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[PMID]: 29524800
[Au] Autor:Horikoshi HM; Sekozawa Y; Kobayashi M; Saito K; Kusano M; Sugaya S
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address: humberto_hmh@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Metabolomics analysis of 'Housui' Japanese pear flower buds during endodormancy reveals metabolic suppression by thermal fluctuation.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;126:134-141, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy. We detected 91 metabolites by gas chromatography paired with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) that could be classified into eight groups: amino acids, amino acid derivatives, organic acids, sugars and polyols, fatty acids and sterols, phenol lipids, phenylpropanoids, and other compounds. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the level of several amino acids decreased during endodormancy. Sugar and polyol levels increased during endodormancy during constant chilling and might be associated with chilling stress tolerance and providing an energy supply for resuming growth. In contrast, thermal fluctuations produced low levels of metabolites related to the pentose phosphate pathway, energy production, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in flower buds, which may be associated with failed endodormancy release. This metabolic profile contributes to our understanding of the biological mechanism of dormancy during chilling accumulation and clarifies the metabolic changes during mild winters and future climate change scenarios.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29502409
[Au] Autor:Lei L; Chen J; Liu Y; Wang L; Zhao G; Chen ZY
[Ad] Address:College of Food Science , Southwest University , Chongqing 400715 , China.
[Ti] Title:Dietary Wheat Bran Oil Is Equally as Effective as Rice Bran Oil in Reducing Plasma Cholesterol.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rice bran oil (RBO) possesses a plasma cholesterol-lowering activity, while effect of wheat bran oil (WBO) on plasma cholesterol remains unknown. The present study compared the cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO with that of RBO in hamsters. Fifty-four male hamsters were divided into seven groups fed either a noncholesterol diet (NCD) or one of six high-cholesterol diets, namely HCD diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard), HCD+C diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard +0.5% cholestyramine), WL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% WBO), WH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% WBO), RL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4.8% Lard +4.8% RBO), and RH diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% RBO). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in HCD group was 327.4 ± 31.8 mg/dL, while plasma TC in two WBO and two RBO groups was 242.2 ± 20.8, 243.1 ± 31.7, 257.1 ± 16.3, and 243.4 ± 46.0 mg/dL, respectively, leading to a decrease in plasma TC by 22-26% ( P < 0.01). No significant difference in cholesterol-lowering potency was seen between WBO and RBO. Plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO and RBO was accompanied by down-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase, while up-regulation of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. WL, WH, RL, and RH diets increased the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols by 72.8%, 106.9%, 5.4%, and 36.8% ( P < 0.01) respectively. Results indicated WBO and RBO could inhibit cholesterol absorption via down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein, acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2, and ATP binding cassette transporter 5. In summary, WBO was equally effective as RBO in decreasing plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia hamsters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06093

  3 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29367480
[Au] Autor:Mingyai S; Srikaeo K; Kettawan A; Singanusong R; Nakagawa K; Kimura F; Ito J
[Ad] Address:Department of Agro-Industry, Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University.
[Ti] Title:Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.
[So] Source:J Oleo Sci;67(2):135-142, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1347-3352
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO extraction (SC-CO ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Liquid-Liquid Extraction/methods
Oryza/chemistry
Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
Rice Bran Oil/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Phenylpropionates/analysis
Phenylpropionates/isolation & purification
Phytochemicals/analysis
Phytosterols/analysis
Phytosterols/isolation & purification
Tocopherols/analysis
Tocopherols/isolation & purification
Tocotrienols/analysis
Tocotrienols/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Phenylpropionates); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Phytosterols); 0 (Tocotrienols); LZO6K1506A (Rice Bran Oil); R0ZB2556P8 (Tocopherols); SST9XCL51M (gamma-oryzanol)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5650/jos.ess17122

  4 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29031613
[Au] Autor:Majd H; King MS; Smith AC; Kunji ERS
[Ad] Address:Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.
[Ti] Title:Pathogenic mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier SLC25A1 lead to impaired citrate export required for lipid, dolichol, ubiquinone and sterol synthesis.
[So] Source:Biochim Biophys Acta;1859(1):1-7, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:0006-3002
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by >70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease. Some mutations may be detrimental to the structure of the carrier, whereas others may impair key functional elements, such as the substrate binding site and the salt bridge network on the matrix side of the carrier. To understand the consequences of impaired citrate transport on metabolism, the substrate specificity was also determined, showing that the human citrate carrier predominantly transports citrate, isocitrate, cis-aconitate, phosphoenolpyruvate and malate. Although D-2- and L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic hallmark of the disease, it is unlikely that the citrate carrier plays a significant role in the removal of hydroxyglutarate from the cytosol for oxidation to oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In contrast, computer simulations of central metabolism predict that the export of citrate from the mitochondrion cannot be fully compensated by other pathways, restricting the cytosolic production of acetyl-CoA that is required for the synthesis of lipids, sterols, dolichols and ubiquinone, which in turn explains the severe disease phenotypes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anion Transport Proteins
Citric Acid/metabolism
Computer Simulation
Dolichol
Mitochondrial Proteins
Models, Biological
Mutation, Missense
Sterols
Ubiquinone
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anion Transport Proteins/chemistry
Anion Transport Proteins/genetics
Anion Transport Proteins/metabolism
Biological Transport, Active/genetics
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn/enzymology
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn/genetics
Catalytic Domain
Dolichol/biosynthesis
Dolichol/chemistry
Dolichol/genetics
Humans
Mitochondrial Proteins/chemistry
Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics
Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism
Sterols/biosynthesis
Sterols/chemistry
Sterols/metabolism
Ubiquinone/biosynthesis
Ubiquinone/chemistry
Ubiquinone/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anion Transport Proteins); 0 (Mitochondrial Proteins); 0 (Slc25a1 protein, human); 0 (Sterols); 1339-63-5 (Ubiquinone); 2067-66-5 (Dolichol); 2968PHW8QP (Citric Acid)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171017
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  5 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28455844
[Au] Autor:Keshet U; Alon T; Fialkov AB; Amirav A
[Ad] Address:School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel.
[Ti] Title:Open Probe fast GC-MS - combining ambient sampling ultra-fast separation and in-vacuum ionization for real-time analysis.
[So] Source:J Mass Spectrom;52(7):417-426, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9888
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron ionization ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real-time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air, and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30-s separation, while if no separation is required, it can act as a transfer line with 2 to 3-s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the Open Probe oven and obtaining the results in 30 s. The Open Probe fast GC was mounted on a standard Agilent 7890 GC that was coupled with an Agilent 5977A MS. Open Probe fast GC-MS provides real-time analysis combined with GC separation and library identification, and it uses the low-cost MS of GC-MS. The operation of Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the 30-s separation and 50-s full analysis cycle time of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in Cannabis flower, sub 1-min analysis of trace trinitrotoluene transferred from a finger onto a glass surface, vitamin E in canola oil, sterols in olive oil, polybrominated flame retardants in plastics, alprazolam in Xanax drug pill and free fatty acids and cholesterol in human blood. The extrapolated limit of detection for pyrene is <1 fg, but the concentration is too high and the software noise calculation is untrustworthy. The broad range of compounds amenable for analysis is demonstrated in the analysis of reserpine. The possible use with alternate standard GC-MS and Open Probe fast GC-MS is demonstrated in the analysis of heroin in its street drug powder. The use of Open Probe with the fast GC acting as a transfer line is demonstrated in <10-s analysis without separation of ibuprofen and estradiol. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Organic Chemicals/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Air Ionization
Humans
Limit of Detection
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
Street Drugs/analysis
Street Drugs/chemistry
Vacuum
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Organic Chemicals); 0 (Pharmaceutical Preparations); 0 (Street Drugs)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jms.3941

  6 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521529
[Au] Autor:Jin M; Zhou W; Jin C; Jiang Z; Diao S; Jin Z; Li G
[Ad] Address:a Key Laboratory of Natural Resources of Changbai Mountain and Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education , Yanbian University College of Pharmacy , Yanji , P. R. China.
[Ti] Title:Anti-inflammatory activities of the chemical constituents isolated from Trametes versicolor.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;:1-4, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Twenty-seven compounds including nine triterpenoids (1-9), eight sterols (10-17), two ribonucleotides (18, 19), four phenols (20-23), three glycosides (24-26), and one furan (27) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd. This study is the first confirmation of the presence of the 11 compounds (3, 5, 6, 8, 18, 20, 21, 23-25, and 27) isolated from the Polyporaceae family, with six of these (2 and 12-16) from the genus Trametes. Compounds 3, 4, 10, 11, 16 and 17 were found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2018.1446011

  7 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521096
[Au] Autor:He WS; Zhu H; Chen ZY
[Ti] Title:Plant Sterols: Chemical and Enzymatic Structural Modifications and Effects on Their Cholesterol-Lowering Activity.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plant sterols have attracted more and more attention due to their excellent cholesterol-lowering activity. However, free plant sterols have some characteristics of low oil solubility, water insolubility, high melting point and low bioavailability, which greatly limit their application in foods. Numerous studies have been undertaken to modify their chemical structures in order to improve their chemical and physical properties in meeting the needs of various applications. The present review is to summarize the literature and update the progress on structural modifications of plant sterols in the following aspects: (i) synthesis of plant sterol esters by esterification and transesterification with hydrophobic fatty acids and triacylglycerols to improve their oil solubility; (ii) synthesis of plant sterol derivatives by coupling with various hydrophilic moieties to enhance their water solubility; and (iii) mechanisms by which plant sterols reduce plasma cholesterol and the effect of structural modifications on plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00059

  8 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29423957
[Au] Autor:Thabet AA; Youssef FS; El-Shazly M; Singab ANB
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
[Ti] Title:Sterculia and Brachychiton: a comprehensive overview on their ethnopharmacology, biological activities, phytochemistry and the role of their gummy exudates in drug delivery.
[So] Source:J Pharm Pharmacol;70(4):450-474, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7158
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Sterculia and Brachychiton are two related genera (Malvaceae) containing more than 300 species. Most of these species are ornamental trees that are native to Australia and widely cultivated in many countries. Different members of the two genera were used by various cultures for medicinal and economical purposes. This review sheds light on the medicinal values and chemical composition of various species of these two genera. KEY FINDINGS: Sterculia and Brachychiton species were used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, microbial infection, skin diseases, inflammation and many other conditions. The seeds of various species were roasted and eaten by many traditional tribes. Plants from the two genera revealed their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, insecticidal and analgesic activity. These activities may be attributed to the presence of a wide range of secondary metabolites as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids particularly sesquiterpenes and triterpenes in addition to sterols and fatty acids. Moreover, the gummy exudates obtained from some members of these genera played an important role in different pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug-delivery systems. CONCLUSIONS: More research is recommended on other species of Sterculia and Brachychiton to discover new molecular entities with potential biological and economic values.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/jphp.12876

  9 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29516493
[Au] Autor:Modzel M; Solanko KA; Szomek M; Hansen SK; Dupont A; Nåbo LJ; Kongsted J; Wüstner D
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Live-cell imaging of new polyene sterols for improved analysis of intracellular cholesterol transport.
[So] Source:J Microsc;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2818
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Analysis of intracellular cholesterol transport by fluorescence microscopy requires suitable fluorescent analogues of cholesterol. Most existing cholesterol analogues contain lipophilic dyes which can compromise the sterol properties in membranes. An alternative strategy is to introduce additional double bonds into the sterol ring system resulting in intrinsic fluorescence, while at the same time keeping the cholesterol-like properties of the analogues. Existing polyene sterols, such as dehydroergosterol (DHE) or cholestatrienol (CTL), however, contain only three double bonds and suffer from low brightness, significant photobleaching and excitation/emission in the ultraviolet region. Thus, special equipment is required to image such sterols. Here, we describe synthesis, characterization and intracellular imaging of new polyene sterols containing four conjugated double bonds in the sterol ring system. We show that such analogues have red-shifted excitation and emission by ∼20 nm compared to DHE or CTL. The red shift was even more pronounced when preventing keto-enol tautomer equilibration by protecting the 3'-hydroxy group with acetate. We show that the latter analogue can be imaged on a conventional wide field microscope with a DAPI/filipin filter cube. The new polyene sterols show reduced photobleaching compared to DHE or CTL allowing for improved deconvolution microscopy of sterol containing cellular membranes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jmi.12691

  10 / 14932 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506628
[Au] Autor:Parlak AE; Karagozoglu Y; Alayunt NÖ; Turkoglu S; Karatepe M; Koparir M
[Ad] Address:Keban Vocational School of Higher Education, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:The determination of the effect of some 1,3,4 thiadiazole derivatives on biochemical content (Fatty Acids, Sterols, Lipophilic Vitamins) in rat liver.
[So] Source:Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand);64(3):35-39, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1165-158X
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Thiadiazole derivatives and its metal compounds have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties. In the study, the effects caused by thiadiazole ligand and its metal complexes upon the fatty acids and lipophilic vitamins in livers of rats were examined. The fatty acids in liver were specified by GC while the lipophilic vitamins were specified by HPLC. It was observed that the amounts of oleic acids (18:1, n-9) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) notably increased in the Mn complex group while the amounts of arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) notably increased in the ligand group, compared to control group. The amounts of vitamin K2, vitamin D3 and α-tocopherol considerably increased in all groups compared to control group. It was noted that the amounts of α-tocopherol were elevated in both the Mn and Cr complex groups compared to control group. However, this elevation was matching with the amount in the same groups. Nevertheless, the amount of retinol was determined to be lower in the Mn complex group compared to other groups. Accordingly, it can be considered that thanks to the utilization of toxic metals such as manganese, cadmium and chrome, unsaturated fatty acids influenced the activities of the enzymes in liver tissue, which are in charge of fatty acid chain elongation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.14715/cmb/2018.64.3.6


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