Database : MEDLINE
Search on : strongyloides and stercoralis [Words]
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[PMID]: 29522552
[Au] Autor:Barbosa CV; Barreto MM; Andrade RJ; Sodré F; d'Avila-Levy CM; Peralta JM; Igreja RP; de Macedo HW; Santos HLC
[Ad] Address:Laboratório de Estudos Integrados em Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(3):e0193860, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0193860

  2 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29360939
[Au] Autor:Repetto SA; Ruybal P; Batalla E; López C; Fridman V; Sierra M; Radisic M; Bravo PM; Risso MG; González Cappa SM; Alba Soto CD
[Ad] Address:Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas.
[Ti] Title:Strongyloidiasis Outside Endemic Areas: Long-term Parasitological and Clinical Follow-up After Ivermectin Treatment.
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;, 2018 Jan 19.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Strongyloides stercoralis affects 30-100 million people worldwide. The first-line therapy is ivermectin. Cure is defined as the absence of larvae by parasitological methods 1 year after treatment. To date, no longitudinal parasitological studies for longer periods of time have been conducted to confirm its cure. Here, we evaluated treatment response in long-term follow-up patients with chronic infection using parasitological and molecular methods for larvae or DNA detection. Methods: A prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted between January 2009 and September 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty-one patients with S. stercoralis diagnosis were evaluated 30, 60, and 90 days as well as 1, 2, 3, and/or 4 years after treatment by conventional methods (fresh stool, Ritchie method, agar plate culture), S. stercoralis-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in stool DNA, and eosinophil values. Results: During follow-up, larvae were detected by conventional methods in 14 of 21 patients. This parasitological reactivation was observed starting 30 days posttreatment (dpt) and then at different times since 90 dpt. Eosinophil values decreased (P = .001) 30 days after treatment, but their levels were neither associated with nor predicted these reactivations. However, S. stercoralis DNA was detected by PCR in all patients, both in their first and subsequent stool samples, thus reflecting the poor efficacy of ivermectin at eradicating parasite from host tissues. Asymptomatic eosinophilia was the most frequent clinical form among chronically infected patients. Conclusions: These results suggest that the parasitological cure is unlikely. Strongyloidiasis must be considered a chronic infection and ivermectin administration schedules should be reevaluated.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/cix1069

  3 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29512242
[Au] Autor:Abanyie FA; Valice E; Delli Carpini KW; Gray EB; McAuliffe I; Chin-Hong PV; Handali S; Montgomery SP; Huprikar S
[Ad] Address:Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Organ Donor Screening Practices for Strongyloides stercoralis Infection among US Organ Procurement Organizations.
[So] Source:Transpl Infect Dis;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1399-3062
[Cp] Country of publication:Denmark
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Targeted donor screening for strongyloidiasis performed at the time of organ procurement can prevent this life-threatening donor-derived infection. METHOD: The Association of Organ Procurement Organizations surveyed members to determine the number of U.S. organ procurement organizations (OPOs) performing donor screening for Strongyloides infection and their screening practices. RESULTS: All 58 OPOs responded to the survey. Only six (10%) currently screen donors for strongyloidiasis; most OPOs started 6-36 months before the survey, one started 6 years prior. All used risk-based criteria to determine which donors to screen, though the criteria varied among OPOs. A median of 56 donors have been screened at each OPO since initiating their screening programs, with a median of two infected donors (range: 0-13) identified. Overall, 53 organs have been transplanted from 22 infected donors, including hearts, lungs, kidneys, and livers. Of 52 OPOs not currently screening, 20 had considered screening and one plans to start screening in the near future. Of those considering risk-based screening, most had not decided on the criteria. Uncertainty about the benefits of and guidelines for screening, and misconceptions about the interpretation of test results were concerns shared by non-screening OPOs. CONCLUSION: Continued education and advocacy on the importance of targeted donor screening is needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/tid.12865

  4 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29490766
[Au] Autor:Minciullo PL; Cascio A; Gangemi S
[Ad] Address:From the School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital "G. Martino," Messina, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Association between urticaria and nematode infections.
[So] Source:Allergy Asthma Proc;39(2):86-95, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1539-6304
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The association between parasites and urticaria was first suggested in the last century. A wide range, 0-75.4%, of the prevalence of parasitic infection has been reported with chronic urticaria (CU). Moreover, urticaria may be detected in patients with parasitosis. Nematodes are a type of helminth that infect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to collect and review the published studies and cases of urticaria associated with nematode infections. METHODS: A search of scientific literature data bases from January 1960 until May 2017 was carried out. RESULTS: Numerous nematode infections have been associated with urticaria and/or angioedema: Anisakis simplex, Ascaris species (spp.), Dirofilaria spp., Enterobius vermicularis, Gnathostoma spp., Loa loa, Mansonella streptocerca; Necator americanus, Onchocerca volvulus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., and Wuchereria bancrofti. The pathogenesis of urticaria in these infections generally remains unexplained. In some cases, skin manifestations were caused by the presence of the worm in the skin (Filaria, Gnathostoma); in other cases, such as A. simplex and S. stercoralis infections, there was a clear immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism that led to allergic reactions, and infection and allergy coexisted; for other nematodes, the association was anecdotal and only a few cases were reported. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to detect a certain causal effect, except when urticaria improves or disappears after infection treatment. Cases of isolated urticaria not associated with other symptoms rarely may be caused by helminths. In the current guideline for urticaria, parasitosis is considered to be a rare possible cause of CU in developed industrial countries, Therefore, although a routine screening of parasitic infection in CU is not recommended, in our opinion, testing a patient with urticaria for parasites is a physician's choice based on the characteristics of the patient, such as associated symptoms, dietary habit, provenance country and previous travel.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2500/aap.2018.38.4104

  5 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29385128
[Au] Autor:Puerta-Alcalde P; Gomez-Junyent J; Requena-Mendez A; Pinazo MJ; Álvarez-Martínez MJ; Rodríguez N; Gascon J; Muñoz J
[Ad] Address:Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clínic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:High prevalence of S. Stercoralis infection among patients with Chagas disease: A retrospective case-control study.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(1):e0006199, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: We evaluate the association between Trypanosoma cruzi infection and strongyloidiasis in a cohort of Latin American (LA) migrants screened for both infections in a non-endemic setting. METHODOLOGY: Case-control study including LA individuals who were systematically screened for T. cruzi infection and strongyloidiasis between January 2013 and April 2015. Individuals were included as cases if they had a positive serological result for Strongyloides stercoralis. Controls were randomly selected from the cohort of individuals screened for T. cruzi infection that tested negative for S. stercoralis serology. The association between T. cruzi infection and strongyloidiasis was evaluated by logistic regression models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the study period, 361 individuals were screened for both infections. 52 (14.4%) individuals had a positive serological result for strongyloidiasis (cases) and 104 participants with negative results were randomly selected as controls. 76 (48.7%) indiviuals had a positive serological result for T. cruzi. Factors associated with a positive T. cruzi serology were Bolivian origin (94.7% vs 78.7%; p = 0.003), coming from a rural area (90.8% vs 68.7%; p = 0.001), having lived in an adobe house (88.2% vs 70%; p = 0.006) and a referred contact with triatomine bugs (86.7% vs 63.3%; p = 0.001). There were more patients with a positive S. stercoralis serology among those who were infected with T. cruzi (42.1% vs 25%; p = 0.023). Epidemiological variables were not associated with a positive strongyloidiasis serology. T. cruzi infection was more frequent among those with strongyloidiasis (61.5% vs 42.3%; p = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, T. cruzi infection was associated with a two-fold increase in the odds of strongyloidiasis (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.07-4.64; p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: T. cruzi infection was associated with strongyloidiasis in LA migrants attending a tropical diseases unit even after adjusting for epidemiological variables. These findings should encourage physicians in non-endemic settings to implement a systematic screening for both infections in LA individuals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006199

  6 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29474356
[Au] Autor:Martinez-Perez A; Roure Díez S; Belhasen-Garcia M; Torrús-Tendero D; Perez-Arellano JL; Cabezas T; Soler C; Díaz-Menéndez M; Navarro M; Treviño B; Salvador-Vélez F; Soil-Transmitted Helminths' Study Group of the Spanish Society of Tropical Medicine and International Health (SEMTSI)
[Ad] Address:Consorcio de Atención Primaria en Salud Barcelona Esquerra, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Management of severe strongyloidiasis attended at reference centers in Spain.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(2):e0006272, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a globally distributed nematode that causes diverse clinical symptoms in humans. Spain, once considered an endemic country, has experienced a recent increase in imported cases. The introduction of serology helps diagnosis and is currently replacing microbiological techniques in some settings, but its sensitivity is variable and can be low in immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis can only be confirmed by identification of larvae. Often, this "gold standard" can only be achieved in severe cases, such as disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or S.stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome, where parasite load is high. In addition, these clinical presentations are not well-defined. Our aim is to describe severe cases of S.stercoralis, their epidemiological profile, and their clinical details. METHODS: An observational retrospective study of disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or hyperinfection syndrome. Inclusion criteria: aged over 18, with a diagnosis of disseminated S.stercoralis infection, or hyperinfection syndrome, confirmed by visualization of larvae. Patients were identified through revision of clinical records for the period 2000-2015, in collaboration with eight reference centers throughout Spain. RESULTS: From the period 2000-2015, eighteen cases were identified, 66.7% of which were male, with a median age of 40 (range 21-70). Most of them were foreigners (94.4%), mainly from Latin America (82.3%) or Western Africa (17.6%). Only one autochthonous case was identified, from 2006. Immunosuppressive conditions were present in fourteen (77%) patients, mainly due steroids use and to retroviral coinfections (four HIV, two HTLV). Transplant preceded the clinical presentation in four of them. Other comorbidities were coinfection with HBV, Trypanosoma cruzi, Mycobacterium leprae or Aspergillus spp. All presented with digestive disorders, with 55.6% also presenting malaise. 44.4% of cases had fever, 27.8% skin complaints, and 16.7% respiratory or neurological disorders. One patient presented anemia, and one other nephrotic syndrome. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of larvae in fresh stool samples (n = 16; 88.9%), concentration techniques (n = 6; 33.3%), larval culture (n = 5; 29.4%), or digestive biopsies (n = 8; 44%). S.stercoralis forms were identified during necropsy in one case. In addition, ten (55%) had a positive serology. All the cases were treated with ivermectin, six (33%) also received albendazole and one case received thiabendazole followed by ivermectin. All needed inpatient management, involving a mean hospitalization stay of 25 days (range 1-164). Two cases received intensive care and eventually died. CONCLUSIONS: Only eighteen cases of disseminated S.stercoralis infection/hyperinfection syndrome were identified from the 15-year period, most of which were considered to have been imported cases. Among those, immunosuppression was frequent, and mortality due to S.stercoralis was lower than previously described.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006272

  7 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29425193
[Au] Autor:Buonfrate D; Requena-Mendez A; Angheben A; Cinquini M; Cruciani M; Fittipaldo A; Giorli G; Gobbi F; Piubelli C; Bisoffi Z
[Ad] Address:Centre for Tropical Diseases, Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Accuracy of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(2):e0006229, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a neglected tropical disease which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunosuppressed people. Unfortunately, its diagnosis is hampered by the lack of a gold standard, as the sensitivity of traditional parasitological tests (including microscopic examination of stool samples and coproculture) is low. Hence, alternative diagnostic methods, such as molecular biology techniques (mostly polymerase chain reaction, PCR) have been implemented. However, there are discrepancies in the reported accuracy of PCR. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the accuracy of PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (record: CRD42016054298). Fourteen studies, 12 of which evaluating real-time PCR, were included in the analysis. The specificity of the techniques resulted high (ranging from 93 to 95%, according to the reference test(s) used). When all molecular techniques were compared to parasitological methods, the sensitivity of PCR was assessed at 71.8% (95% CI 52.2-85.5), that decreased to 61.8% (95% CI 42.0-78.4) when serology was added among the reference tests. Similarly, sensitivity of real-time PCR resulted 64.4% (95% CI 46.2-77.7) when compared to parasitological methods only, 56.5% (95% CI 39.2-72.4) including serology. CONCLUSIONS: PCR might not be suitable for screening purpose, whereas it might have a role as a confirmatory test.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006229

  8 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29469544
[Au] Autor:Yue S; Min L
[Ad] Address:Department of Endocrine, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530027, China.
[Ti] Title:[ infection with hypothyroidism: one case report].
[So] Source:Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi;29(3):393-394, 2017 Apr 27.
[Is] ISSN:1005-6661
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:This paper reports the diagnosis and treatment of one rare case of thyroid dysfunction caused by infection.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.16250/j.32.1374.2016256

  9 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29455921
[Au] Autor:Ocaña-Losada C; Cuenca-Gómez JA; Cabezas-Fernández MT; Vázquez-Villegas J; Soriano-Pérez MJ; Cabeza-Barrera I; Salas-Coronas J
[Ad] Address:Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital de Poniente, El Ejido, Almería, España. Electronic address: crstnol.89@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la parasitación intestinal por Blastocystis hominis. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intestinal parasite infection by Blastocystis hominis.
[So] Source:Rev Clin Esp;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1578-1860
[Cp] Country of publication:Spain
[La] Language:eng; spa
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted of B. hominis isolates in faeces from October 2004 to March 2016 in a tropical medicine unit. We reviewed all patients with a parasite infection, exclusively or not by B. hominis. RESULTS: We studied 3070 patients, 570 (18%) of whom were diagnosed with B. hominis infection, which was the only isolate in 245 (43%) of the 570 patients. A total of 325 (57%) patients presented other parasitic co-infections (Entamoeba histolytic or Entamoeba dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Schistosoma spp.). The main symptom was abdominal pain (41.8%). In 31.2% of cases, the parasite was detected in the imported diseases screening of asymptomatic patients. Of those who underwent treatment with metronidazole, 78.2% improved. The parasite was neutralised in 82.6% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Parasite infection by B. hominis is one of the most common diseases in our tropical medicine unit. Most patients are asymptomatic, or their symptoms can be attributed to other parasite infections. In those cases in which symptoms persist without being able to attribute them to other causes, a specific treatment is recommended.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180219
[Lr] Last revision date:180219
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 2214 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29447987
[Au] Autor:Winthrop KL; Mariette X; Silva JT; Benamu E; Calabrese LH; Dumusc A; Smolen JS; Aguado JM; Fernández-Ruiz M
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address: winthrop@ohsu.edu.
[Ti] Title:ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an Infectious Diseases perspective (Soluble immune effector molecules [II]: agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors).
[So] Source:Clin Microbiol Infect;, 2018 Feb 12.
[Is] ISSN:1469-0691
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family. CONTENT: Patients receiving interleukin (IL)-1-targeted (anakinra, canakinumab or rilonacept) or IL-5-targeted agents (mepolizumab) have a moderate risk of infection and no specific prevention strategies are recommended. The use of IL-6/IL-6 receptor-targeted agents (tocilizumab and siltuximab) is associated to a risk increase similar to that observed with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents. IL-12/23-targeted agents (ustekinumab) do not seem to pose a meaningful risk of infection, although screening for latent tuberculosis infection may be considered and antiviral prophylaxis should be given to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients. Therapy with IL-17-targeted agents (secukinumab, brodalumab and ixekizumab) may result in the development of mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous candidiasis. Pre-treatment screening for Strongyloides stercoralis and other geohelminths should be considered in patients coming from endemic areas receiving IgE-targeted agents (omalizumab). C5-targeted agents (eculizumab) are associated with a markedly increased risk of infection due to encapsulated bacteria, particularly Neisseria spp. Meningococcal vaccination and chemoprophylaxis must be administered 2-4 weeks before initiating eculizumab. Patients with high-risk behaviors and their partners should be also screened for gonococcal infection. IMPLICATIONS: Preventive strategies are particularly encouraged to minimize the occurrence of neisserial infection associated to eculizumab.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[St] Status:Publisher


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