Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524853
[Au] Autor:Lindqvist DN; Pedersen HÆ; Rasmussen LH
[Ad] Address:Department of Technology, Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:A novel technique for determination of the fructose, glucose and sucrose distribution in nectar from orchids by HPLC-ELSD.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1081-1082:126-130, 2018 Feb 18.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The dominant components in floral nectar is fructose, glucose and sucrose. The concentration and the ratio between the sugars are indicative for plant species and play an important part in the interplay between plants and pollinators. In this paper we present a novel HPLC-ELSD based analytical method for sugar characterization of nectar from orchids. Nectar was collected on Whatman No. 1 paper and preserved in the field by 70 v/v% ethanol. The analytical method had a linear range up to at least 3000 mg L for all 3 sugars with a precision of 1.5-1.7%. Correlation coefficients were 0.9999 to 1.0000. The LOD of all sugars were 5-7 mg L and the LOQ were 17-19 mg L . Field samples were stable for min. 7 weeks at -18 °C. The technique was applied to two species of Platanthera (Orchidaceae) in order to test whether species-related differences in sugar composition could be observed. No differences were found between the two species, which were sucrose-dominant (53.5-100%) though with high variation within species and between individual flowers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524789
[Au] Autor:Cavazana TP; Pessan JP; Hosida TY; Monteiro DR; Botazzo Delbem AC
[Ad] Address:São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Dentistry, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Public Health, 16015-050, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:pH changes of mixed biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans after exposure to sucrose solutions in vitro.
[So] Source:Arch Oral Biol;90:9-12, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1506
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to standardize an in vitro experimental model able to reproduce the pH changes that occur in dental biofilm under in vivo conditions, using a mixed biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. DESIGN: Biofilms were developed for 96 h, and exposed to three different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20 or 30%) during 1, 3 or 5 min. The pH was measured before exposure to sucrose, immediately after its removal from the biofilms, and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after removal. RESULTS: Sucrose solutions at 10 and 20% required 1 min to significantly reduce the biofilm pH, while for 30% sucrose a significant reduction was already seen immediately after its removal, even for the shortest exposure time. For an exposure of 3 min to 20% sucrose, the biofilm pH attained the critical value for hydroxyapatite dissolution when measured 1 min after sucrose removal, followed by a recovery phase. CONCLUSIONS: A mixed biofilm of S. mutans and C. albicans exposed to a 20% sucrose solution for 3 min exhibited a pattern of pH change similar to that observed in vivo, despite at a higher speed when compared to in vivo conditions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524471
[Au] Autor:Han X; Wu H; Yin P; Chen Z; Cao X; Duan Y; Xu J; Lao L; Xu S
[Ad] Address:Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200071, China.
[Ti] Title:Electroacupuncture restores hippocampal synaptic plasticity via modulation of 5-HT receptors in a rat model of depression.
[So] Source:Brain Res Bull;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2747
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Wistar Kyoto (WKY) depressive model rats and explore the possible mechanism of EA on hippocampal CA1 region neuronal synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The male WKY rats were randomized to three experimental groups (EA, Sham EA, and Model group, n = 8/group), and Wistar rats as the normal control group (n = 8). EA treatment was administered once daily for 3 weeks at acupuncture points Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (EX-HN3). In the Sham EA group, acupuncture needles were inserted superficially into the acupoints without electrical stimulation. On day 21, the forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were conducted. After the behavioral tests, long-term potentiation (LTP) was evoked at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices in vitro by electrophysiological recording, 5-HTT, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1 B protein levels in the hippocampus CA1 region were examined by using Western blot. RESULT: EA significantly decreased immobility in FST and improved sucrose intake compared with the Sham EA and Model groups. The center time and total move time in OFT were significantly increased in the EA group compared to the Model group. Compared with those of the Sham EA and Model groups, the fEPSP slope of the EA group increased significantly, and the LTP induction was successful. EA significantly decreased 5-HTT protein expression in the hippocampus CA1 region in comparison to the Sham EA and Model groups. Additionally, EA down regulated the 5-HT1A protein expression in the hippocampus CA1 region in comparison to the Sham EA group. CONCLUSION: EA could ameliorate depressive-like behaviors by restoring hippocampus CA1 synaptic plasticity, which might be mainly mediated by regulating 5-HT receptor levels.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524383
[Au] Autor:Marques CC; Santos-Silva C; Rodrigues C; Matos JE; Moura T; Baptista MC; Horta AEM; Bessa RJB; Alves SP; Soveral G; Pereira RMLN
[Ad] Address:Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária (National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinarian Research), Unidade de Biotecnologia e Recursos Genéticos, Vale de Santarém, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Bovine oocyte membrane permeability and cryosurvival: Effects of different cryoprotectants and calcium in the vitrification media.
[So] Source:Cryobiology;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2392
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The cryopreservation process must be improved to enhance oocyte cryosurvival and functionality. Two protocols with different cryoprotectants (CPAs), containing either ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sucrose (EGDMSO) or 1,2-propanediol and sucrose (PrOH) were evaluated. In both protocols, calcium (Ca ) free or -containing base media were tested. Oocytes were subjected to vitrification or only exposed to CPAs without immersion in liquid nitrogen. Oocyte's viability, cortical granules location and competence for development after fertilization were assessed. Finally, fatty acid composition and membrane permeability of oocytes exposed to CPAs were analyzed. Independently of Ca concentration in the vitrification media, the development rates were higher in oocytes vitrified with EGDMSO protocols (p = 0.0005). After warming, higher cleavage rates were obtained in EGDMSO + Ca compared to the PrOH without Ca protocol (p = 0.02). Oocytes exposed to PrOH without Ca presented lower cleavage rates compared to control (p = 0.04). An enhanced premature zona hardening in vitrified oocytes as well as lower concentrations of the fatty acids C18:1c11 and C20:4n-6 in cumulus oocyte complexes exposed to PrOH protocols were identified. The oocytes minimum volume and permeability were affected by the exposure to PrOH and Ca (p ≤ 0.007). In conclusion, the most effective protocol for bovine oocytes cryopreservation combines EG and DMSO, independently of Ca concentration in the media. A higher toxicity and an incomplete depletion of water during PrOH loading may hamper oocyte viability. The type of CPAs and Ca interfered differentially on oocyte pathways to functionality, and this should be considered when choosing a cryopreservation protocol.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29486286
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Peng X; Zhang H; Watts AB; Ghosh D
[Ad] Address:Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address: yjzhang@utexas.edu.
[Ti] Title:Manufacturing and ambient stability of shelf freeze dried bacteriophage powder formulations.
[So] Source:Int J Pharm;542(1-2):1-7, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3476
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The severity of multidrug resistance to antibiotics has urged development of alternative treatment approaches, including bacteriophage therapy. Given the complexity of the bacteriophage structure, formulation and stability are primary concerns. Our present work optimized process and formulations of phage powder manufacturing and investigated the stability of lyophilized bacteriophage powders under ambient storage. The model phage M13 was formulated with trehalose, mannitol, sucrose and PEG and lyophilized in different conditions. Bacteriophage viability was examined by titering and was considered as the assessment of phage stability. Less titer loss of trehalose and sucrose formulations were observed compared to mannitol and PEG groups both immediately after lyophilization and upon long term storage. When evaluating lyophilization conditions, an additional 1 log titer was preserved by reduction of product drying stress. Trehalose was stabilized in the amorphous state whereas mannitol stayed in crystalline state in lyophilized powders. Increased moisture content was demonstrated to have a positive impact on viability of phage after lyophilization and upon storage. Overall, 2% trehalose or sucrose (w/v) can sufficiently stabilize phage during lyophilization process and storage in ambient conditions. There is a positive correlation between residual water and stability of phage. These collective findings highlight the potential of long-term, ambient storage of bacteriophage towards their successful use in diverse healthcare settings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471088
[Au] Autor:Feng F; Zhou Q; Yang Y; Zhao F; Du R; Han Y; Xiao H; Zhou Z
[Ad] Address:School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of highly branched dextran produced by Leuconostoc citreum B-2 from pineapple fermented product.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:45-50, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A strain Leuconostoc citreum B-2 was isolated from homemade fermentation product of pineapple and its polysaccharide yield was 28.3g/L after cultivating the strain in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium with 75g/L sucrose. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) was characterized by gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in present study. The monosaccharide composition of EPS was glucose and molecular weight was 3.77×10 Da. FT-IR and NMR spectra revealed that the B-2 EPS was composed of 75% α-(1→6) linked d-glucopyranose units existing in the main chain with 19% α-(1→3) branching and only a few α-(1→2) branching. The SEM of the dried EPS appeared irregular sheets with glittering surface and compact structure. Water solubility index and water holding capacity of B-2 EPS were 80% and 450%, respectively. All the mentioned characteristics suggested that the EPS has a potential application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471071
[Au] Autor:Gartner SN; Aidney F; Klockars A; Prosser C; Carpenter EA; Isgrove K; Levine AS; Olszewski PK
[Ad] Address:University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Intragastric preloads of l-tryptophan reduce ingestive behavior via oxytocinergic neural mechanisms in male mice.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:278-286, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used to assess whether hypophagia is unrelated to sickness. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was employed to detect TRP-induced activation of feeding-related brain sites and of oxytocin (OT) neurons, a crucial component of satiety circuits. Also, expression of OT mRNA was assessed with real-time PCR. The functional importance of OT in mediating TRP-driven hypophagia was substantiated by showing the ability of OT receptor blockade to abolish TRP-induced decrease in feeding. TRP reduced intake of energy-dense standard chow in deprived animals and energy-dense palatable chow in sated mice. Anorexigenic doses of TRP did not cause a CTA. TRP failed to affect intake of palatable yet calorie-dilute or noncaloric solutions (10% sucrose, 4.1% Intralipid or 0.1% saccharin) even for TRP doses that decreased water intake in thirsty mice. Fos analysis revealed that TRP increases activation of several key feeding-related brain areas, especially in the brain stem and hypothalamus. TRP activated hypothalamic OT neurons and increased OT mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with an OT antagonist abolished TRP-driven hypophagia. We conclude that intragastric TRP decreases food and water intake, and TRP-induced hypophagia is partially mediated via central circuits that encompass OT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29425871
[Au] Autor:Ni D; Xu W; Bai Y; Zhang W; Zhang T; Mu W
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.
[Ti] Title:Biosynthesis of levan from sucrose using a thermostable levansucrase from Lactobacillus reuteri LTH5448.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:29-37, 2018 Feb 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Levan, a versatile fructan, possesses promising prospects for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries and in many other fields due to the superior physicochemical properties and physiological functions of this fructan. In this study, a thermostable levansucrase was identified from Lactobacillus reuteri LTH5448. This enzyme shared higher identity with reported inulosucrases than levansucrases but, unexpectedly, yielded a levan-type fructan. Structural analysis of the produced polysaccharide revealed that the glycosidic bonds were ß-(2, 6) linkages, and the average molecular weight was 3.924×10 Da under optimized conditions. The optimal pH and temperature for levan formation were 6.0 and 35°C, respectively. The total activity was enhanced to 135% in the presence of Ca . After optimizing the production of levan, 13U/g sucrose of levansucrase and 500g/L sucrose were utilized to obtain 183g/L levan after a 12-h reaction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29335275
[Au] Autor:Linden AG; Li S; Choi HY; Fang F; Fukasawa M; Uyeda K; Hammer RE; Horton JD; Engelking LJ; Liang G
[Ad] Address:Departments of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390.
[Ti] Title:Interplay between ChREBP and SREBP-1c coordinates postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis in livers of mice.
[So] Source:J Lipid Res;59(3):475-487, 2018 03.
[Is] ISSN:1539-7262
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lipogenesis in liver is highest in the postprandial state; insulin activates SREBP-1c, which transcriptionally activates genes involved in FA synthesis, whereas glucose activates carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), which activates both glycolysis and FA synthesis. Whether SREBP-1c and ChREBP act independently of one another is unknown. Here, we characterized mice with liver-specific deletion of ChREBP ( mice). Hepatic ChREBP deficiency resulted in reduced mRNA levels of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, particularly in response to sucrose refeeding following fasting, a dietary regimen that elicits maximal lipogenesis. mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1c, a master transcriptional regulator of lipogenesis, were also reduced in livers. Adeno-associated virus-mediated restoration of nuclear SREBP-1c in mice normalized expression of a subset of lipogenic genes, while not affecting glycolytic genes. Conversely, ChREBP overexpression alone failed to support expression of lipogenic genes in the livers of mice lacking active SREBPs as a result of Scap deficiency. Together, these data show that SREBP-1c and ChREBP are both required for coordinated induction of glycolytic and lipogenic mRNAs. Whereas SREBP-1c mediates insulin's induction of lipogenic genes, ChREBP mediates glucose's induction of both glycolytic and lipogenic genes. These overlapping, but distinct, actions ensure that the liver synthesizes FAs only when insulin and carbohydrates are both present.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1194/jlr.M081836

  10 / 74938 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524318
[Au] Autor:Avilés-Reyes A; Freires IA; Kajfasz JK; Barbieri D; Miller JH; Lemos JA; Abranches J
[Ad] Address:Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida, College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL.
[Ti] Title:Whole genome sequence and phenotypic characterization of a Cbm serotype e strain of Streptococcus mutans.
[So] Source:Mol Oral Microbiol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1014
[Cp] Country of publication:Denmark
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report the whole genome sequence (WGS) of the serotype e Cbm strain LAR01 of Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen frequently associated with extra-oral infections. The LAR01 genome is a single circular chromosome of 2.1 Mb with a GC content of 36.96%. The genome contains 15 PTS gene clusters, 7 cell wall-anchored (LPxTG) proteins, all genes required for the development of natural competence and genes coding for mutacins VI and K8. Interestingly, the cbm gene is genetically linked to a putative type VII secretion system that has been found in Mycobacteria and few other gram-positive bacteria. When compared to the UA159 type strain, phenotypic characterization of LAR01 revealed increased biofilm formation in the presence of either glucose or sucrose but similar abilities to withstand acid and oxidative stresses. LAR01 was unable to inhibit the growth of S. gordonii, which is consistent with the genomic data that indicates absence of mutacins that can kill mitis streptococci. On the other hand, LAR01 effectively inhibited growth of other S. mutans strains suggesting that it may be specialized to outcompete strains from its own species. In vitro and in vivo studies using mutational and heterologous expression approaches revealed that Cbm is a virulence factor of S. mutans by mediating binding to extracellular matrix proteins and intracellular invasion. Collectively, the WGS analysis and phenotypic characterization of LAR01 provides new insights on the virulence properties of S. mutans and grants further opportunities to understand the genomic fluidity of this important human pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/omi.12222


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