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[PMID]: 29462675
[Au] Autor:Khan G; Zhang F; Gao Q; Fu P; Zhang Y; Chen S
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, China. Electronic address: gulzar.palynology@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Spiroides shrubs on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Multilocus phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstruction of Spiraea alpina and S. Mongolica (Rosaceae).
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;123:137-148, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification. Using a multilocus approach, here we assessed the influence of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) uplift and fluctuating regional climate on genetic diversity of two sister spiroides shrubs, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Combined with palaeodistributional reconstruction modelling, we investigated the current and past-predicted distribution of these species under different climatic episodes. The study demonstrated that continuous pulses of retreat and expansion during last glacial-interglacial episodes, combined with the uplifting of QTP shaped the current distribution of these species. All the populations showed high level of genetic diversity based on both cpDNA and SSR markers. The average gene diversity within populations based on cpDNA markers was 0.383 ±â€¯0.052 for S. alpina and 0.477 ±â€¯0.048 for S. mongolica. The observed and expected heterozygosities based on SSR for both Spiraea alpina and S. mongolicawere H (0.72-0.90)/H (0.35-0.78) and H (0.77-0.92)/H (0.47-0.77) respectively. Palaeodistributional reconstruction indicated species' preferences at southeastern edge of the plateau during last glacial maximum, at higher altitude areas of QTP and range expansion to central plateau during the interglacial episodes. Assignment tests in STRUCTURE, discriminant analysis of principal coordinates and Immigrants analysis in GENECLASS based on nuclear SSR markers did not support the hypothesis of gene flow between both the species. However, maximum likelihood approach based on cpDNA showed sharing of haplotypes between both species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29482177
[Au] Autor:Santoro D; Bohannon M; Ahrens K; Navarro C; Gatto H; Marsella R
[Ad] Address:Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address: dsantoro@ufl.edu.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation on the effects of 0.1% Peumus boldus leaf and Spiraea ulmaria plant extract combination on bacterial colonization in canine atopic dermatitis: A preliminary randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded study.
[So] Source:Res Vet Sci;118:164-170, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2661
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Defective skin barrier characterize canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Pyoderma is the most common complication. Herbal compounds have been suggested as alternatives to control bacterial colonization for their effect on natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This study evaluated the effects of 0.1% Peumus boldus leaf and Spiraea ulmaria plant extract combination on clinical signs, bacterial colonization and AMPs secretion in atopic dogs compared to placebo. Twenty privately-owned atopic dogs were randomly divided in 2 groups (treatment: n = 10; placebo: n = 10) and their abdomen was sprayed every 24 h for 4 weeks. Total and inguinal clinical scores (CADESI-03), manual bacterial count, and skin washes for AMPs (cBD3-like and cCath) were performed on days 0, 14 and 28. AMPs were detected using in-house, previously-validated, canine-specific ELISAs. Data were statistically analyzed and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. Clinical scores and AMPs secretion did not differ significantly between the two groups at any time point. A significant reduction of the clinical scores was seen in the placebo group at 14 and 28 days (p < 0.04). On days 14 and 28, a reduction in the bacterial count was seen in the treated group compared with placebo (p < 0.009 and p = 0.04, respectively). Compared to baseline, a reduction in Staphylococcus spp. was seen in the treated group after 14 days of treatment (p < 0.03). These results show the efficacy of this plant extract combination against bacterial colonization, suggesting its potential usefulness in preventing bacterial infection in atopic dogs. The influence of this compound on AMPs secretion or other mechanisms should be further evaluated.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180226
[Lr] Last revision date:180226
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29268773
[Au] Autor:Kiss T; Cank KB; Orbán-Gyapai O; Liktor-Busa E; Zomborszki ZP; Rutkovska S; Pucka I; Németh A; Csupor D
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged, Eötvös u. 6, Szeged, 6720, Hungary.
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Spiraea chamaedryfolia: a contribution to the chemotaxonomy of Spiraea genus.
[So] Source:BMC Res Notes;10(1):762, 2017 Dec 21.
[Is] ISSN:1756-0500
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Diterpene alkaloids are secondary plant metabolites and chemotaxonomical markers with a strong biological activity. These compounds are characteristic for the Ranunculaceae family, while their occurrence in other taxa is rare. Several species of the Spiraea genus (Rosaceae) are examples of this rarity. Screening Spiraea species for alkaloid content is a chemotaxonomical approach to clarify the classification and phylogeny of the genus. Novel pharmacological findings make further investigations of Spiraea diterpene alkaloids promising. RESULTS: Seven Spiraea species were screened for diterpene alkaloids. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were performed on Spiraea chamaedryfolia, the species found to contain diterpene alkaloids. Its alkaloid-rich fractions were found to exert a remarkable xanthine-oxidase inhibitory activity and a moderate antibacterial activity. The alkaloid distribution within the root was clarified by microscopic techniques.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180104
[Lr] Last revision date:180104
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13104-017-3013-y

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[PMID]: 27336837
[Au] Autor:Elansary HO; Skalicka-Wozniak K; King IW
[Ad] Address:Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada; Department of Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture and Garden Design, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address: hosammail2003@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Enhancing stress growth traits as well as phytochemical and antioxidant contents of Spiraea and Pittosporum under seaweed extract treatments.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;105:310-320, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Seaweed extracts (SWE) might play an important role in enhancing growth and phytochemical composition of medicinal shrubs. In this study, we investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of irrigation levels (100% and 50% of the evapotranspiration rate) coupled with a weekly treatment of SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum at 5 and 7 mL L(-1) as a soil drench or foliar spray on Spiraea nipponica "Snowmound" and Pittosporum eugenioides "Variegatum" grown in containers under controlled greenhouse conditions. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in both plant species was largely enhanced while the proline accumulation was reduced. After 8 weeks of treatments, drought condition reduced plant vegetative growth and gas exchange, as well as leaf water potential, but increased the phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, their antioxidant capacities and proline content. The application of SWE enhanced the performance of both species during mild drought conditions by means of increasing leaf number and area, dry weights, plant height, gas exchange and leaf water potential. The maximum vegetative growth, physiological performance and phytochemical composition of both species was achieved using the drench SWE treatments (5 and 7 mL L(-1)) in moderate drought conditions, which improved the plant water status, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic rate. SWE enhanced plant growth and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of plant leaves of both species during moderate drought conditions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antioxidants/analysis
Phytochemicals/analysis
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Rosales/growth & development
Seaweed/chemistry
Spiraea/growth & development
Stress, Physiological
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Analysis of Variance
Biomass
Lipid Peroxidation
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Proline/metabolism
Rosales/anatomy & histology
Rosales/metabolism
Spiraea/anatomy & histology
Spiraea/metabolism
Water
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Phytochemicals); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 9DLQ4CIU6V (Proline)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170804
[Lr] Last revision date:170804
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160624
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26837236
[Au] Autor:Tang DH; Ma D; Cheng H; Li YL; Xu L
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems of the Ministry of Education, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China. liangxu@scu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:A bio-inspired synthetic route to the core ring systems of Spiraea atisine-type diterpenoid alkaloids and related diterpenes.
[So] Source:Org Biomol Chem;14(9):2716-22, 2016 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1477-0539
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A bio-inspired synthetic strategy for the efficient construction of the structurally complex azapentacyclic ABEFG ring systems of Spiraea atisine-type diterpenoid alkaloids bearing a characteristic internal carbinolamine ether linkage between C(7) and C(20) has been successfully developed. The highly bridged azapentacyclic core structure was constructed rapidly from a readily prepared trans-6,6-bicyclic AB ring precursor through a 14-step sequence. Highlights of the synthesis include a straightforward formal lactone migration from the tricyclic γ-lactone unit of naturally occurring spiramilactone E, and an efficient biomimetic synthesis of the azapentacyclic ABEFG ring systems of spiramines C and D from the corresponding tetracyclic subunits of spiraminol and spiramilactone B.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/chemical synthesis
Diterpenes/chemical synthesis
Spiraea/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/chemistry
Diterpenes/chemistry
Molecular Structure
Stereoisomerism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Diterpenes)
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1039/c6ob00053c

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[PMID]: 26625838
[Au] Autor:Ma Y; Mao XY; Huang LJ; Fan YM; Gu W; Yan C; Huang T; Zhang JX; Yuan CM; Hao XJ
[Ad] Address:School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, People's Republic of China; The Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Product of Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang 550002, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Diterpene alkaloids and diterpenes from Spiraea japonica and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;109:8-13, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Five new naturally occurring natural products, including two atisine-type diterpene alkaloids (1 and 2), two atisane-type diterpenes (3 and 4), and a new natural product spiramine C2 (5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Spiraea japonica var. acuminata Franch. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities of all the compounds were evaluated by the conventional half-leaf method. Six compounds (2, 3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited moderate activities at 100 µg/mL with inhibition rates in the range of 69.4-92.9%, which were higher than that of the positive control, ningnanmycin. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/chemistry
Antiviral Agents/chemistry
Diterpenes/chemistry
Spiraea/chemistry
Tobacco Mosaic Virus/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification
Diterpenes/isolation & purification
Molecular Structure
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Antiviral Agents); 0 (Diterpenes); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160301
[Lr] Last revision date:160301
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151203
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25947443
[Au] Autor:Luo X; Li F; Cai W
[Ad] Address:Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China; Email: unknown.
[Ti] Title:A revision of the Chinese species of Cyamophiliopsis (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) associated with Spiraea (Rosaceae).
[So] Source:Zootaxa;3936(3):387-407, 2015 Mar 20.
[Is] ISSN:1175-5334
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Hemiptera/classification
Spiraea/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Distribution
Animal Structures/anatomy & histology
Animal Structures/growth & development
Animals
Body Size
China
Ecosystem
Female
Hemiptera/anatomy & histology
Hemiptera/genetics
Hemiptera/growth & development
Male
Organ Size
Phylogeny
Plant Diseases/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150508
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3936.3.5

  8 / 82 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25925344
[Au] Autor:Jang SW; Suh WS; Kim CS; Kim KH; Lee KR
[Ad] Address:Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea.
[Ti] Title:A new phenolic glycoside from Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora twigs.
[So] Source:Arch Pharm Res;38(11):1943-51, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:0253-6269
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract from the twigs of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora (Rosaceae) using column chromatography led to the isolation of a new phenol glycoside, 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl-2-O-p-(E)-coumaroyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (1), together with 16 known phenolic compounds (2-17). The structure of this new compound was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and HR-FAB-MS data. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Glycosides/pharmacology
Phenols/pharmacology
Spiraea/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
Cell Line, Tumor
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Glycosides/isolation & purification
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Methanol/chemistry
Neoplasms/drug therapy
Neoplasms/pathology
Phenols/isolation & purification
Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Glycosides); 0 (Phenols); Y4S76JWI15 (Methanol)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 151111
[Lr] Last revision date:151111
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150501
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12272-015-0610-y

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[PMID]: 25885257
[Au] Autor:Stephan K; Kavanagh KL; Koyama A
[Ad] Address:Forest, Rangeland, and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States of America; Department of Life and Physical Sciences and Cooperative Research, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Missouri, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Comparing the influence of wildfire and prescribed burns on watershed nitrogen biogeochemistry using 15N natural abundance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(4):e0119560, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and δ15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of δ15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar δ15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the δ15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss δ15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that δ15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ecosystem
Nitrogen/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Fires
Fresh Water/chemistry
Nitrate Reductase/metabolism
Nitrogen/chemistry
Nitrogen Isotopes/chemistry
Nitrogen Isotopes/metabolism
Soil/chemistry
Spiraea/enzymology
Spiraea/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Nitrogen Isotopes); 0 (Soil); EC 1.7.99.4 (Nitrate Reductase); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119560

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[PMID]: 25792019
[Au] Autor:Sher H; Aldosari A; Ali A; de Boer HJ
[Ad] Address:Center for Plant Sciences and Biodiversity, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address: hassan.botany@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;166:157-67, 2015 May 26.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mapping ethnomedicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines can provide a comprehensive overview of individual herbs employed in health care. Reliance on medicinal plants in remote parts of northern Pakistan is high, especially among women, but no research has investigated specifically which plants are used. This study investigated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in selected sites in upper Swat, Buner and Chitral Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews were conducted with gender-specific focus groups using questionnaires and standardized data sheets, followed by forest walks in each of the visited areas. General medicinal herb use, preparations, storage, marketing and collection habits for each gender group were ascertained from the questionnaires. RESULTS: In total 168 women and 390 men were interviewed and provided information on 127 different shared medicinal species. Species use consensus among the informants ranged from 2.3% to 83.3%, with Cynodon dactylon, Avena sativa, Celtis australis, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Skimmia laureola, Spiraea nervosa, Ziziphus jujuba, Rumex hastatus, Plantago lanceolata, Lathyrus aphaca and Ficus palmata having the highest reported consensus. The survey also revealed that a number of medicinal species were exploited by the community for both marketing and personal use, and many of these species were reported as being rare, vulnerable or even endangered. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that women in all the three districts were important custodians of medicinal plant knowledge, but elder women in general and the women from Buner district in particular had a superior understanding of folk medicine. The forest walks revealed that women׳s traditional medicinal knowledge was based on a more limited diversity of plant species. People in tribal communities have an expressed interest in learning efficient techniques for medicinal plant collection, preparation, storage and cultivation advice, and to learn more about the potential of marketing medicinal herbs and ways to reach local market centers. Education and awareness were considered to be essential for improved health care and successful marketing.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Ethnobotany/methods
Ethnopharmacology/methods
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Medicine, Traditional/methods
Middle Aged
Minority Groups
Pakistan
Plant Preparations/chemistry
Surveys and Questionnaires
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Preparations)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 150420
[Lr] Last revision date:150420
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150321
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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