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[PMID]: 29524508
[Au] Autor:Schild U; Friedrich CK
[Ad] Address:University of Tübingen, Developmental Psychology. Electronic address: ulrike.schild@uni-tuebingen.de.
[Ti] Title:What determines the speed of speech recognition? Evidence from congenitally blind adults.
[So] Source:Neuropsychologia;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3514
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied. Blind participants made faster lexical decision responses than sighted participants, yet their speeded responses were not restricted to phonologically overlapping trials. Furthermore, timing of Event Related Potential (ERP) results did not differ for blind and sighted participants. Together those results suggest that blind and sighted listeners are equally fast in implicit phonological encoding and lexical matching mechanisms. It appears that blind adults' speeded speech processing emerges when phonological analysis makes promising word candidates available for further processing. As one possible interpretation, we speculate that lexical selection processes in blind adults do not need to wait for information from the visual domain, while auditory-visual integration mechanisms are mandatorily implemented in speech recognition routines of sighted adults.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511187
[Au] Autor:Pehlevan C; Ali F; Ölveczky BP
[Ad] Address:Center for Computational Biology, Flatiron Institute, New York, NY, 10010, USA. cpehlevan@flatironinstitute.org.
[Ti] Title:Flexibility in motor timing constrains the topology and dynamics of pattern generator circuits.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):977, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Temporally precise movement patterns underlie many motor skills and innate actions, yet the flexibility with which the timing of such stereotyped behaviors can be modified is poorly understood. To probe this, we induce adaptive changes to the temporal structure of birdsong. We find that the duration of specific song segments can be modified without affecting the timing in other parts of the song. We derive formal prescriptions for how neural networks can implement such flexible motor timing. We find that randomly connected recurrent networks, a common approximation for how neocortex is wired, do not generally conform to these, though certain implementations can approximate them. We show that feedforward networks, by virtue of their one-to-one mapping between network activity and time, are better suited. Our study provides general prescriptions for pattern generator networks that implement flexible motor timing, an important aspect of many motor skills, including birdsong and human speech.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03261-5

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[PMID]: 29510680
[Au] Autor:Jones C; Sharma M; Harkus S; McMahon C; Taumoepeau M; Demuth K; Mattock K; Rosas L; Wing R; Pawar S; Hampshire A
[Ad] Address:MARCS Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia. caroline.jones@westernsydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:A program to respond to otitis media in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: a qualitative investigation of parent perspectives.
[So] Source:BMC Pediatr;18(1):99, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2431
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Indigenous infants and children in Australia, especially in remote communities, experience early and chronic otitis media (OM) which is difficult to treat and has lifelong impacts in health and education. The LiTTLe Program (Learning to Talk, Talking to Learn) aimed to increase infants' access to spoken language input, teach parents to manage health and hearing problems, and support children's school readiness. This paper aimed to explore caregivers' views about this inclusive, parent-implemented early childhood program for 0-3 years in an Aboriginal community health context. METHODS: Data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 9 caregivers of 12 children who had participated in the program from one remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory are presented. Data were analysed thematically. Caregivers provided overall views on the program. In addition, three key areas of focus in the program are also presented here: speech and language, hearing health, and school readiness. RESULTS: Caregivers were positive about the interactive speech and language strategies in the program, except for some strategies which some parents found alien or difficult: such as talking slowly, following along with the child's topic, using parallel talk, or baby talk. Children's hearing was considered by caregivers to be important for understanding people, enjoying music, and detecting environmental sounds including signs of danger. Caregivers provided perspectives on the utility of sign language and its benefits for communicating with infants and young children with hearing loss, and the difficulty of getting young community children to wear a conventional hearing aid. Caregivers were strongly of the opinion that the program had helped prepare children for school through familiarising their child with early literacy activities and resources, as well as school routines. But caregivers differed as to whether they thought the program should have been located at the school itself. CONCLUSIONS: The caregivers generally reported positive views about the LiTTLe Program, and also drew attention to areas for improvement. The perspectives gathered may serve to guide other cross-sector collaborations across health and education to respond to OM among children at risk for OM-related disability in speech and language development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12887-018-1081-3

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[PMID]: 29486235
[Au] Autor:Schreuder MJ; Meyer T; Krix AC
[Ad] Address:Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Frightened by the perpetrator's voice: Startle responsivity and cognitive processing predict earwitness speaker identification.
[So] Source:Biol Psychol;134:80-88, 2018 Feb 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6246
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study was inspired by the case of a robbery victim who was startled and reminded of the crime upon hearing a stranger's voice, while not clearly recognizing the speaker. To investigate whether specific voices can modulate startle reactions and thereby predict speaker identification, we presented an audio hijack scenario to 84 participants and afterwards asked them to identify the perpetrator among neutral and negative speech fragments, while measuring flash-evoked eye-blink startle responses. Furthermore, we addressed data-driven cognitive processing during the audio scenario as a potential moderator in voice discrimination. Negative speech and the perpetrator's voice led to potentiated startle. Enhanced startle was positively associated with voice discrimination, but only in neutral speech fragments. In negative fragments, this association was weakened as a function of self-reported levels of data-driven processing during encoding. Thus, startle responses can generally predict accurate voice recognition, but speech emotionality and cognitive processing moderate this relationship.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29360947
[Au] Autor:Fridriksson J; den Ouden DB; Hillis AE; Hickok G; Rorden C; Basilakos A; Yourganov G; Bonilha L
[Ad] Address:Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA.
[Ti] Title:Anatomy of aphasia revisited.
[So] Source:Brain;, 2018 Jan 17.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In most cases, aphasia is caused by strokes involving the left hemisphere, with more extensive damage typically being associated with more severe aphasia. The classical model of aphasia commonly adhered to in the Western world is the Wernicke-Lichtheim model. The model has been in existence for over a century, and classification of aphasic symptomatology continues to rely on it. However, far more detailed models of speech and language localization in the brain have been formulated. In this regard, the dual stream model of cortical brain organization proposed by Hickok and Poeppel is particularly influential. Their model describes two processing routes, a dorsal stream and a ventral stream, that roughly support speech production and speech comprehension, respectively, in normal subjects. Despite the strong influence of the dual stream model in current neuropsychological research, there has been relatively limited focus on explaining aphasic symptoms in the context of this model. Given that the dual stream model represents a more nuanced picture of cortical speech and language organization, cortical damage that causes aphasic impairment should map clearly onto the dual processing streams. Here, we present a follow-up study to our previous work that used lesion data to reveal the anatomical boundaries of the dorsal and ventral streams supporting speech and language processing. Specifically, by emphasizing clinical measures, we examine the effect of cortical damage and disconnection involving the dorsal and ventral streams on aphasic impairment. The results reveal that measures of motor speech impairment mostly involve damage to the dorsal stream, whereas measures of impaired speech comprehension are more strongly associated with ventral stream involvement. Equally important, many clinical tests that target behaviours such as naming, speech repetition, or grammatical processing rely on interactions between the two streams. This latter finding explains why patients with seemingly disparate lesion locations often experience similar impairments on given subtests. Namely, these individuals' cortical damage, although dissimilar, affects a broad cortical network that plays a role in carrying out a given speech or language task. The current data suggest this is a more accurate characterization than ascribing specific lesion locations as responsible for specific language deficits.awx363media15705668782001.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx363

  6 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29228195
[Au] Autor:Neef NE; Anwander A; Bütfering C; Schmidt-Samoa C; Friederici AD; Paulus W; Sommer M
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity.
[So] Source:Brain;141(1):191-204, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in persistent developmental stuttering.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx316

  7 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29228180
[Au] Autor:Tetzloff KA; Duffy JR; Clark HM; Strand EA; Machulda MM; Schwarz CG; Senjem ML; Reid RI; Spychalla AJ; Tosakulwong N; Lowe VJ; Jack CR; Josephs KA; Whitwell JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
[Ti] Title:Longitudinal structural and molecular neuroimaging in agrammatic primary progressive aphasia.
[So] Source:Brain;141(1):302-317, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech). We assessed longitudinal structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in 11 agrammatic aphasia subjects, 20 primary progressive apraxia of speech subjects, and 62 age and gender-matched controls with two serial assessments. Rates of change in grey matter volume and hypometabolism, and white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were assessed at the voxel-level and for numerous regions of interest. The greatest rates of grey matter atrophy in agrammatic aphasia were observed in inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, premotor and motor cortices, as well as medial temporal lobe, insula, basal ganglia, and brainstem compared to controls. Longitudinal decline in metabolism was observed in the same regions, with additional findings in medial and lateral parietal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging changes were prominent bilaterally in inferior and middle frontal white matter and superior longitudinal fasciculus, as well as right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior frontal and precentral white matter. More focal patterns of degeneration of motor and premotor cortex were observed in primary progressive apraxia of speech. Agrammatic aphasia showed greater rates of grey matter atrophy, decline in metabolism, and white matter degeneration compared to primary progressive apraxia of speech in the left frontal lobe, predominantly inferior and middle frontal grey and white matter. Correlations were also assessed between rates of change on neuroimaging and rates of clinical decline. Progression of aphasia correlated with rates of degeneration in frontal and temporal regions within the language network, while progression of parkinsonism and limb apraxia correlated with degeneration of motor cortex and brainstem. These findings demonstrate that disease progression in agrammatic aphasia is associated with widespread neurodegeneration throughout regions of the language network, as well as connecting white matter tracts, but also with progression to regions outside of the language network that are responsible for the development of motor symptoms. The fact that patterns of progression differed from primary progressive apraxia of speech supports the clinical distinction of these syndromes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx293

  8 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522954
[Au] Autor:Uddin S; Heald SLM; Van Hedger SC; Nusbaum HC
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, United States. Electronic address: sophiauddin@uchicago.edu.
[Ti] Title:Hearing sounds as words: Neural responses to environmental sounds in the context of fluent speech.
[So] Source:Brain Lang;179:51-61, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2155
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Environmental sounds (ES) can be understood easily when substituted for words in sentences, suggesting that linguistic context benefits may be mediated by processes more general than some language-specific theories assert. However, the underlying neural processing is not understood. EEG was recorded for spoken sentences ending in either a spoken word or a corresponding ES. Endings were either congruent or incongruent with the sentence frame, and thus were expected to produce N400 activity. However, if ES and word meanings are combined with language context by different mechanisms, different N400 responses would be expected. Incongruent endings (both words and ES) elicited frontocentral negativities corresponding to the N400 typically observed to incongruent spoken words. Moreover, sentential constraint had similar effects on N400 topographies to ES and words. Comparison of speech and ES responses suggests that understanding meaning in speech context may be mediated by similar neural mechanisms for these two types of stimuli.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522662
[Au] Autor:Andrysiak -Mamos E; Zochowska E; Kazmierczyk -Puchalska A; Sagan L; Sowinska -Przepiera E; Zajac -Marczewska M; Kojder I; Syrenicz A
[Ti] Title:Cerebrospinal meningitis in a 30 -year -old patient as first manifestation of pituitary macroadenoma.
[So] Source:Pomeranian J Life Sci;61(4):403-10, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2450-4637
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: The most common clinical and neurological signs and symptoms of pituitary macroadenomas include headache, vision impairment and cranial nerve palsy. Case report: The patient presented in this article was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at regional hospital; at admission, the patient was unconscious, he had convulsions and spasms, and a 3 -day history of headache and body temperature up to 41.5°C. The patient with suspected neuroinfection was transferred to the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (PMU), where cerebrospinal meningitis of bacterial etiology was established based on cerebrospinal fluid investigations and the presence of pituitary abscess was suggested based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance imaging findings included an extensive pathological lesion with the diameter of 27 × 28 × 38 mm located in the sellar-suprasellar region, with intensive peripheral contrast enhancement. The lesion protrudes into the sphenoid sinus through the lowered bottom of sella turcica and the fluid content has also been visualized in the sphenoid sinus. After 10 -day antibiotic therapy, the patient was transferred to neurosurgery ward for surgical treatment. The pathological lesion was partially evacuated during right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient's general condition after the surgery was moderately severe; the patient was conscious, able to follow simple commands, presenting hemiparesis of the left side of the body, particularly affecting left lower limb and with speech disturbances. The signs of hypopituitarism affecting all hormonal axes were also observed and the patient was transferred to the Department of Endocrinology of the PMU for further treatment. Follow -up MRI scan continued to show the presence of pathological mass in the sellar -suprasellar region, which penetrated into the sphenoid sinus through damaged sellar bottom. After correction of reduced hormone levels and several weeks of antibiotic therapy, the patient was transferred to the Department of Neurosurgery of the PMU for further surgical treatment. Transsphenoidal resection of the sellar -suprasellar tumor and sphenoid sinus reconstruction were performed. Histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. The patient in relatively good condition, with partial hemiparesis on the left side of the body, able to stand with support, not able to walk, with speech disturbances and able to follow commands was transferred to the rehabilitation center. One year later, follow- -up MRI scan showed deepened sella turcica, filled with a mass corresponding to postoperative material. No evidence of disease progression has been found. Conclusion: Neuroinfection may be the first manifestation of pituitary macroadenoma.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 113511 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522634
[Au] Autor:De Ciervo F; Willimburgh V; Finvarb G
[Ad] Address:Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez", Ciudad de Buenos Aires. facundo.dc@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metil-D-aspartato: presentación clínica en un adolescente y revisión de la literatura. ¿Cómo manejar los síntomas neuropsiquiátricos? [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor encephalitis: An adolescent case report and literature review. How to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms].
[So] Source:Vertex;XXVIII(132):128-135, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0327-6139
[Cp] Country of publication:Argentina
[La] Language:spa
[Ab] Abstract:Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis was described as a clinical entity in 2007. The present case report aims to describe the signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, treatment and course of a sixteen-year-old boy with this disorder who was hospitalized for almost two months. In addition, we will expose the therapeutic management and the diffculties presented in the handling of neuropsychiatric symptoms, considering the complex context of heterogeneous clinical manifestations caused by this disorder. The authors conducted a PubMed, LILACS and Cochrane search and added supplementary methods to compile the major quantity of evidence to support the clinical decisions. To date no systematic reviews or clinical guidelines about the management of psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with this condition were found. Only case reports and series of cases are available. The quality of evidence is poor as long as there are not analytic studies available. The adolescent presented to the emergency department with confusion, speech disturbances and right brachio-crural hemiparesis. During the course of hospitalization he developed a catatonic syndrome, several episodes of psychomotor agitation, sleep disorders and psychotic symptoms. He received successive immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune encephalitis and psychiatric medication. He was discharged with recovery almost ad integrum. In conclusion, the diagnosis of anti-rNMDA encephalitis should be suspected in previously healthy adolescents with no psychopathological antecedents who suddenly present psychiatric and neurological symptoms. The evolution and prognosis depend on the early initiation of immunomodulating therapy. Psychiatrists should be aware and suspect this entity rapidly and play an important role as consultants for the management of psychiatric and behavioral disturbances.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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