Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524887
[Au] Autor:Abafe OA; Späth J; Fick J; Jansson S; Buckley C; Stark A; Pietruschka B; Martincigh BS
[Ad] Address:SMRI Biorefinery Research Chair, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa; Residue Laboratory, Agricultural Research Council-On
[Ti] Title:LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;200:660-670, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2-20 ng L . The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515718
[Au] Autor:Moyimane MB; Matlala SF; Kekana MP
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Private bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Experiences of nurses on the critical shortage of medical equipment at a rural district hospital in South Africa: a qualitative study.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:100, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Medical equipment is an essential health intervention tool used by nurses for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease and for rehabilitation of patients. However, access to functioning medical equipment is a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization estimated that 50 to 80 percent of medical equipment in developing countries is not working, creating a barrier to the ability of the health system to deliver health services to patients. This study explored and described the lived experiences of nurses working at a district hospital with a critical shortage of medical equipment. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, phenomenological and descriptive study design was used. A purposive sampling was used to select participants and due to saturation of data 14 nurses participated in the study. Research ethics were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and Tesch's open coding method was used for data analysis. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder. Results: Critical shortage of medical equipment at the hospital occurred in the form of unavailability of equipment, low quality and poor maintenance of the few that were available. Shortage impacted negatively on nursing care, nursing profession and the hospital. Conclusion: Nurses should be provided with functional medical equipment in order to provide quality nursing care. Management, leadership and governance structures should be strengthened to ensure that procurement and maintenance plans for medical equipment are developed and implemented.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.100.11641

  3 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510751
[Au] Autor:Baron EC; Rathod SD; Hanlon C; Prince M; Fedaku A; Kigozi F; Jordans M; Luitel NP; Medhin G; Murhar V; Nakku J; Patel V; Petersen I; Selohilwe O; Shidhaye R; Ssebunnya J; Tomlinson M; Lund C; De Silva M
[Ad] Address:Alan J Flisher Centre for Public Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road 7700 Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. emily.baron@uct.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Impact of district mental health care plans on symptom severity and functioning of patients with priority mental health conditions: the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) cohort protocol.
[So] Source:BMC Psychiatry;18(1):61, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-244X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts. METHODS: One cohort for each disorder was recruited across some or all five districts: Sodo (Ethiopia), Sehore (India), Chitwan (Nepal), Dr. Kenneth Kaunda (South Africa) and Kamuli (Uganda), comprising 17 treatment cohorts in total (N = 2182). Participants were adults residing in the districts who were eligible to receive mental health treatment according to primary health care staff, trained by PRIME facilitators as per the district MHCP. Patients who screened positive for depression or AUD and who were not given a diagnosis by their clinicians (N = 709) were also recruited into comparison cohorts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal and South Africa. Caregivers of patients with epilepsy or psychosis were also recruited (N = 953), together with or on behalf of the person with a mental disorder, depending on the district. The target sample size was 200 (depression and AUD), or 150 (psychosis and epilepsy) patients initiating treatment in each recruiting district. Data collection activities were conducted by PRIME research teams. Participants completed follow-up assessments after 3 months (AUD and depression) or 6 months (psychosis and epilepsy), and after 12 months. Primary outcomes were impaired functioning, using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS), and symptom severity, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (depression), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUD), and number of seizures (epilepsy). DISCUSSION: Cohort recruitment was a function of the clinical detection rate by primary health care staff, and did not meet all planned targets. The cross-country methodology reflected the pragmatic nature of the PRIME cohorts: while the heterogeneity in methods of recruitment was a consequence of differences in health systems and MHCPs, the use of the WHODAS as primary outcome measure will allow for comparison of functioning recovery across sites and disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12888-018-1642-x

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[PMID]: 29510733
[Au] Autor:Adjaye-Gbewonyo K; Kawachi I; Subramanian SV; Avendano M
[Ad] Address:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge 7th Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
[Ti] Title:Income inequality and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a highly unequal country: a fixed-effects analysis from South Africa.
[So] Source:Int J Equity Health;17(1):31, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1475-9276
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chronic stress associated with high income inequality has been hypothesized to increase CVD risk and other adverse health outcomes. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries, and there is limited evidence on the link between income inequality and biomarkers of chronic stress and risk for CVD. This study examines how changes in income inequality over recent years relate to changes in CVD risk factors in South Africa, home to some of the highest levels of income inequality globally. METHODS: We linked longitudinal data from 9356 individuals interviewed in the 2008 and 2012 National Income Dynamics Study to district-level Gini coefficients estimated from census and survey data. We investigated whether subnational district income inequality was associated with several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Africa, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol consumption. We ran individual fixed-effects models to examine the association between changes in income inequality and changes in CVD risk factors over time. Linear models were used for continuous metabolic outcomes while conditional Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios for dichotomous behavioral outcomes. RESULTS: Both income inequality and prevalence of most CVD risk factors increased over the period of study. In longitudinal fixed-effects models, changes in district Gini coefficients were not significantly associated with changes in CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that subnational district income inequality is associated with CVD risk factors within the high-inequality setting of South Africa.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12939-018-0741-0

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[PMID]: 29510682
[Au] Autor:Ewerling F; Victora CG; Raj A; Coll CVN; Hellwig F; Barros AJD
[Ad] Address:International Center for Equity in Health, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. fewerling@equidade.org.
[Ti] Title:Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among sexually active women in low- and middle-income countries: who is lagging behind?
[So] Source:Reprod Health;15(1):42, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1742-4755
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. RESULTS: Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (< 20%). The other countries had mDFPS above 20% at country-level, yet in many of these countries mDFPS coverage was low among women in the poorest wealth quintiles, in the youngest age groups, with little education and living in rural areas. Coverage according to marital status varied greatly: in Asia & Pacific and Latin America & the Caribbean mDFPS was higher among married women; the opposite was found in West & Central Africa and CEE & CIS countries. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the women in need were not using an effective family planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12978-018-0483-x

  6 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506488
[Au] Autor:Kigozi G; Engelbrecht M; Heunis C; Janse van Rensburg A
[Ad] Address:Centre for Health Systems Research & Development, University of the Free State, P. O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa. kigozign@ufs.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Household contact non-attendance of clinical evaluation for tuberculosis: a pilot study in a high burden district in South Africa.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;18(1):106, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched guidelines for systematically investigating contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries. As such, it is necessary to understand factors that would influence successful scale-up. This study targeted household contacts of newly-diagnosed infectious TB patients in the Mangaung Metropolitan district to explore factors associated with non-attendance of clinical evaluation. METHOD: In September-October 2016, a pilot study of household contacts was conducted. At each of the 40 primary health care (PHC) facilities in the district, at least one out of four types of TB index cases were purposefully selected. These included children <5 years, smear-positive cases, HIV co-infected cases, and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Trained fieldworkers administered questionnaires and screened contacts for TB symptoms. Those with TB symptoms as well as children <5 years were referred for clinical evaluation at the nearest PHC facility. Contacts' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, TB knowledge and perception about TB-related discrimination are described. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with non-attendance of clinical evaluation. RESULTS: Out of the 259 participants, approximately three in every five (59.5%) were female. The median age was 20 (interquartile range: 8-41) years. While the large majority (87.3%) of adult contacts correctly described TB aetiology, almost three in every five (59.9%) thought that it was hereditary, and almost two-thirds (65.5%) believed that it could be cured by herbal medicine. About one-fifth (22.9%) of contacts believed that TB patients were subjected to discrimination. Two in every five (39.4%) contacts were referred for clinical evaluation of whom more than half (52.9%) did not attend the clinic. Non-attendance was significantly associated with inter alia male gender (AOR: 3.4; CI: 1.11-10.24), prior TB diagnosis (AOR: 5.6; CI: 1.13-27.90) and sharing of a bedroom with the index case (AOR: 3.4: CI: 1.07-10.59). CONCLUSION: The pilot study identified gaps in household contacts' knowledge of TB. Further research on important individual, clinical and structural factors that can influence and should be considered in the planning, implementation and scale-up of household contact TB investigation is warranted.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-018-3010-3

  7 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29497232
[Au] Autor:Steinert JI; Cluver LD; Melendez-Torres GJ; Vollmer S
[Ad] Address:1Department of Social Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford, Barnett House, 32 Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2ER UK.
[Ti] Title:One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa.
[So] Source:Soc Indic Res;136(1):51-72, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0303-8300
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a 'one size fits all' measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household's poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11205-016-1540-x

  8 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29438715
[Au] Autor:Somaraki M; Eli K; Sorjonen K; Flodmark CE; Marcus C; Faith MS; Osowski CP; Ek A; Nowicka P
[Ad] Address:Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Perceived child eating behaviours and maternal migrant background.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:302-313, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a well-established instrument in the study of obesity-related eating behaviours among children. However, research using the CEBQ in multicultural samples is limited. This study aims to identify and examine differences in child eating behaviours as reported by Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born mothers living in Sweden. Mothers (n = 1310, 74 countries of origin, mean age 36.5 years, 63.6% with higher education, 29.2% with overweight or obesity) of children aged 3-8 years (mean age 4.8 years, 18.1% with overweight or obesity) completed the CEBQ. Responses were analysed using CEBQ subscales Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Desire to Drink, clustering into Food Approach, and subscales Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating, and Food Fussiness, clustering into Food Avoidance. Data were compared across seven regional groups, divided by maternal place of birth: (1) Sweden (n = 941), (2) Nordic and Western Europe (n = 68), (3) Eastern and Southern Europe (n = 97), (4) the Middle East and North Africa (n = 110), (5) East, South and Southeast Asia (n = 52), (6) Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 16), and (7) Central and South America (n = 26). Crude, partly and fully adjusted linear regression models controlled for child's age, gender and weight status, and mother's education, weight status and concern about child weight. The moderation effect of maternal concern about child weight was examined through interaction analyses. Results showed that while Food Approach and Food Avoidance behaviours were associated with maternal migrant background, associations for Food Fussiness were limited. Notably, mothers born in the Middle East and North Africa reported higher frequencies of both Food Approach (except for Enjoyment of Food) and Food Avoidance. The study highlights the importance of examining how regionally-specific maternal migrant background affects mothers' perceptions of child eating behaviours.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523199
[Au] Autor:Mall S; Mortier P; Taljaard L; Roos J; Stein DJ; Lochner C
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Sumaya.mall@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:The relationship between childhood adversity, recent stressors, and depression in college students attending a South African university.
[So] Source:BMC Psychiatry;18(1):63, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1471-244X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood. Individual and population attributable risk proportions (PARP) between experiences of childhood adversity and 12-month stressful experiences and 12-month depression were estimated using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: About one in six students reported depression during the last 12 months. Being a victim of bullying and emotional abuse or emotional neglect during childhood were the strongest predictors of depression in the past year at both individual and population level. With regard to recent stressors, a romantic partner being unfaithful, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with some other close friend or family member and a sexual or gender identity crisis were the strongest predictors of depression. The predictor effect of recent stressors was significantly reduced in the final model that adjusted for the type and number of childhood traumatic experiences. At a population level, academic stress, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with a close friend or family member, and serious betrayal by someone close were the variables that yielded the highest PARP. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a significant relationship between early adversity, recent stressors, and depression here and throughout, consistent with the broader literature on predictors of depression. This study contributes to the limited data on college students' mental health in low and middle income countries including on the African continent. The findings provide information on the population level effect sizes of trauma as a risk factor for depression, as well as on the relationship between specific recent stressors and depression in college students.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12888-017-1583-9

  10 / 92545 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522688
[Au] Autor:Mlambo M; Dreyer A; Dube R; Mapukata N; Couper I; Cooke R
[Ad] Address:Centre for Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand University, South Africa motlatso.mlambo@wits.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Transformation of medical education through Decentralised Training Platforms: a scoping review.
[So] Source:Rural Remote Health;18(1):4337, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1445-6354
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Medical education in South Africa is facing a major paradigm shift. The urgency to increase the number of suitable, qualified and socially accountable health sciences graduates has brought to the fore the need to identify alternative training platforms and learning environments, often in rural areas. Subsequently, the focus has now shifted towards strengthening primary health care and community based health services. This scoping review presents a synopsis of the existing literature on decentralized training platform (DTP) strategies for medical education internationally, outlining existing models within it and its impact. METHODS: This scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework outlining five stages: (i) identification of a research question, (ii) identification of relevant studies, (iii) study selection criteria, (iv) data charting, and (v) collating, summarizing and reporting results. The literature for the scoping review was found using online databases, reference lists and hand searched journals. Data were charted and sorted inductively according to key themes. RESULTS: A final review included 59 articles ranging over the years 1987-2015 with the largest group of studies falling in the period 2011-2015 (47.5%). Studies mostly employed quantitative (32.2%), qualitative (20.3%), systematic/literature review (18.6%) and mixed methods research approaches (11.9%). The scoping review highlighted a range of DTP strategies for transforming medical education. These include training for rural workforce, addressing context specific competencies to promote social accountability, promoting community engagement, and medical education partnerships. Viable models of DTP include community based education, distributed community engaged learning, discipline based clinical rotations, longitudinal clerkships and dedicated tracks focusing on rural issues. Shorter rural placements and supplemental rural tracks are also described. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review showed a considerable amount of literature on decentralized training platforms that highlight the necessary adaptations needed for transforming medical education. The rural context is critical for many of these. Further studies are required to address the impact of DTPs on health service outcomes and human resource outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.22605/RRH4337


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