fifth tarsomeres were much lower than that of B. mandarina. These results indicate that domestication has influenced the tarsal gustatory system of B. mori.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29361599
[Au] Autor:Worm M; Kirschbaum F; von der Emde G
[Ad] Address:University of Bonn, Institute of Zoology, Neuroethology/Sensory Ecology, Meckenheimer Allee 169, 53115 Bonn, Germany mworm@uni-bonn.de.
[Ti] Title:Disembodying the invisible: electrocommunication and social interactions by passive reception of a moving playback signal.
[So] Source:J Exp Biol;221(Pt 5), 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9145
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mormyrid weakly electric fish have a special electrosensory modality that allows them to actively sense their environment and to communicate with conspecifics by emitting sequences of electric signals. Electroreception is mediated by different types of dermal electroreceptor organs for active electrolocation and electrocommunication, respectively. During electrocommunication, mormyrids exhibit stereotyped discharge sequences and locomotor patterns, which can be induced by playback of electric signals. This raises the question: what sensory information is required to initiate and sustain social interactions, and which electrosensory pathway mediates such interactions? By experimentally excluding stimuli from vision and the lateral line system, we show that can rely exclusively on its electrosensory system to track a mobile source of electric communication signals. Detection of electric playback signals induced discharge cessations, followed by double-pulse patterns. The animals tried to interact with the moving signal source and synchronized their discharge activity to the playback. These behaviors were absent in control trials without playback. Silencing the electric organ in some fish did not impair their ability to track the signal source. Silenced fish followed on trajectories similar to those obtained from intact animals, indicating that active electrolocation is no precondition for close-range interactions based on electrocommunication. However, some silenced animals changed their strategy when searching for the stationary playback source, which indicates passive sensing. Social interactions among mormyrids can therefore be induced and mediated by passive reception of electric communication signals without the need for perception of the location of the signal source through other senses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29374927
[Au] Autor:You X; Wei ZR
[Ad] Address:Department of Plastic Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, 563000, China.
[Ti] Title:[Advances in the research of function of Merkel cells in tactile formation of skin].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi;34(1):51-54, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1009-2587
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:Skin is the largest sense organ of human, with many mechanoreceptor cells under epidermis or dermis of skin and Merkel cell is one of them. It has been confirmed that Merkel cells play an important role in the process of mechanical transmission of mammalian soft tactile stimulation. Researches showed that Merkel cells had close relation to tactile formation and functioned by Merkel cell-neurite complexes and ion channels Piezo2. This article reviews Merkel cells and the function, problem and prospect of Merkel cells in tactile formation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Merkel Cells/physiology
Touch/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Epidermis
Humans
Ion Channels
Mechanoreceptors
Skin
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Ion Channels)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180129
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2018.01.010

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[PMID]: 29179949
[Au] Autor:Messemaker TC; Chadli L; Cai G; Goelela VS; Boonstra M; Dorjée AL; Andersen SN; Mikkers HMM; van 't Hof P; Mei H; Distler O; Draisma HHM; Johnson ME; Orzechowski NM; Simms RW; Toes REM; Aarbiou J; Huizinga TW; Whitfield ML; DeGroot J; de Vries-Bouwstra J; Kurreeman F
[Ad] Address:Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: TCMessemaker@lumc.nl.
[Ti] Title:Antisense Long Non-Coding RNAs Are Deregulated in Skin Tissue of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.
[So] Source:J Invest Dermatol;, 2017 Nov 24.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1747
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and multiple organs of which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. We studied differentially expressed coding and non-coding genes in relation to systemic sclerosis pathogenesis with a specific focus on antisense non-coding RNAs. Skin biopsy-derived RNAs from 14 early systemic sclerosis patients and six healthy individuals were sequenced with ion-torrent and analyzed using DEseq2. Overall, 4,901 genes with a fold change >1.5 and a false discovery rate <5% were detected in patients versus controls. Upregulated genes clustered in immunologic, cell adhesion, and keratin-related processes. Interestingly, 676 deregulated non-coding genes were detected, 257 of which were classified as antisense genes. Sense genes expressed opposite of these antisense genes were also deregulated in 42% of the observed sense-antisense gene pairs. The majority of the antisense genes had a similar effect sizes in an independent North American dataset with three genes (CTBP1-AS2, OTUD6B-AS1, and AGAP2-AS1) exceeding the study-wide Bonferroni-corrected P-value (P < 0.0023, P = 1.1 × 10 , 1.4 × 10 , 1.7 × 10 , respectively). In this study, we highlight that together with coding genes, (antisense) long non-coding RNAs are deregulated in skin tissue of systemic sclerosis patients suggesting a novel class of genes involved in pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29377157
[Au] Autor:Joyner MJ; Limberg JK; Wehrwein EA; Johnson BD
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
[Ti] Title:Role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in glucose homeostasis and thermoregulation in humans.
[So] Source:J Physiol;, 2018 Jan 27.
[Is] ISSN:1469-7793
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The carotid bodies (CBs) are multi-modal sensory organs located bilaterally at the bifurcation of the carotid artery and innervated by the carotid sinus nerve (Hering's nerve), a branch of the IX cranial nerve. While the CBs (or embryologically analogous structures) are well known as the dominant oxygen-sensing organ in vertebrates, in mammals there is evidence that the CBs may also sense glucose and temperature, and respond to circulating hormones and other factors. Additionally, the CBs likely participate in regulating baseline levels of sympathetic tone. In this brief review, we focus on the evolution of our efforts to understand 'what else' beyond oxygen sensing the CBs do in humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1113/JP274354

  6 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29477107
[Au] Autor:Elbediwy A; Thompson BJ
[Ad] Address:Epithelial Biology Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, London NW1 1AT, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Evolution of mechanotransduction via YAP/TAZ in animal epithelia.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Cell Biol;51:117-123, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0410
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mechanical stretch forces can control the growth of epithelial tissues such as mammalian skin, whose surface area is precisely coordinated with body size. In skin keratinocytes cultured in vitro, mechanical forces acting via Integrin adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton have been shown to induce nuclear translocation of YAP/TAZ co-activators to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, conditional knockouts of both YAP (also called YAP1) and TAZ (also called WWTR1) in mouse skin resemble the phenotype of skin-specific loss of Integrin beta1 (ITGB1), indicating that this signalling mechanism is important in vivo. Curiously, Integrins are dispensable in Drosophila to activate the sole YAP/TAZ homolog Yorkie (Yki), which has lost the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif needed to promote nuclear localization of YAP/TAZ in mammalian cells. Differences in the structure of the epidermis between deuterostomes (e.g.: stratified squamous skin of mammals) and protostomes (e.g.: monolayered columnar epidermis of Drosophila) may explain this evolutionary divergence. Monolayered columnar epithelia feature a well-differentiated apical membrane domain, where proteins such as Crumbs, Expanded, Merlin and Kibra activate the Hippo pathway to repress Drosophila Yki. Stratified squamous epithelia lack an apical domain and thus depend primarily on basal Integrin adhesions to activate YAP/TAZ in basal layer stem cells via multiple postulated signalling mechanisms. Finally, YAP and TAZ retain the ability to sense the apical domain in the columnar epithelial cells lining internal organs such as the lung bronchus, where YAP/TAZ localize to the nucleus in proliferating basal layer stem cells but translocate to the cytoplasm in differentiated columnar cells.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180224
[Lr] Last revision date:180224
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29405684
[Au] Autor:Leonovich SA; Filimonova SA
[Ti] Title:[The quill mite Syringophilopsis fringilla (Fritsch) (Acari: Trombidiformes: Syringophilidae): The structure of receptor organs providing feeding of the parasite inside the feather quill].
[So] Source:Parazitologiia;51(2):121-31, 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0031-1847
[Cp] Country of publication:Russia (Federation)
[La] Language:rus
[Ab] Abstract:The structure of sensory organs situated on palps and inside the cheliceral stylet of the quill mite Sringophilopsis fringilla (Fritsch, 1958) was examined in scanning and transmitting electron microscopes. Eight sensilla of 3 types were revealed on palptarsus, including two contact chemo-mechanosensory sensilla, a single distant chemosensory (probably olfactory) sensillum, and 5 tactile mechanosensitive sensilla. All other sensilla situated on basas parts of the palp and on the outer surface of gnathosoma are represented by tactile mechanoreceptors. A proprioceptor sensillum was revealed in the movable digit of the chelicera; modified cilia of dendrites of 5 sensory neurons run in the inner non-sclerotized core of the stylet, ending at different levels as electron-dense rods connected with the sclerotized wall of the stylet. The authors assume that the proprioceptor sensillum of the stylet detects the pressing force of the movable digit on the inner wall of the quill during piercing process, while papal sensilla determine the optimal place for piercing.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feathers/parasitology
Mechanoreceptors/ultrastructure
Mites/ultrastructure
Passeriformes/parasitology
Sensilla/ultrastructure
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Lymph/parasitology
Mechanoreceptors/physiology
Mites/physiology
Sensilla/physiology
Smell/physiology
Touch Perception/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29278699
[Au] Autor:Yamashita A; Kondo K; Kunishima Y; Iseki S; Kondo T; Ota MS
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Anatomy, Physiology and Food Biological Science, Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women's University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;495(4):2579-2583, 2018 01 22.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actins/metabolism
Avoidance Learning/physiology
Microvilli/metabolism
Subcellular Fractions/metabolism
Taste Buds/physiology
Taste/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Animals, Newborn
Female
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/physiology
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Tissue Distribution
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Actins)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171227
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  9 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28744900
[Au] Autor:Barnard AA; Fincke OM; McPeek MA; Masly JP
[Ad] Address:Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Program, Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
[Ti] Title:Mechanical and tactile incompatibilities cause reproductive isolation between two young damselfly species.
[So] Source:Evolution;71(10):2410-2427, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1558-5646
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:External male reproductive structures have received considerable attention as a cause of reproductive isolation (RI), because the morphology of these structures often evolves rapidly between populations. This rapid evolution presents the potential for mechanical incompatibilities with heterospecific female structures during mating and could thus prevent interbreeding between nascent species. Although such mechanical incompatibilities have received little empirical support as a common cause of RI, the potential for mismatch of reproductive structures to cause RI due to incompatible species-specific tactile cues has not been tested. We tested the importance of mechanical and tactile incompatibilities in RI between Enallagma anna and E. carunculatum, two damselfly species that diverged within the past ∼250,000 years and currently hybridize in a sympatric region. We quantified 19 prezygotic and postzygotic RI barriers using both naturally occurring and laboratory-reared damselflies. We found incomplete mechanical isolation between the two pure species and between hybrid males and pure species females. Interestingly, in mating pairs for which mechanical isolation was incomplete, females showed greater resistance and refusal to mate with hybrid or heterospecific males compared to conspecific males. This observation suggests that tactile incompatibilities involving male reproductive structures can influence female mating decisions and form a strong barrier to gene flow in early stages of speciation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Odonata/genetics
Reproduction
Reproductive Isolation
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology
Genitalia, Male/physiology
Hybridization, Genetic
Male
Mating Preference, Animal
Odonata/physiology
Sympatry
Touch
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/evo.13315

  10 / 6568 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28468922
[Au] Autor:Herzog H; Klein B; Ziegler A
[Ad] Address:Institut für Zoologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, 53115 Bonn, Germany hendrik.herzog@uni-bonn.de.
[Ti] Title:Form and function of the teleost lateral line revealed using three-dimensional imaging and computational fluid dynamics.
[So] Source:J R Soc Interface;14(130), 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1742-5662
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fishes sense weak water motion using the lateral line. Among the thousands of described fish species, this organ may differ in size, shape and distribution of individual mechanoreceptors or lateral line canals. The reasons for this diversity remain unclear, but are very likely related to habitat preferences. To better understand the performance of the organ in natural hydrodynamic surroundings, various three-dimensional imaging datasets of the cephalic lateral line were gathered using as representative freshwater teleost. These data are employed to simulate hydrodynamic phenomena around the head and within lateral line canals. The results show that changes in canal dimensions alter the absolute stimulation amplitudes, but have little effect on the relation between bulk water flow and higher frequency signals. By contrast, depressions in the skin known as epidermal pits reduce bulk flow stimulation and increase the ratio between higher-frequency signals and the background flow stimulus.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fishes
Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Lateral Line System
Models, Biological
Rheology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Fishes/anatomy & histology
Fishes/physiology
Lateral Line System/anatomy & histology
Lateral Line System/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180220
[Lr] Last revision date:180220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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