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[PMID]: 27748195
[Au] Autor:Orhan IE; Gokbulut A; Senol FS
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Adonis sp., Convallaria sp., Strophanthus sp., Thevetia sp., and Leonurus sp. - Cardiotonic Plants with Known Traditional Use and a Few Preclinical and Clinical Studies.
[So] Source:Curr Pharm Des;23(7):1051-1059, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4286
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are wellknown for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e.g. Adonis vernalis, Convallaria majalis, Strophanthus kombe, Thevetia peruviana, Leonurus cardiaca, etc. Consequently, we herein aimed to cover all available data consisting of in vitro, in vivo, and human studies (if any) on cardiotonic effects of the aforementioned species through a wide literature search using Scopus, Web of Science as well as Pubmed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 170620
[Lr] Last revision date:170620
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.2174/1381612822666161010104548

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[PMID]: 27802401
[Au] Autor:Desgrouas C; Nararak J; Tisgratog R; Mahiou-Leddet V; Bory S; Ollivier E; Manguin S; Chareonviriyaphap T
[Ti] Title:Comparative Excito-Repellency of Three Cambodian Plant-Derived Extracts Against Two Mosquito Vector Species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.
[So] Source:J Am Mosq Control Assoc;32(3):185-193, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:8756-971X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A study of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus to 3 Cambodian plant extracts at 3 different concentrations (1%, 2.5%, and 5%) was performed using an excito-repellency test system. These 3 plants were Strophanthus scandens, Capparis micracantha, and Dioscorea hispida, selected according to traditional healer's knowledge, bibliographic studies and market surveys. Results showed that S. scandens leaves' hexane extract was the only one to exert repellency against Ae. aegypti with 23.3% of escaped mosquitoes at a concentration of 5%. Capparis micracantha was responsible for an irritant activity against An. minimus with 20.2% of escaped mosquitoes at a concentration of 2.5% and 22.8% escaping at a concentration of 5%. Dioscorea hispida showed an irritant activity on both mosquito species with 23.2% of escaped Ae. aegypti at a concentration of 5% and about 20% of escaped An. minimus at 2.5% and 5%. This is the first report on the irritant and repellent activities of S. scandens , D. hispida , and C. micracantha against mosquito species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 171016
[Lr] Last revision date:171016
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 27416523
[Au] Autor:Knittel DN; Huber U; Stintzing FC; Kammerer DR
[Ad] Address:WALA Heilmittel GmbH, Department of Analytical Development & Research, Section Phytochemical Research, Dorfstr. 1, 73087 Bad Boll/Eckwälden, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Effect of extraction, microbial fermentation and storage on the cardenolide profile of Strophanthus kombé Oliv. seed preparations.
[So] Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal;129:96-104, 2016 Sep 10.
[Is] ISSN:1873-264X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Strophanthus extracts containing cardioactive cardenolides are still applied in European complementary medicine for the treatment of heart diseases. However, the cardenolide profile and the fate of individual compounds during extraction and storage are not well understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the cardenolide compound pattern in extracts of different polarity and their structural changes upon storage in aqueous fermented preparations. For this purpose, individual cardenolides were quantitated by a UHPLC-DAD validated method using an internal standard. Three different extraction protocols were compared: hydroethanolic extraction under reflux with and without previous defatting of the seed material and ultrasonic-assisted extraction at ambient temperature. Reflux extraction of non-defatted seeds showed maximum cardenolide yields. Differences in the cardenolide contents of seeds of the different origins Zimbabwe and Malawi were observed. The cardenolide profile and metabolization of individual compounds upon fermentation and storage of S. kombé seed extracts revealed that predominant cardenolides, mainly strophanthidin glycosides, changed upon storage over 12 months. Cardenolides exhibiting two or three saccharide moieties were degraded presumably by ß-glucosidase activities, originating from the plant material or lactobacilli, releasing the corresponding monoglycosides. The latter were further degraded into the corresponding aglycones probably by acid hydrolysis as a result of lactic acid accumulation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cardenolides/metabolism
Fermentation/physiology
Plant Extracts/metabolism
Seeds/metabolism
Strophanthus
Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cardenolides/analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Drug Storage/methods
Plant Extracts/analysis
Seeds/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cardenolides); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170808
[Lr] Last revision date:170808
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160715
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27167183
[Au] Autor:Wen S; Chen Y; Lu Y; Wang Y; Ding L; Jiang M
[Ad] Address:Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China; Research and Development Center of TCM, Tianjin, International Joint Academy of Biotechnology and Medicine, Tianjin 300457, China.
[Ti] Title:Cardenolides from the Apocynaceae family and their anticancer activity.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;112:74-84, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cardenolides, as a group of natural products that can bind to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with an inhibiting activity, are traditionally used to treat congestive heart failure. Recent studies have demonstrated that the strong tumor cytotoxicities of cardenolides are mainly due to inducing the tumor cells apoptosis through different expression and cellular location of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunits. The leaves, flesh, seeds and juices of numerous plants from the genera of Nerium, Thevetia, Cerbera, Apocynum and Strophanthus in Apocynaceae family, are the major sources of natural cardenolides. So far, 109 cardenolides have been isolated and identified from this family, and about a quarter of them are reported to exhibit the capability to regulate cancer cell survival and death through multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we compile the phytochemical characteristics and anticancer activity of the cardenolides from this family.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Apocynaceae/chemistry
Cardenolides/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cell Line, Tumor
Humans
Molecular Structure
Phytochemicals/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Cardenolides); 0 (Phytochemicals)
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170213
[Lr] Last revision date:170213
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160512
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27032201
[Au] Autor:Uesugia D; Hamada H; Shimoda K
[Ti] Title:Glycosylation of trans-Resveratrol by Cultured Plant Cells under Illumination of LEDs.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Commun;11(2):199-200, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1934-578X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Incubation of cultured cells of Strophanthus gratus with trans-resveratrol gave its 4'-O-ß-D-glucoside as the major product in addition to its 3-O-ß-D-glucoside under white and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Use of blue LEDs as light sources for biotransformation of trans-resveratrol much improved the yield of its ß-D-glycosides and changed the composition of products, that is, 3-O-ß-D-glucoside was the major product and 4'-O-ß-D-glucoside was the minor one.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Light
Stilbenes/metabolism
Strophanthus/cytology
Strophanthus/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biotransformation
Cells, Cultured
Glycosylation
Stereoisomerism
Stilbenes/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Stilbenes); Q369O8926L (resveratrol)
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160401
[Lr] Last revision date:160401
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160402
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 39 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26974139
[Au] Autor:Knittel DN; Lorenz P; Huber U; Stintzing FC; Kammerer DR
[Ti] Title:Characterization of the cardiac glycoside and lipid profiles of Strophanthus kombé Oliv. seeds.
[So] Source:Z Naturforsch C;71(3-4):55-64, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0939-5075
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The seeds of Strophanthus kombé Oliv. are known to contain high levels of cardioactive compounds. However, the therapeutic use of Strophanthus in the treatment of cardiopathy requires more detailed knowledge of the compound profile to profit from the full potential of Strophanthus preparations. Therefore, the objective was to characterize the cardenolide profile and lipophilic constituents in S. kombé seeds using methods applicable in routine quality control. Freshly prepared S. kombé seed extracts were analyzed without previous sample clean-up using a novel HPLC-DAD-MSn method. In addition, seed oils were analyzed by GC-MS following derivatization of the lipids. More than 20 cardenolides were tentatively assigned in the seed extracts including strophanthidin, strophanthidol, periplogenin and strophanthidinic acid aglycones, carrying various saccharide moieties. The findings revealed the presence of eight novel cardenolides, which have not been described for S. kombé so far. The occurrence of strophanthidinic acid derivatives was verified by comparison with synthesized strophanthidinic acid-cymaropyranoside. GC-MS characterization of the oils mainly revealed the presence of fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid, as well as phytosterols, the latter representing intermediates of cardenolide biosynthesis. In summary, these findings broaden our knowledge on the secondary metabolism of Strophanthus.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cardiac Glycosides/analysis
Lipids/analysis
Seeds/chemistry
Strophanthus/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Digitoxigenin/analogs & derivatives
Digitoxigenin/analysis
Fatty Acids/analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Linoleic Acid/analysis
Mass Spectrometry
Molecular Structure
Oleic Acid/analysis
Phytosterols/analysis
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Strophanthidin/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cardiac Glycosides); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Lipids); 0 (Phytosterols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 143-62-4 (Digitoxigenin); 2UMI9U37CP (Oleic Acid); 66-28-4 (Strophanthidin); 9KJL21T0QJ (Linoleic Acid); B6808P7IY9 (periplogenin)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170113
[Lr] Last revision date:170113
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160315
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25259953
[Au] Autor:Fürstenwerth H
[Ti] Title:Why Whip the Starving Horse When There Are Oats for the Starving Myocardium?
[So] Source:Am J Ther;23(5):e1182-7, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1536-3686
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Digoxin is the oldest drug for treatment of heart failure still in clinical use. Despite over 200 years of clinical experience with this drug, the optimal serum concentration required for both efficacy and safety remains unknown. It has been suggested that low doses have more favorable effects than higher ones. Cardiac glycosides act on the Na/K-ATPase (NKA). They show an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve with inhibition of pumping at high concentrations while increasing NKA activity at low concentrations. The classical sigmoidal dose-response curve describing an inhibition of the NKA by cardiac glycosides cannot explain this stimulatory effect. Cardiac glycosides are prototypical examples of hormetic substances. Biphasic dose-response curves of cardiac glycosides are also found in their neurohormonal effects. In low concentrations, vagomimetic effects are observed, whereas in high concentrations, sympathomimetic effects dominate. Lipophilic Digitalis glycosides have greater sympathomimetic effects; hydrophilic Strophanthus glycosides have greater vagomimetic effects. For digoxin, as a strong inotrope, there is evidence of only weak modulation of the autonomic nervous system. In ouabain, the modulation of the autonomic nervous system prevails over weak inotropic effects. Vagomimetic and sympatholytic effects characterize the therapeutic effects. In contrast to those of digoxin, the therapeutic effects of ouabain follow exactly the measurable serum concentration. Contrary to common prejudice ouabain is suitable for oral administration. Timely adjustments of dosage to patient therapeutic needs are easy to achieve with orally administered ouabain. Ouabain has the potential to crucially improve our arsenal of heart failure medications. Therefore, a clinical re-evaluation of ouabain is warranted. Randomized double-blind prospective clinical studies with ouabain, which meet today's standards, are worthwhile and necessary.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cardiac Glycosides/administration & dosage
Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage
Heart Failure/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology
Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology
Digitalis Glycosides/administration & dosage
Digitalis Glycosides/pharmacology
Digoxin/administration & dosage
Digoxin/pharmacology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Design
Heart Failure/physiopathology
Humans
Ouabain/administration & dosage
Ouabain/pharmacology
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cardiac Glycosides); 0 (Cardiotonic Agents); 0 (Digitalis Glycosides); 5ACL011P69 (Ouabain); 73K4184T59 (Digoxin); EC 3.6.3.9 (Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase)
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170227
[Lr] Last revision date:170227
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140927
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MJT.0000000000000151

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[PMID]: 26498493
[Au] Autor:Van Wyk BE
[Ad] Address:Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address: bevanwyk@uj.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:A review of commercially important African medicinal plants.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;176:118-34, 2015 Dec 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Data on the relative importance and research status of commercially relevant African medicinal plants are needed for developing new research strategies in order to stimulate much-needed ethnopharmacological research and to promote the commercialization of African plants. AIM OF THE STUDY: To present an illustrated bird's eye view and comparative analysis of the relative popularity and importance of commercialized African medicinal plants. A comparison is made between the general popularity and commercial importance of the species (as indicated by their footprint on the World Wide Web) and their scientific popularity and importance (as indicated by the number of research publications). The inventory and review is strongly focussed to cover all or most of the medicinal plant raw materials in the international trade that are exported from African countries, with less emphasis on those that are regularly traded on local and regional markets within Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review is based on literature data, Scopus and Google searches, commercial information and the author's own experience and observations. RESULTS: More than 5400 plant species are used in traditional medicine in Africa, of which less than 10% have been commercially developed to some extent. Africa is home to more than 80 valuable commercial species that are regularly traded on international markets, including phytomedicines (e.g. Harpagophytum procumbens and Pelargonium sidoides), functional foods (e.g. Adansonia digitata and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and sources of pure chemical entities (e.g. caffeine from Coffea arabica and yohimbine from Pausinystalia johimbe). According to the Scopus results, about 60% of all recent publications on African medicinal plants appeared in the last decade, with an average of 280 papers (28 per year) for 85 prominent species of international trade. The most popular African species for research (number of publications in brackets) were: Ricinus communis (5187), Aloe vera (2832), Catharanthus roseus (2653), Sesamum indicum (2534), Strophanthus gratus (2514), Coffea arabica (2431), Citrullus lanatus (2215), Momordica charantia (2047), Withania somnifera (1767), Trigonella foenum-graecum (1687), Acacia senegal (1373), Centella asiatica (1355), Griffonia simplicifolia (1010), Hibiscus sabdariffa (987), Tamarindus indica (973) and Catha edulis (947). The top species in terms of recent research interest (% of publications in last decade) were: Hoodia gordonii (95%), Cyclopia genistoides (93%), Sceletium tortuosum (90%), Agathosma betulina (89%), Pelargonium sidoides (86%), Boswellia papyrifera (85%), Lessertia (Sutherlandia) frutescens (84%), Boswellia sacra (83%), Mondia whitei (81%), Hibiscus sabdariffa (80%), Hypoxis hemerocallidea (80%) and Tylosema esculentum (80%). Both lists reflect the recent interest in functional foods and dietary supplements. CONCLUSION: Despite a marked recent increase in the number of publications on indigenous medicinal plants and dietary supplements, Africa lags behind Europe and Asia in terms of the number of products that have been commercialised and the percentage of the flora that is utilized for international trade. There is a tremendous potential for developing new crops and new products but much work remains to be done to generate more focussed and relevant pre-clinical data and convincing proof of concept through clinical studies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Medicine, African Traditional
Plants, Medicinal
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Africa
Commerce
Humans
Phytotherapy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 151215
[Lr] Last revision date:151215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151027
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25579573
[Au] Autor:Suhitha S; Devi SK; Gunasekaran K; Pakyntein HC; Bhattacharjee A; Velmurugan D
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical analyses and activity of herbal medicinal plants of North- East India for anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-tuberculosis and their docking studies.
[So] Source:Curr Top Med Chem;15(1):21-36, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4294
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of North-East India is documented here. The present study was carried out through the personal discussion with the president of the Jaintia Indigenous Herbal Medicine Association, Dr.H.Carehome Pakyntein from Jowai, Meghalaya. The plants being used generation after generation by his family of herbalists to cure ailments like tuberculosis, cancer and diabetes were selected for the present study. In order to scientifically validate the use of these selected plants for the cure of selected diseases, phytochemical analyses, characterization and molecular docking studies of some of the selected compounds from these plants have been carried out. The compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy- Benzaldehyde from methanolic extract of Strophanthus Wallichii and DL tetrahydropalmatine from Stephania Hernandifolia have been confirmed after determining their molecular structures, justifying the activity of these two plants against TB and cancer, respectively. The present study covers the potentials of some of the medicinal plants of North east India in curing common diseases due to which millions of people suffer and die. The presence of certain compounds in these plants related to the cure of the diseases deserves further studies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry
Antitubercular Agents/chemistry
Benzaldehydes/chemistry
Berberine Alkaloids/chemistry
Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
Antitubercular Agents/isolation & purification
Benzaldehydes/isolation & purification
Berberine Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Humans
Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification
India
Medicine, Traditional
Molecular Docking Simulation
Plants, Medicinal
Thermodynamics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Antitubercular Agents); 0 (Benzaldehydes); 0 (Berberine Alkaloids); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 2N395P88LW (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde); 3X69CO5I79 (tetrahydropalmatine)
[Em] Entry month:1509
[Cu] Class update date: 151119
[Lr] Last revision date:151119
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150113
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25781275
[Au] Autor:Adaramoye OA; Olajuyin A
[Ad] Address:Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. aoadaramoye@yahoo.com; ao.adaramoye@ui.edu.ng.
[Ti] Title:A Comparative In Vitro Study on the Antioxidant and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Properties of Aerial Parts of Strophanthus preusii Engl & Pax.
[So] Source:West Indian Med J;63(5):408-15, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0043-3144
[Cp] Country of publication:Jamaica
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant and acetylcholinestrase (AChE)-inhibitory properties of aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii (leaves, stem and root named as SPL, SPS and SPR, respectively) while catechin served as standard. METHODS: The antioxidant and AchE-inhibitory properties of the methanol extracts of SP were evaluated by standard in vitro methods viz: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical (OH-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assays as well as reducing power, Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and AChE inhibition assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also estimated. RESULTS: High phenolic and flavonoid contents were found in the aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii. The amount of phenolic and flavonoids contents followed the order SPL > SPR > SPS at 250─1000 µg/ml. The results revealed that all the extracts showed antioxidant activities in vitro. However, SPL had the highest DPPH, H2O2 and OH radical scavenging abilitie, while the reducing power of the extracts followed the order SPR > SPL > SPS at 1000 µg/ml. In addition, SPL, SPS and SPR significantly inhibited LPO in rat liver by 42%, 23%, 35% and in rat brain by 68%, 31% and 51%, respectively. The LPO inhibitory activities of SPL were statistically similar to the standard. Only SPS produced significant NO scavenging effects among the extracts. The percentage inhibition of AChE activity was significant for SPL and SPR at 750 and 1000 µg/ml. CONCLUSION: The leaves and root of Strophanthus preusii proved to be potent natural antioxidants and could justify their traditional use in the management of stress-related diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 170817
[Lr] Last revision date:170817
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.7727/wimj.2013.287


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